Chapter 1 -_networking_standard_organization

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Chapter 1 -_networking_standard_organization

  1. 1. NETWORKING STANDARD
  2. 2. NETWORKING STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS  Standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications.  Organizations that set standards for networking are:  ANSI  EIA & TIA  IEEE  ISO  ITU & ISOC  IANA & ICANN INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  3. 3. ANSI (American National Standards Institute)  Is an organization composed of more than a thousand representatives from industry and government who together determine standards for the electronics industry and other fields, such as chemical and nuclear engineering, health and safety, and construction. (Adalah organisasi yang terdiri dari wakil-wakil dari industri dan kerajaan yang bersama-sama menentukan standard untuk industri elektronik dan bidang lain, seperti kimia dan teknik nuklear, kesihatan dan keselamatan, dan pembinaan)  ANSI also represents the United States in setting international standards. (ANSI juga mewakili Amerika Syarikat dalam menentukan standard antarabangsa) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  4. 4. EIA (Electronic Industries Alliance) & TIA(Telecommunications Industry Association)  EIA Is a trade organization composed of representatives from electronics manufacturing firms across the United States. (Adakah organisasi perdagangan terdiri daripada wakil- wakil dari syarikat perkilangan elektronik di seluruh Amerika Syarikat)  Focuses on standards for information technology, wireless, satellite, fiber optics, and telephone equipment. (tertumpu pada standard bagi teknologi maklumat, wireless, satelit, serat optik, dan peralatan telefon)  TIA/EIA alliance are its guidelines for how network cable should be installed in commercial buildings, known as the “TIA/EIA 568-B Series.” (pertubuhan TIA / EIA ini adalah panduan untuk menentukan bagaimana rangkaian kabel perlu dipasang pada bangunan dikenali sebagai "TIA/EIA 568-B Series“) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  5. 5. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and ElectronicsEngineers)  “I-triple-E,” is an international society composed of engineering professionals. (“I-triple-E," adalah sebuah pertubuhan antarabangsa yang terdiri daripada profesional kejuruteraan)  IEEE goals are to promote development and education in the electrical engineering and computer science fields. (IEEE adalah bertujuan untuk mempromosikan pembangunan dan pendidikan di bidang kejuruteraan elektrik dan sains komputer) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  6. 6. ISO (International Organization forStandardization)  Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, is a collection of standards and organizations representing 148 countries. (Berpusat di Geneva, Switzerland, merupakan sekumpulan standard dan organisasi yang diwakili oleh 148 negara)  ISO’s goal is to establish international technological standards to facilitate global exchange of information and barrier-free trade. (Tujuan ISO adalah untuk menetapkan standard teknologi antarabangsa untuk memudahkan pertukaran maklumat serantau dan membebaskan sekatan perdagangan ) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  7. 7. ITU (International Telecommunication Union)  Is a specialized United Nations agency that regulates international telecommunications, including radio and TV frequencies, satellite and telephony specifications, networking infrastructure applied to global communications. (Adakah agensi Amerika yang kursus yang menetapkan Badan telekomunikasi antarabangsa, termasuk frekuensi radio dan TV, satelit dan spesifikasi telefon, rangkaian infrastruktur yang dilaksanakan untuk komunikasi global) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  8. 8. ISOC (Internet Society)  Founded in 1992, is a professional membership society that helps to establish technical standards for the Internet. (Ditubuhkan pada tahun 1992, merupakan anggota masyarakat profesional yang membantu untuk menetapkan standard teknikal untuk Internet.)  ISOC oversees groups with specific missions, such as the IAB and IETF. (ISOC mengawasi beberapa kumpulan dengan misi tertentu, seperti IAB dan IETF) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  9. 9. IANA and ICANN  Every computer / host on a network must have a unique address. (Setiap komputer / host dalam rangkaian harus mempunyai alamat yang unik)  Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) kept records of available and reserved IP addresses and determined how addresses were issued out. (  Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), a private, nonprofit corporation and is now ultimately responsible for IP addressing and domain name management. (pertubuhan yang bertanggungjawab ke atas pengurusan pengalamatan IP dan domain) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  10. 10. PRINCIPLES of NETWORK COMMUNICATION
  11. 11. SOURCE, CHANNEL & DESTINATION  Source - Sources are objects which encode message/ data and transmit the information, via a channel, to one or more receiver. (adalah objek yang ‘encode’ mesej / data dan menyampaikan maklumat tersebut, melalui saluran, untuk satu atau lebih penerima)  Channel - refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel.  Destination - the receiving end of a communication channel. It receives decoded messages/information from the sender, who first encoded them. (penerima terakhir dari sebuah saluran komunikasi. Ia menerima decode mesej / maklumat dari penghantar) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  12. 12. SOURCE, CHANNEL & DESTINATION…Cont INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  13. 13. RULES of COMMUNICATION  For two computer-based devices to communicate with one another, even at the lowest level, a number of rule must be satisfied. A Point to Point Link INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  14. 14. RULES of COMMUNICATION…Cont  The rules for each of these phases are clearly defined by a protocol and typical phases are as follows:  Establish a link  Issues a command and command qualifier  Acknowledgment of command  Dissection messages  Error detection and Correction  Termination of transmission INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  15. 15. (I) Establish a link  Device 1 checks to see if Device 2 is present on the link by sending a specific "enquiry" message.  If the link is active and device 2 is active then it should respond by sending back an "acknowledgement" message. (Jika link tersebut aktif dan peranti 2 juga aktif maka ia akan memberi maklum balas dengan menghantar mesej ACK)  Device 1 must track the time that device 2 takes to respond. (peranti 1 perlu menjejaki masa yang diperlukan untuk peranti 2 memberi maklumbalas) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  16. 16. (I) Establish a link  If device 2 does not respond within a time interval (defined by the protocol) then device 1 assumes that the link is not active. This is called a transmission "time-out" error. (Jika peranti 2 tidak memberi maklumbalas dalam selang waktu (ditentukan oleh protokol), maka peranti 1 menganggap bahawa link sudah tidak aktif. Ini disebut transmisi "time-out" error.) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  17. 17. (II) Issues a command and command qualifier  Device 1 sends device 2 a message, in a predefined format, which tells device 2 that a file is to be transferred. (peranti 1 akan menghantar mesej ke peranti 2 mengikut format dimana ia akan memberitahu peranti 2 bahawa fail akan dihantar)  device 1 tells device 2 what to do with the file. For example, device 1 may tell device 2 to place the incoming file onto disk storage, with the file-name "FRED". (peranti 1 akan memberitahu peranti 2 apa yang harus dilakukan dengan fail tersebut. Sebagai contoh, peranti 1 akan memberitahu peranti 2 untuk menyimpan file yang dihantar ke dalam cakera simpanan, dengan nama-fail "FRED".) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  18. 18. (III) Acknowledgment of command  If device 2 has correctly received the command and qualifier from device 1, and is capable of carrying out the command, then it sends device 1 an acknowledgement message. (Jika peranti 2 telah menerima perintah dari peranti 1, dan mampu melaksanakan perintah tersebut, maka akan ia akan menghantar ACK)  The acknowledgement message tells device 1 that it can now proceed with further action needed to fulfill the command. (ACK memberitahu peranti 1 bahawa sekarang ia boleh meneruskan tindakan yang selanjutnya bagi memenuhi perintah) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  19. 19. Acknowledgment of command…Cont  If device 2 is unable to act upon the command from device 1, then it must respond with an error message. (Jika peranti 2 tidak boleh bertindak atas arahan dari peranti 1, maka ia harus memberi maklumbalas dengan mesej ralat(negarif acknowledgment))  An error could occur on the receiver, for example, the disk on which the incoming file is to be stored, is already full. The error response message would tell device 1 that it should not proceed with its proposed course of action. (Kesalahan biasa terjadi pada penerima, contohnya, cakera tempat fail yang akan disimpan, sudah penuh. Mesej kesalahan tersebut akan memberitahu peranti 1 agar tidak meneruskan tindakan/proses) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  20. 20. (IV) Dissection messages  All messages, command and otherwise, must be broken down into packets of manageable size for transmission. (Semua mesej, perintah dan sebaliknya, perlu dipecah menjadi pakej-pakej saiz yang mudah untuk dikendalikan bagi penghantaran)  Thus if an error should occur in a packet, then only that packet needs to be re-transmitted (and not the entire message). (jika berlaku ralat, hanya paket itu sahaja yang perlu dihantar semula) • Therefore, when device 1 wishes to transfer a large file to device 2, the file is broken up into packets and transmitted packet by packet. (Oleh kerana itu, apabila peranti 1 ingin memindahkan fail besar ke peranti 2, fail dipecah menjadi paket-paket dan di hantar paket demi paket) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  21. 21. (V) Error detection and Correction  When device 1 sends a message packet to device 2, it performs a mathematical calculation (manipulation) on every unit of data transmitted. (Apabila peranti 1 menghantar paket mesej ke peranti 2, ia melakukan pengiraan matematik (manipulasi) pada setiap unit data yang dihantar)  This calculation is transmitted to device 2 immediately after the message. (Pengiraan ini akan dihantar ke peranti 2 selepas mesej)  Device 2 performs exactly the same mathematical calculation on its incoming data as device 1. (peranti 2 melakukan pengiraan matematik pada data yang masuk sama seperti yang dilakukan oleh peranti 1 pada data tersebut) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  22. 22. (V) Error detection and Correction  Device 2 also reads in the calculation sent by device 1 and compares it with the local calculation. (peranti 2 juga membaca pengiraan yang dihantar oleh peranti 1 dan membandingkannya dengan pengiraan yang telah dibuat)  If the two calculations provide an identical result, then it is assumed that the incoming message was not corrupted on the link. (Jika dua pengiraan memberikan hasil yang sama, maka diandaikan bahawa mesej yang masuk tidak rosak pada link)  Device 2 can then issue a positive acknowledgement to device 1 to indicate that it is ready for the next message. (peranti 2 kemudiannya boleh mengeluarkan pengakuan positif(ACK) kepada peranti 1 untuk menunjukkan bahawa ia bersedia untuk menerima mesej seterusnya) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  23. 23. Error detection and Correction…Cont  If the two calculations are inconsistent, then it is assumed that incoming data has been corrupted, and device 2 issues a "negative acknowledgement" message to device 1, which indicates that the previous data message must be re-transmitted. (Jika dua pengiraan yang tidak konsisten, maka dianggap bahawa data yang masuk telah rosak, dan peranti 2 akan mengeluarkan pengakuan "negatif" ke peranti 1, yang menunjukkan bahawa mesej data tersebut perlu dihantar semula) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  24. 24. (VI) Termination of transmission  Device 1 transmits a file, piece-wise, ensuring that each packet is correctly received by device 2, using the technique described in (v). (peranti 1 akan menghantar file dalam pecahan paket dan memastikan paket2 tersebut diterima oleh peranti 2 dengan betul dengan menggunakan kaedah (V))  After the last piece of the file is transmitted to device 2 and positively acknowledged, then device 1 must terminate the transmission. (Setelah bahagian terakhir dari fail telah dihantar ke peranti 2 dan ACK positif diakui, maka peranti 1 harus berhenti penghantaran) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  25. 25. (VI) Termination of transmission  Device 1 sends an "end of transmission“ message to device 2. (peranti 1 menghantar “penamatan penghantaran" mesej ke peranti 2)  This allows device 2 to close the stored file and return to other duties. (ini membolehkan peranti 2 untuk memberhentikan proses penyimpanan data dan meneruskan dengan tugas yang lain) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  26. 26. File Transfer Sequence under Typical Protocol
  27. 27. TERMINOLOGIES • There are several terminologies in relation to communication in networking: INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  28. 28. (I) Message Encoding • Encoding occurs in computer communication. Encoding between hosts must be in an appropriate form for the medium. (Encoding terjadi dalam komunikasi komputer. Encoding antara host perlu dalam bentuk yang tepat/sesuai untuk medium) • Messages sent across the network are first converted into bits by the sending host. Each bit is encoded into a pattern of sounds, light waves, or electrical impulses depending on the network media over which the bits are transmitted. (Mesej yang dihantar di seluruh rangkaian terlebih dahulu ditukarkan kepada bit oleh penghantar. Setiap bit akan dikodekan menjadi pola suara, gelombang cahaya, atau impuls elektrik bergantung pada media rangkaian di mana bit dihantar) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  29. 29. Message Encoding…Cont… • The destination host receives and decodes the signals in order to interpret the message. (penerima akan menerima dan menterjemah isyarat-isyarat untuk menginterpretasikan mesej) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  30. 30. (II) Message Formatting • When a message is sent from source to destination, it must use a specific format or structure. (Ketika mesej dihantar dari sumber ke destinasi, ia harus menggunakan format atau struktur yang tertentu) • Message formats depend on the type of message and the channel that is used to deliver the message. (format Mesej bergantung pada jenis mesej dan saluran yang digunakan untuk menyampaikan mesej) • The process of placing one message format (the letter) inside another message format (the envelope) is called encapsulation. (Proses menempatkan satu format mesej (huruf) ke dalam format yang lain (sampul surat) disebut encapsulation) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  31. 31. Message Formatting…Cont… • De-encapsulation occurs when the process is reversed by the recipient and the letter is removed from the envelope. (De-encapsulation berlaku apabila proses dibatalkan oleh penerima dan surat akan dikeluarkan dari sampul surat) • Each computer message is encapsulated in a specific format, called a frame, before it is sent over the network. (Setiap mesej komputer dirumuskan dalam format khusus, yang disebut rangka, sebelum dihantar melalui rangkaian) • A frame acts like an envelope; it provides the address of the intended destination and the address of the source host. (Sebuah rangka bertindak seperti sampul surat, ia mempunyai alamat destinasi dan alamat sumber) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  32. 32. Message Formatting…Cont… INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  33. 33. (III) Message Size • when a long message is sent from one host to another over a network, it is necessary to break the message into smaller pieces. (apabila mesej yang panjang dihantar dari satu host ke host yang lain melalui rangkaian, ia perlu untuk dipecahkan kepada beberapa bahagian) • The rules that govern the size of the pieces, or frames, communicated across the network are very strict. They can also be different, depending on the channel used. Frames that are too long or too short are not delivered. (Peraturan-peraturan yang menetapkan saiz potongan, atau rangka, dihubungkan di seluruh rangkaian sangat ketat. Ia juga berbeza, bergantung pada saluran yang digunakan. Bingkai yang terlalu panjang atau terlalu pendek tidak akan dihantar) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  34. 34. Message Size…Cont… INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  35. 35. (IV) Message Timing • Timing effects how much information can be sent and the speed that it can be delivered. (Timing memberi kesan kepada berapa banyak maklumat yang boleh dihantar dan kelajuan penghantaran) • In network communication, a sending host can transmit messages at a faster rate than the destination host can receive and process. (penghantar boleh menghantar mesej lebih laju berbanding keupayaan destinasi menerima dan memproses mesej) • Source and destination hosts use flow control to negotiate correct timing for successful communication. (sumber dan destinasi akan menggunakan ‘flow control’ untuk berunding tempoh yang betul bagi memastikan komunikasi berjaya) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  36. 36. Message Timing…Cont…• Hosts on the network have rules that specify how long to wait for responses and what action to take if a response timeout occurs. (Host di jaringan mempunyai peraturan yang menentukan berapa lama untuk menunggu maklumbalas dan tindakan yang harus diambil jika tamat waktu maklumbalas berlaku) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  37. 37. (V) Message Patterns • There are the standard message patterns in relation to human communication – Unicast – Multicast – Broadcast INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  38. 38. Message Patterns…Cont… • A one-to-one message pattern is referred to as a unicast, meaning that there is only a single destination for the message. (pola mesej satu-ke-satu disebut sebagai Unicast, yang bermaksud bahawa hanya ada satu sahaja destinasi untuk mesej yang dihantar) • When a host needs to send messages using a one- to-many pattern, it is referred to as a multicast. Multicasting is the delivery of the same message to a group of host destinations simultaneously. (apabila penghantar perlu menghantar mesej menggunakan pola satu-ke-banyak, ini disebut sebagai Multicast. Multicasting adalah penghantaran mesej yang sama kepada sekumpulan host serentak) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  39. 39. Message Patterns…Cont… • If all hosts on the network need to receive the message at the same time, a broadcast is used. Broadcasting represents a one-to-all message pattern. (Jika semua host dalam rangkaian perlu menerima mesej pada masa yang sama, broadcast akan digunakan. Broadcast merupakan pola mesej satu-untuk-semua) • Additionally, hosts have requirements for acknowledged versus unacknowledged messages. INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  40. 40. NETWORKING HARDWARE
  41. 41. (I) Network Interface Card (NIC) • Act as a physical interface and connectors between your computer and network cable. (Bertindak sebagai antaramuka fizikal atau penyambung di antara komputer anda dengan kabel rangkaian) • to provide a physical link to a computer network. This connection allows computers to communicate with servers, as well as other computers on the network. (untuk menyediakan link fizikal kepada jaringan komputer. Sambungan ini membolehkan komputer untuk berkomunikasi dengan pelayan, serta komputer lain di dalam rangkaian) • Each NIC has a unique serial number, which is called a MAC address. (Setiap NIC mempunyai satu nombor siri yang unik, yang disebut alamat MAC) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  42. 42. Network Interface Card (NIC)…Cont… • Network interface card functions are: – Provide data from computer to network cable. (Menyediakan data dari komputer untuk kabel rangkaian) – Sending data to another computer. (Menghantar data ke komputer yang lain) – Control the flow of data between the computer and plug the cable system. (Mengawal aliran data di antara komputer dan sistem kabel penyambung) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  43. 43. (II) Repeater • To regenerate the signal when the signal received is weak or interference, this device will make a copy of bits to bits by the original signal strength. (untuk menjana semula isyarat apabila isyarat yang diterima lemah atau terdapat gangguan, peranti ini akan membuat satu salinan bit ke bit berdasarkan kekuatan asal isyarat tersebut) • Repeater will receive digital signals from one of their port then regenerate the signal before sending out the signal. (Repeater akan menerima isyarat digital dari salah satu portnya kemudian menjana semula isyarat tersebut sebelum menghantar isyarat tersebut keluar) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  44. 44. Repeater…Cont… INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  45. 45. (III) Hub • connection point between the station with the station and between stations with the server. (titik penyambungan di antara stesyen dengan stesyen dan di antara stesyen dengan server) • have a several number of RJ-45 female connector, known as a port. (mempunyai beberapa bilangan penyambung female RJ-45 yang dikenali sebagai port) • The function of the hub is broadcasting i.e data is forwarded towards the all ports of a hub, regardless of whether the data was intended for the particular systems in the network or not. (Fungsi hub adalah untuk broadcasting iaitu data dilalukan ke semua port hub, untuk mengetahui apakah data ditujukan untuk host di dalam rangkaian tersebut atau tidak) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  46. 46. (V) Bridges • Appearance bridge is like a small box with two network connectors (port) are connected to two separate networks. (seperti sebuah kotak kecil, dengan dua penyambung rangkaian yang disambung kepada dua rangkaian yang terpisah) • Used to transmit data between networks that using the same protocol. (Digunakan untuk menghantar data di antara rangkaian yang menggunakan protokol yang sama) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  47. 47. Bridges…Cont… Jadual Bridge PORT PORT “A” “B” 00C08B44E50C AHMAD JAMAL MAC=00C08BBE0052 MAC=00C08B11C439 PORT PORT “A” “B” HUB BRIDGE HUB ZIANA SITI MAC=00C08B44E50C MAC=00C08B477B72 Rajah 5.4 : Ziana menghantar data kepada Ahmad INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  48. 48. Bridges…Cont… Jadual Bridge PORT PORT “A” “B” 00C08B44E50C 00C08BBE0052 AHMAD JAMAL MAC=00C08BBE0052 MAC=00C08B11C439 PORT PORT “A” “B” HUB BRIDGE HUB Frame Transmission ZIANA SITI MAC=00C08B44E50C MAC=00C08B477B72 INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  49. 49. Bridges…Cont… INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  50. 50. (IV) Switch • Switch is a combination of hub and bridge technology. (Switch adalah gabungan teknologi hub dan bridge) • Switch function is like as it was built by a small bridge on each port. (Switch berfungsi seolah-olah ia dibina dengan mempunyai bridge kecil pada setiap portnya) • Unlike hubs, switch only transmit or forwards the data to the destined computer and it does not broadcasts the data to all its ports. (Tidak seperti hub, switch hanya menghantar data ke komputer penerima sahaja dan tidak broadcast data ke semua port) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  51. 51. (VI) Routers • Multi-port device that makes decisions on how to manage the contents of the frame, based on protocol and network address. (Peranti multi-port yang membuat keputusan terhadap bagaimana hendak menguruskan kandungan frame, berdasar kepada protokol dan alamat rangkaian) • Routers route the data between two logically and physically different networks. (Router menghubungkan data antara dua rangkaian berbeza) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  52. 52. Routers…Cont… • Unlike Switches and Bridges, which use hardware configured MAC address to determine the destination of the data, router uses logical network address such as IP address to make the decision in determining the destination of the data. (Tidak seperti Switch dan bridge, yang menggunakan alamat MAC sebagai penentu kepada destinasi bagi data, router menggunakan alamat rangkaian iaitu alamat IP untuk membuat keputusan dalam menentukan destinasi penghantaran data) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  53. 53. Routers…Cont… INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  54. 54. (VII) Gateways • Used to connect a computer network with one or more computer networks that use a different communications protocols so that information from a computer network can be given to other computer networks that have a different protocol. (digunakan untuk menghubungkan satu jaringan komputer dengan satu atau lebih jaringan komputer yang menggunakan protokol komunikasi yang berbeza sehingga informasi dari satu jaringan computer dapat diberikan kepada jaringan komputer lain yang mempunyai protokol berbeza) • A gateway performs the function of translating the data from one format to another format without changing the data itself. (gateway melakukan fungsi menterjemah data dari satu format ke format lain tanpa mengubah data itu sendiri) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK
  55. 55. Gateways…Cont… • A gateway can be a device, system, software. (gateway boleh jadi atau mungkin peranti, sistem, perisian) • Router acts as a gateway e.g a router that routes the data from a IPX network to a IP network is technically a gateway. (Router bertindak sebagai gateway contohnya router yang menjadi laluan data dari rangkaian IPX kepada rangkaian IP) • Switch acts as a gateway e.g translational switch converts from a Ethernet network to a token ring network. (Switch bertindak sebagai gateway contohnyanya terjemahan switch dengan menukar dari rangkaian Ethernet kepada rangkaian token ring) INTRODUCTION TO NETWORK

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