Published on

Red rot of sugarcane is one of the severe problem for fruitful profitable production of sugarcane. In this why IDM technology are very much helpful to control diseases, pest etc.

Published in: Education
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. AN ASSIGNMENT ON IDM MODEL OF RED ROT OF SUGERCANE Course No.: P.Path.-516 Course Title: Integrated Diseases Management Md. KamaruzzamanDr. Ismail Hossain ID No. 11 Ag.P.Path. JJ 07 MProfessor Reg. No. 33141Department of Plant Pathology Department of Plant PathologyBangladesh Agricultural University Bangladesh Agricultural UniversityMymensingh Mymensingh DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY BANGLADESH AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY MYMENSINGH
  3. 3. Introduction:The importance of sugar in human diet needs no introduction; it has become apart and parcel of daily life. Sugarcane is not only cash crop for the growers,but it is main source of white crystal sugar and also provide grower with a verygood substitute of sugar in the form of gur and khandsari (brown sugar).While sugarcane tops serve as fodder for cattle, baggase and leaf trash as fuel,stubbles and roots as organic manure and crop residues as mulch and compost.Since last two decades, sugarcane leaves are also used as substrate for theartificial cultivation of edible mushrooms.This crop is subjected to many diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodesand viruses. According to Ahmad (1988) red rot is one of the oldest and widelydistributed, recognized as major disease of sugarcane in Punjab and Sindh. ButHafiz (1986) described this disease as third most important disease by reportingthat "red rot of sugarcane was first recorded from Java in 1883 and in the sub-continent of Indo-Bangladesh by Barber and later on by Butler in 1906". Kamaland Moghal (1968) reported this disease in a local variety of sugarcane during1921-22 at Sukkur, Sindh.However, the causes of the disease, its symptoms, transmission, perpetuationand control measures, based on the description by Hafiz (1986) and Ahmad(1988), are being summarized here under, for guide line to the growers,extension workers and students of agriculture. The disease is the number oneproblem of sugarcane in Bangladesh and entire cane breeding in Bangladesh isgeared around this disease. But chemical controls are not eco-friendly. So, weneed to adopt biological control which is environmentally safe. Now a dayscientists are trying to control Red rot of sugarcane by mean of IDM (Integrateddisease Management).The Integrated disease management (IDM) is an integrated approach of cropmanagement to solve ecological problems when applied in agriculture.In view of the above facts, the present study was undertaken to achieve thefollowing objectives – 1. To get information about the Integrated disease management. 2. To know about the Red rot of sugarcane. 3. To know about the Integrated disease management of Red rot of sugarcane. 2
  4. 4. Integrated Disease Management Integrated Disease Management (IDM) is a concept derived from thesuccessful Integrated Pest Management (IPM) systems developed byentomologists for insect and mite control. In most cases IDM consists ofscouting with timely application of a combination of strategies and tactics.Integrated Disease Management (IDM) has been defined in many ways. TheFood and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of United Nations agreed on thefollowing description: “disease management systems that utilizes all suitabletechniques in a compatible manner to reduce pest populations and maintainsthem at levels bellow those causing economic injury, (Smith and Reynolds1966).Many IDM researchers consider this definition too meager and opt for onewhich contains philosophical and ecological elements besides the moretechnical aspects. An example of such a definition is the one developed byP.Gruys (1976). A durable, environmentally and economically justifiablesystem in which damage caused by diseases is prevented through the use ofnatural factors which limit the population growth of this organism, if neededsupplemented with appropriate control measures.In most cases IDM consists of scouting with timely application of acombination of strategies and tactics .These may include site selection andpreparation, utilizing resistant cultivars, altering planting practices, irrigation,pruning, thinning, shading, etc., and applying pesticides, if necessary. But inaddition to these traditional measures, monitoring environmental factors(temperature, moisture, soil pH, nutrients, etc.), disease forecasting, andestablishing economic thresholds are important to the management scheme.These measures should be applied in a coordinated integrated and harmonizedmanner to maximize the benefits of each component. For example, balancingfertilizer applications with irrigation practices helps promote healthy vigorousplants. However, this is not always easy to accomplish, and “diseasemanagement” may be reduced to single measures exactly the same as the onespreviously called “disease control.” Whatever the measures used, they must becompatible with the cultural practices essential for the crop being managed.‟ 3
  5. 5. Points to be consider for preparing an ideal IDM model: 1. Crop : For preparing an ideal model of IDM of specific disease of specific crop, we should need vast information on- -the nature of and growth of the crop, -duration of the crop, -Environmental condition for crop growth (both micro and macroenvironment). -variety / cultivar of the crop. 2. Substrate: Where we need to grow this crop, it is vary important information for preparing an ideal model of IDM. So that before site selection we should must be need to know about the -Nutritional status of soil -Soil reaction (pH) -Soil topography -Soil structure -soil moisture -soil Organic matter - Soil texture, etc.If all these points are satisfactory for this crop production, then this side or landshould be selected for cultivate the crop. 3. Disease: a) Types of disease- whether it caused by animal or insect or pathogens, or virus. b) Time of disease incidence-where the disease appear, in which stages (seedling/flag leaf / tillering stage /others). 4. Season: 5. Pathogen: -Types of pathogen -Mode of infection (whether it spore producing or conidia - Life cycle -Survival of pathogens (host, collateral host, alternative host, sclerotiaforming or others, etc. - Mode of transmition and multiplication. -Inoculum density. -Safe distance. 4
  6. 6. 6. Tolerance of pest damage: a) Economic injury level: This quantitative measure of insect /pest densitydetermines if an insect component of an agroecosystem is to be classified as apest. Without an estimate of the pest density that can be tolerated withoutsignificant crop loss, there can be no reasonable safeguard against either overtreatment with pesticides or unacceptable crop damage. Thus determination ofEconomic injury level is critical in defining the ultimate objective of any pestmanagement program. Various definitions have been proposed for theEconomic injury level, including“The lowest pest population density that will cause economic damage” (Stern etal.1959),“The level at which damage can no longer be tolerated and therefore the level ator before which it is desirable to initiate deliberate control activities.”(NAS1969). b) Economic threshold: This is another important parameter, defined as, “thedensity at which control measures should be applied to prevent an increasingpest population from reaching the economic injury level.” c) General Equilibrium position: This is the average population density ofan insect population overlong period of time, unaffected by the temporaryinterventions of pest control. The population density fluctuates about this meanlevel as a result of the influence of density-dependent factors such asparasitoids, predators, and diseases .The economic injury level may be at anylevel from well below to well above the general equilibrium position. 7. Use f low cost IDM practices with maximum benefits: Consider a) Cost/benefit b) Benefit /Risk Cost/benefit: In most agricultural pest-control activities, the benefitsusually are not known, as they are usually not measured and the costs ofprevention become cost production. Improving capabilities for predicting pestproblems and defining economic thresholds will place increased emphasis oncosts and benefits. Crop life tables provide a solid foundation for analysis ofpest damage and cost/benefit in pest management. 5
  7. 7. Benefit /Risk: Benefit/ risk analysis provides a means for assessing therelevant economic benefits versus the risks in pest control. The considerationand assessment of benefit/risk is fundamental to pest management. Growerscarefully consider the hazard of highly toxic pesticides and take action to ensuresafety for himself and his workers in handling and in application. Similarly, agrower must consider the effects on society and on the environment of apesticide that is applied. 8) Better to avoid chemicals but encourage biological management ofdisease, as well as nutritional management of soil. 9) Select best variety or cultivar of crop: Selection of variety has greatimportance for preparing an ideal model of IDM. We can cultivate highyielding variety having resistant capacity. We can also use Hybrid plantmaterials. If possible cultivate GMO. 6
  8. 8. HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDThe prophetic remark of Garrett aptly outlines the chequered history of red rot.Over and over again, pathologists of different genre have made similarmistakes in similar situations due to a lack of proper understanding of thedisease. This situation was partly due to the non-availability of seminalliterature at one‟s disposal (at one place), and partly due to the haste in having aquick-fix solution. Red rot, though prevalent in India since time immemorial, drewthe attention of the scientific community only when FAFC Went chanceencountered this malady in Java. He was deputed to Java (now Indonesia), toinvestigate the notorious „Sereh‟ disease, which was threatening the sugarindustry of Java in 1880‟s. In search of the cause and cure of ‘Sereh ’, Wentstumbled upon a situation of cane dying in 1892 at the Tjomal estate in Java,and in the following year (1893) he published an account of this problem of stalkrotting of sugarcane plants and thus, this sugarcane disease came to light in thescientific world.He studied the malady, and described the causal fungus as Colletotrichumfalcatum Went and named the disease as “het rood snot”, meaning red smut.Obviously, the name „red smut‟ is not a happy one as „smut‟ is caused by anentirely different group of fungi and produce remarkably different type ofsymptoms. The species is named ‘falcatum ’ due to its typical falcate/sickle shapedconidia (Plates 19, 21). The accepted name, „Red rot‟ was given to this canedisease in 1906 by Sir E. J. Butler, the celebrated Imperial Mycologist of India,who was then working at Pusa, Bihar. He wrote the first major account of thisdisease in 1906. Fig. Red rot Infected sugarcane field 7
  9. 9. Red Rot Disease on Sugarcane: Red rot is one of the major constraints in the profitable cultivation ofsugarcane in many states of India. Except Maharashtra, the disease has beenrecorded in all the states. This disease drastically retards the yield andconsiderably deteriorates the juice quantity and quality thus hitting both thecane growers and millers. Many good varieties have gone out of cultivation dueto red rot.Causal Organism : Colletotrichum falcatum Went, Glomerella cingulataClass : DeuteromycetesOrder : MelanconialesFamily : MelanconiaceaeSymptomatology:Leaf Symptoms Tiny reddish lesions on the upper surface of the lamina. These lesions are 2 to 3 mm in length and about 0.5 mm in width. Minute red spots on the upper surface of the midrib in both the directions. Later on becomes straw colored in the center with the development of black acervuli and dark reddish brown margins. Fig. The affected sugarcane leaf showing red rot symptom 8
  10. 10. Stalk Symptoms Drying up of the 3rd & 4th leaf of the crown at margins. Later, the entire crown dries up & drops down. Brown or reddish brown stripes appear externally at nodal region. On splitting, the internal tissue becomes red with white transverse bands. Tissues emit alcoholic sour smell. Tiny acervuli develop on outer surface of shrinkled upper internodes. Cottony gray fungal mass develops in the pith region of the internodes and sporulates abundantly. Fig. The affected sugarcane stalk showing red rot symptomSymtoms on the cane: The infected canes become shriveled, the rind shrinks and becomes longitudinally wrinkled. Such canes lighter in weight and easily broken. When diseased canes are splitted open longitudinally with white tissues in the pith and vascular region. In very advanced stage of the diseases, the red color may be replaced by dirty brown and white bands may not be very conspicuous. The cavities filled with greyish or white mycelium which found in the pith and minute velvety, dark dot (the acervuli of fungus) are formed near about the nodes of the diseased canes and also in shrunken areas. 9
  11. 11. Fig. The affected sugarcane cane showing red rot symptomDisease cycle of the pathogen  The planting material, viz., the setts, may harbour the fungus and thus perptuate the disease from season to season.  The fungus may also persist in the soil oil diseased clumps and dry leaves left in the field after harvest.  The primary infection, however, appears to be mainly from infected setts.  Secondary spread in the field may be through irrigation water, cultivation tools anti implements and wind-borne inoculum.  If the conidia settle on the leaves they may germinate and invade the leaves through various types of wounds including the splitting of the mid-rib so common in many varieties.  Stem infection may take place through insect bores and root primordia.  The soil-borne fungus may also enter the healthy setts through cut-ends, and cause early infection of the shoots.  The prevalence of several pathogenic strains of the fungus has been reported from many countries, including India.  In general, light-coloured physiologic races sporulate readily and are more pathogenic than the dark-coloured strains that sporulate sparingly.  Though the perfect stage of the fungus has been observed in nature, the role of ascospores in the disease cycle is not understood. 10
  12. 12. The pathogen is sett borne. After primary infection the fungal myceliumgrows within the host tissues intercellularly and intracellularly. It producesconidiophores and conidia. The conidia germinate by producing one or moregerm tubes and cause secondary infection and spread of the disease.Control:Control Adopting one or more of the following measures can minimize thedisease incidence. Use of red rot resistant varieties of sugarcane (Isd 2/54, Isd 19, Isd 20, Isd 32, Isd 33, Isd 34, Isd 35, Isd 36, Isd 37 and Isd 38) Planting material should be collected from the seed nursery. Hot water treatment of setts before planting at 52 degree C for 30 minutes is also recommended. Follow the long furrow method or pair row method of layout for planting and irrigation Bunding of affected field should be done to avoid movement of rain or floodwater Before primary and general cane planting set treatment with 0-1% carbendazim To control the secondary spread of the disease, follow the following practices a) Rogue out the affected clumps & destroy it by burning. Stools should not buried in the soil or should not be kept or thrown on bunds. b) After roguing, drench the spot with the 0.1% carbendazim containing fungicide. c) Foliar application of the Bavistin (0.1%), or Baynlate 70% w.p. (0.1% to 0.15%) by 2 to 3 times at an interval of 10 to 12 days may be tried. Spraying may be done immediately after the disease incidence. d) After the harvest of the diseased crop, left over trash with stools should be burnt immediately Crop rotation should be followed to break the rapid built up of the disease Avoid ratooning of the diseased crop. 11
  13. 13. IDM MODEL FOR CONTROLLING OF RED ROT Use of red rot resistant land selection: varieties Planting ᴥ Medium high of sugarcane material land ( Isd 2/54, should be ᴥ Well drained Isd 19, Isd 20, collected ᴥ Sunny place Isd 32, Isd 33, from the Isd 35 etc) seed nurseryApplication of the IDMBavistin (0.1%), or MODEL FOR Sett treatment withBaynlate 70% w.p. CONTROLLING OF BAU-bio fungicide(0.1% to 0.15%) by RED ROT OF SUGERCANE or 0-1%2 to 3 times at an carbendaziminterval of 10 to 12day Balanced Fertilization- Follow the long ᴥ Avoid ratooning Urea: 30-35kg/ha ᴥ Crop rotation furrow method TSP: 40-45kg/ha or trance ᴥ Rogue out the MP: 25-30kg/ha affected clumps & method for destroy it by planting and burning irrigation Fig. IDM model for management of red rot of sugarcane diseases 12
  14. 14. Conclution:Red rot is one of the oldest known diseases of sugarcane. It occurs in mostcane-growing countries. Although it continues to be a threat in certainsubtropical countries, it is of little concern to the Florida sugarcane grower.Midrib lesions are probably the major source of inoculum during the growingseason. Diseased stalks generate a great deal of inoculum. Dissemination of theinoculum takes place by wind, rain, heavy dews and irrigation water. Infectedplant material can readily spread or cause secondary infections. Crop debris orstubble may also provide inoculum to infect a new crop. Although the fungus isnot a true soil-borne organism, spores washed into the soil may produceinfection in planted seed pieces. Hosts other than sugarcane are not consideredimportant inoculum sources. Climatic factors affect both the spread and severityof red rot. In newly-planted cane, the disease is favored by excessive soilmoisture, drought conditions, and low temperatures. ). To control these diseasesfor commercial production system of this vegetable and for their quality andhigh productivity per unit area, the synthetic pesticides are being usedindiscriminately at large scale. Consumption of pesticides in Bangladesh were10136.83mt. (BBS, 2003), of which fungicides were 3445.2 mt. This causesserious environment pollution and human health. So, for controlling theenvironmental pollution as well as to increase the production of sugarcane weshould have to follow Integrated Disease Management system (IDM) whichwill protect our valuable crop & ultimately bring happiness to our farmer. 13
  15. 15. Refferences:Abbott, E.V. 1935. Physiological specialization in Colletotrichum falcatum Went. Proceedings of International Sugarcane Technology. 5: 730-736.Abbott, E.V. 1938. Red rot of sugarcane. US Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin. 641: 96.Achutaramarao, M and Ramakrishna, V. 1997. Outbreak of red rot on sugarcane variety Co 7508 – a new pathotype in coastal Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Research ANGRAU. 25: 41-43.Achutaramarao, M. and Sarma, M.N. 1982. Studies on parental influence on red rot resistance in sugarcane seedlings. Sugarcane Pathologists Newsletter. 29: 22-26.Achutaramarao, M. and Satyanarayana, Y. 1983. Influence of red rot pathogen Physalospora tukumanensis Speg. on quality of juices in different sugarcane varieties. Maharashtra Sugar. 8: 53-54.Agnihotri, V.P. 1990. Diseases of Sugarcane and Sugarbeet. Oxford & IBH Pub., New Delhi.Agnihotri, V.P. and Budhraja, T.R. 1974. Pathogenic potentialities of mid-rib isolates of Colletotrichum falcatum in inciting stalk rot of sugarcane. Sugarcane Pathologists Newsletter. 11 / 12: 19-21.Agnihotri, V.P. and Budhraja, T.R. and Singh, K. 1979. Role of diseased sett and soil in the annual recurrence of red rot in sugarcane. International Sugar Journal. 82: 263-265.Agnihotri, V.P., Lal, R.J., Singh, N. and Singh, V. 1997. Effect of bavistin and bleaching power on conodial germination of Collatotrichum falcatum Went and development of red rot in sugarcane. Indian Journal of Sugarcane Technology. 12: 54-55. 14
  16. 16. Agnihotri, V.P., Madan, V.K. and Lal, R. 1989. Changes in carbohydrates and nucleic acids in sugarcane genotypes affected by Colletotrichum falcatum. International Sugar Journal. 4: 7-8.Agnihotri, V.P. and Singh, K. 1977. Seed-piece transmissible diseases of sugarcane and their control measures. Sugar News. 2: 90-95.Bajaj, B.S., Chatrath, M.S. and Vasudeva, R.S. 1965. Mutation in Colletotrichum falcatum, the causal organism of red rot of sugarcane. V. Pathogenicity of biochemical mutants. Indian Phytopathology. 18: 133-138.Bajaj, B.S., Ganju, P.L. and Chatrath, M.S. 1959. Mutation in Colletotrichum falcatum, the causal organism of red rot of sugarcane. II. Induced fast neutons. Indian Phytopathology. 12: 53-58.Barber, C.A. 1901. Sugarcane diseases in Godavari and Ganjam districts. Madras Department of Land Records and Agriculture Bulletin. 43(2): 181-194.Beniwal, M.S. and Satyavir. 1988. Identification of sugarcane clones for durable resistance to red rot. Indian Phytopathology. 41: 284.Beniwal, M.S. and Satyavir. 1991. Effect of atmospheric temperature on the development of red rot of sugarcane. Indian Phytopathology. 44: 333- 338.Beniwal, M.S., Satyavir and Taneja, A.D. 1989. Effect of red rot on juice quality of sugarcane. Indian Sugar. 39(6): 403-406.Beniwal, M.S., Satyavir and Virk, K.S. 1989. Pathogenic variability in Colletotrichum falcatum incitant of red rot of sugarcane. Indian Phytopathology. 42: 95-98.Beniwal, M.S., Taneja, A.D., Satyavir and Khirbat, S.K. 1988. Phenols in relation to sugarcane resistance against red rot disease. Bharatiya Sugar. 13: 49-52. 15
  17. 17. Bhansali, R.R., Singh, N. and Singh, K. 1985. Movement of 32P labelled red rot pathogen in sugarcane stalks. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology. 3: 80-82.Bharathi, V.L., Kishan Reddy, L. and Nanda Kishore, M. and Mukunda Rao, C.H. 2005. Pathological behaviour of sugarcane varieties against red rot (Colletotrichum falcatum Went) disease. Indian Sugar. 4: 39-43.Butler, E.J. 1906. Fungus diseases of sugarcane in Bengal. Memoirs of Department of Agriculture, India, Botanical Series. 1: 1-53 (red rot pp. 2-24).Butler, E.J. and Khan, H.A. 1913. Red rot of sugarcane. Memoirs of Department of Agriculture, India, Botanical Series. 6: 151-178.Dutta, A.K., Chona, B.L. and Bajaj, B.S. 1965. Effect of hexose phosphates and ultraviolet irradiation on perithecial development in Glomerella tucumanensis. Indian Phytopathology. 18: 274-281.Duttamajumder, S.K. 1997. Butler-Plug method of inoculation and red rot. Sugar Crops Newsletter. 7(1&2): 7-8.Duttamajumder, S.K. 2008. Red Rot of Sugarcane. Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research (IISR), Lucknow, India.Duttamajumder, S.K. and Dwivedi, R. 1995. A new electro-mechanical power device and its superior performance in the inoculation of red rot pathogen in sugarcane. Indian Journal of Sugarcane Technology. 10: 136-138.Duttamajumder, S.K. and Misra, S.C. 2004. Towards an ideal method of inoculation for screening sugarcane genotypes against red rot caused by Colletotrichum falcatum. Indian Phytopathology. 57: 24-29.Duttamajumder, S.K. and Singh, R.P. 1999. Revised criteria for grading resistance against red rot disease of sugarcane. Indian Phytopathology. 52: 157-159. 16
  18. 18. Duttamajumdar, S.K., Singh, N. and Agnihotri, V.P. 1990. Behaviour of Colletotrichum falcatum Went. under water logged conditions. Indian Phytopathology. 43: 227-229.Kalaimani, T. and Muthusamy, S. 1988. Effect of temperature and hydrogen ion concentration on the growth and sporulation of the four isolates of Colletotrichum falcatum Went collected from different places of South Arcot District in Tamil Nadu. Indian Sugar. 20(2): 101-103.Kalaimani, T. and Muthusamy, M. 1989. Deterioration of sugarcane varieties due to development of new strains of Colletotrichum falcatum in Tamil Nadu. Indian Sugar. 39(6): 563-566.Kalaimani, T. and Muthusamy, M. 1990. Variation in red rot of sugarcane caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went. in Tamil Nadu. Indian Sugar. 40(1): 29-31.Kalaimani, T., Natarajan, S. and Rajasekaran, S. 1991. Evaluation of sugarcane genotypes for resistance to red rot caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went. Cooperative Sugar. 22(11): 731-732.Mishra, M.K. 2008. Screening of sugarcane varieties against red rot caused by Colletotrichum falcatum by different inoculation methods. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 38(2): 398-399.Mishra, M.K. and Behera, B. 2009. Growth and sporulation of different isolates of Colletotrichum falcatum Went., incitant of sugarcane red rot in various culture media and hydrogen ion concentration. Indian Sugar. 58(10): 27-32.Mishra, M.K., Mishra, P.K., Panda, S.K. and Mishra, P.J. 2004. Sugarcane varietal reactions to red rot caused by Colletotrichum falcatum by different inoculation methods. Indian Sugar. 54(4): 285-288.Misra, S.R., Ram, R.S. and Singh, K. 1987. Some observations on dispersal of Colletotrichum falcatum Went. on sugarcane fields. Indian Journal of Sugarcane Technology. 4: 108-112. 17
  19. 19. Ramesh Sundar, A., Velazhahan, R., Viswanathan, R., Padmanaban, P. and Vidhyasekharan, P. 2001. Induction of systemic resistance to Colletotrichum falcatum in sugarcane by a synthetic signal molecule acibenzonal S-methyl (CGA 245 704). Phytoparasitica. 29: 231-242.Ramesh Sundar, A., Velazhahan, R. and Vidyasekaran, P. 2002. A glycoprotein elicitor isolated from Colletotrichum falcatum induces defense mechanisms in sugarcane leaves and suspension cultured cells. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 109(6): 601-611.Singh, G.R. 1966. Red rot field infection of sugarcane leaves in Louisiana. Indian Sugar. 15(11): 735-737.Singh, G.R. 1967. Spread of red rot in the leaves of sugarcane plants. Indian Phytopathology. 20: 220-225.Singh, H.N., Gupta, S.C., Singh, S.B. and Singh, M.P. 1978. Improvement of the technique for screening against red rot of seedling stage. Sugarcane Pathologists Newsletter. 21: 29-31.Singh, K. 1973. Hot air therapy against red rot of sugarcane. Plant Disease Reporter. 57: 220-222.Singh, K. and Alexander, K.C. 1970. Laminar infection of sugarcane leaves by red rot (Physalospora tucumanensis) organism in nature. Indian Phytopathology. 23: 114-115.Singh, N. and Singh, V. 1994. Collatotrichum falcatum physiological race designation: a new methodology. Current Science. 66: 777-779.Singh, O. and Waraitch, K.S. 1977. Metabolic changes induced by Colletotrichum falcatum Went in sugarcane. Sugarcane Pathologists Newsletter. 19: 729.Singh, O. and Waraitch, K.S. 1977. Metabolic changes induced by C. falcatum Went. Phytopathology. Z54: 79. 18
  20. 20. Verma, D.K. 2001. Resistance breeding in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). Indian Journal of Genetics. 61: 256-262.Verma, R.K., Rao, G.P., Verma, K.P. and Singh, H.N. 1991. Some bio- chemical changes in red rot infected sugarcane leaves. Indian Sugar. 40(11): 817-820.Virk, K.S. 1985. Hypodermic needle method of testing resistance of sugarcane to red rot. Indian Phytopathology. 38(3): 554-555.Viswanathan, R. and Samiyappan, R. 2008. Bio-formulation of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. induces systemic resistance against red rot disease and enhances commercial sugar yield in sugarcane. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 41: 377-388.Viswanathan, R., Samiyappan, R. and Padmanaban, P. 1998. Specific detection of Colletotrichum falcatum in sugarcane by serological technique. Sugarcane. 3: 18-23.Wilson, K.I. and Srivastava, D.N. 1970. Phenolic content of sugarcane in relation to red rot disease. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 26: 1074.Yin, Z., Hoy, J.W. and Milligan, S.B. 1996. Evaluation and heritability of resistance to sugarcane red rot. Phytopthology. 86: 662-667. 19