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MBA Notes Research Methodology

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Unit I …

Unit I
Introduction; meaning and nature of research; significance of research in business decision making, identification and formulation of research problem, setting objectives and formulation of hypotheses.
Unit-II
Research design and data collection; research designs – exploratory, descriptive, diagnostic and experimental data collection; universe, survey population, sampling and sampling designs. data collection tools- schedule, questionnaire, interview and observation, use of SPSS.
Unit-III
Scaling techniques; need for scaling, problems of scaling, reliability and validity of scales, scale construction techniques- arbitrary approach, consensus scale approach (Thurston), item analysis approach (Likert) and cumulative scales (Gut man’s Scalogram)
Unit-IV
Interpretation and report writing; introduction, meaning of interpretation, techniques and precautions in interpretation and generalization report writing- purpose, steps and format of research report and final presentation of the research report.

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  • 1. Shakehand with Life Research Methodology Systematized effort to gain new knowledge Notes for MBA III Sem. Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak, (DDE) Prepared By Narender Sharma Quality Professional in a leading Container Glass Manufacturing Organization HNG Industries Ltd , Bahadurgarh Prepared By Narender Sharma Quality Professional in a leading Container Glass Manufacturing Organization
  • 2. Few wordsTo All Management and Engineering Professionals……………… Course JourneyAll of you have studied about the Software and Hardware as these Research Methodologyunderstand as a heavy source of earning but I believe in Humanware and in (MBA , Sem. III, M.D. University, Rohtak)my view “Nothing costly than a human mind as it has unlimited capabilities.” Unit I : Page 3 - 8so my Mission statement is Introduction “Shakehand with Life” Meaning and nature of research. Significance of research in business decision making.The notes are strictly according to the syllabus of Maharishi Dayanand Identification and formulation of research problems , SettingUniversity, Rohtak under distance education mode for MBA ,Sem. III. objectives and formulation of hypothesis. Unit II : Page 9 - 22As a quality professional It is my effort to give the quality in my work which Research designs and data collectionwill give the maximum output through minimum input from the user end so Research designs – Exploratory , descriptive, diagnostic, andthat he can get maximum marks in his examination. experimental data collection. Universe , survey population , and sampling designs.I always seeking the feedback from your side so that, I can continuously Data collection tools –Schedule, questionnaire, interview andmake improvement in my work. observation, use of SPSSWith Regards Unit III : Page 23 - 34 Scaling Techniques Need for scaling, problems of scaling , reliability and validity of scales. Scale construction techniques- Arbitrary approach , consensus scaleNarender Sharma approach ( Thurston), Item analysis approach (Likert) and cumulative scales ( Gut man’s Scalogram) Working As A Quality Professional In A Leading Container Glass Manufacturing Organization Since July 2001 To Till Date. Unit IV: Page 35 - 44 Visiting Faculty in Leading Management Institutes in Delhi. Interpretation and Report writing Six –Sigma Green Belt. Introduction , meaning of interpretation Group Member “Benchmark Six Sigma” , “Leaders Think Tank” on Linkedin. Techniques and precautions in interpretation and generalization. M.B.A. (Production And Operation Management). Report writing – purpose, steps and format of research report and B.Sc. (Electronics, Physics, Mathematics). final presentation of the research reportShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 1www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 3. Few Motivational words Train-ed To be a Leader “ I know you are going People are often like a Train, Some are like its Engine to make it ……….. Leading the train forward, It may take time Some are like bogies chugging along, following the leader and hard work While few others are likes the brakes, putting a stop to its motion You may become frustrated and Therefore the leader is like the Engine of this train at times you will feel A man who will lead with trust and honesty, like giving up with speed and also ensure that there are no accidents. Sometimes you may even wonder if it’s really worth it Narender Sharma But I have confidence in you Lead India MAILBOX, My Times, My Voice and I know you’ll make it, Times of India, New Delhi, If you try.” Aug24, 2007, p. 2 ……………..Ananda PierceShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 2www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 4. Santa’s Research Story on a Frog Mr. Santa has got a chance to become a researcher and he went to America and did a interesting research on a Frog. Here is the research story of the Santa Mr. Santa caught a Frog and put the Frog on a table and asked to the Frog, “Daddu, my son, jump!”Unit I : Introduction Meaning and nature of research. Significance of research in business Frog jumped about six feet. decision making. Then Mr. Santa cut one rear leg of the Frog and then put the Frog again on the table and asked to the Frog, “Daddu, my son, jump!” Identification and formulation of research Frog used the force of all three legs and jumped about three feet. Then Mr. Santa cut one more leg of the Frog , that was his right front leg. problems, Setting objectives and Now Mr. Santa put the Frog on the table and again asked the Frog , “Daddu, formulation of hypothesis. my son, jump!” Frog used the force of his two legs and jumped about one feet. Now Mr. Santa cut one more leg of the Frog , that was the second rear leg of the Frog. Then put the Frog again on the table and asked the Frog , “Daddu, my son, jump!” Frog somehow using the force of his remaining last leg and try to jump but managed to scrawl himself just about two inches. Now at last Mr. Santa cut the last leg of the Frog and put the Frog on the table and asked him again, “Daddu, my son, jump!” But this time the Frog even collecting the whole inner strength of his body failed to even scrawl himself. Now Mr. Santa find the result from his study and made a generalization thatShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 3www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 5. “ If all four Legs of the Frog are cut down then Frog stops listening.” Types of ResearchesThis was the research done by Mr. Santa. Descriptive vs AnalyticalBut Actually, What is Research? Descriptive research includes surveys and fact finding enquiries ofWhat is the significance of the research? different kind. The major purpose of descriptive research is descriptionHow the research progress? of the state of affairs as it exists at present.How do we identify and formulate the research problem? Analytical research on the other hand , the researcher has to use facts orAll these are discussed in this subject named as information already available , and analyze these to make a criticalResearch Methodology evaluation of the material.Meaning and Nature of Research Applied vs FundamentalWe all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problemconfronts us , we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain facing a society or an industrial/ business organization.full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the Fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalization and withmother of all knowledge and the method , which man employs for obtaining the formulation of theory.the knowledge of whatever the unknown , can be termed as research. Quantitative vs Qualitative Quantitative research is based in the measurement of quantity or Research is an art of scientific investigation. amount. Systematized effort to gain new knowledge –Redman and Morry Qualitative research , is concerned with qualitative involving quality or Research is movement of known to unknown. kind. For instance , when we are interested in investigating the reasons It is actually a voyage of discovery. for human behavior. Research comprises defining and redefining problems , formulating Conceptual vs Emperical hypothesis or suggested solutions ; collecting , organizing and evaluating Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea or theory. It is data; making deductions and reaching conclusions ; and at last carefully generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating to reinterpret existing ones. hypothesis. Empirical research relies on the experience or observation alone, often The manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of without due regard for system and theory. It is data based research, generalization to extend , correct or verify knowledge, whether that coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by knowledge, aids in construction of theory or in the practice of art.- D. observation or experiment. Slesinger and M. Stephenson Some Other types of ResearchesConclusion : Research as such terms refers to the systematic method One time or longitudinal researchconsisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the Laboratory or simulation researchfacts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the Clinical or diagnostic researchform of solutions towards the concerned problem or in certain generalizations Historical researchfor some theoretical formulation.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 4www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 6. Significance of Research in Business decisions making Research, thus, replaces intuitive business decisions by more logical and“ All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, scientific decisions.for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention.”- Hudson Maxim in Types of research problems.context of significance of research. There are two types if research problems, viz., Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the 1. Those which relate to states of nature. development of logical habits of thinking and organization. 2. Those which relate to relationships between variables. Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our Process of Identification and formulation of research economic system. problems. Decision- making may not be a part of research, but research certainly Single out the problem : At the very outset the researcher must single facilitates the decision of the policy maker. out the problem he wants to study, i.e., he must decide the general area of Research has its special significance in solving various operational and interest or aspect of a subject –matter that he would like to inquire into. planning problems of business and industry. Initially the problem may be stated in a broad general way and then the Market research is the investigation of the structure and development of ambiguities, if any, relating to the problem be resolved. a market for the purpose of formulating efficient policies for purchasing, Feasibility of a particular solution : The feasibility of a particular production and sales. solution has to be considered before a working formulation of the Operational research refers to the application of mathematical, logical problem can be set up. The formulation of a general topic into a specific and analytical techniques to the solution of business problems of cost research problem, viz., understanding the problem thoroughly, and minimization or of profit maximization or what can be termed as rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from an analytical point of optimization problems. view. Motivational research of determining why people behave as they do is Understanding the problem : The best way of understanding the mainly concerned with market characteristics. In other words, it is problem is to discuss it with one’s own colleagues or with those having concerned with the determination of motivations underlying the some expertise in the matter. In private business units or in consumer (market) behaviour. governmental organizations, the problem is usually earmarked by the Research with regard to demand and market factors has great utility in administrative agencies with whom the researcher can discusses as to business. Given knowledge of future demand, it is generally not difficult how the problem originally came about and what considerations are for a firm, or for an industry to adjust its supply schedule within the limit involved in its possible solutions. of its projected capacity. Study the available literature related to the problem : The researcher Market analysis has become an integral tool of business policy these days. must at the same time examine all available literature to get himself Business budgeting , which ultimately results in a projected profit and acquainted with the selected problem. He may review two types of loss account , is based mainly on sales estimates which in turn depends literature – the conceptual literature concerning the concepts and on business research. Once sales forecasting is done, efficient production theories, and the empirical literature consisting of studies made earlier and investment programmes can be set up around which are grouped the which are similar to the one proposed. The basic outcome of this review purchasing and financing plans. will be the knowledge as to what data and other materials are availableShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 5www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 7. for operational purposes which will enable the researcher to specify his Quite often a research hypothesis is a predictive statement, capable of being own research problem in a meaningful context. tested by scientific methods, that relates an independent variable to some Rephrases the problem into analytical or operational terms : After dependent variable. this the researcher rephrases the problem into analytical or operational For example consider the statements like the following ones: terms i.e., to put the problem in as specific terms as possible. “Students who receive counseling will show a greater increase in creativityThis task of formulating, or defining , a research problem is a step of greatest than students not receiving counseling”importance in the entire research process. The problem to be investigated Or “A girl and a boy lead their married life successfully if they allowed tomust be defined unambiguously for that will help discriminating relevant talk before their marriage for better understanding in comparison to thosedata from irrelevant ones. Care must, however, be taken to verify the who are not to be allowed to do so.”objectivity and validity of the background facts concerning the problem. In “The automobile A is performing as well as automobile B.”fact, formulation of the problem often follows a sequential pattern where a These are hypothesis capable of being objectively verified and tested. Thus,number of formulations are set up, each formulation more specific than the we may conclude that a hypothesis states what we are looking for and it is apreceding one, each one phrased in more analytical terms, and each more proposition which can be put to test to determine its validity.realistic in terms of the available data and resources. Basic concept of hypothesis testing Develop the hypothesis of population and make statistical decision bySetting of Objectives determining the acceptance of hypothesis using sample data. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights Null hypothesis (H0): Argument made so far, or hypothesis saying that there into it (Exploratory or Formulative research studies). is no change or difference To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, Alternative Hypothesis (H1): New argument, that is a hypothesis that you situation or a group (Descriptive research studies) want to prove with solid ground obtained from sample To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with Example : Medicine B for headache that is newly developed by a which it is associated with something else ( Diagnostic research pharmaceutical company has 30 minutes longer effects than existing studies) Medicine A. To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables H0 =Medicine A and B has same effect. (Hypothesis testing research studies) H1= Medicine B has 30 minutes longer effects than medicine A.Formulation of Hypothesis Example : The following is data on yield of old process and improved process.What is Hypothesis? Process B is improved process.Ordinarily, when one talks about hypothesis, one simply means a mere Process before improvementassumption or some supposition to be proved or disapproved. But for Process 89.7 81.4 84.5 84.8 87.3 79.7 85.1 81.7 83.7 84.5researcher hypothesis is a formal question that he intends to resolve. AThus a hypothesis may be defined as a proposition or a set of proposition set Process after improvementforth an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomenaeither asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide some investigation Process 84.7 86.1 83.2 91.9 86.3 79.3 82.6 89.1 83.7 88.5 Bor accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts. Is there real difference between Process A and Process B ?Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 6www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 8. Estimation of variance Two Errors in Hypothesis TestingVariance : Amount that shows degree of data spread. Small variation . Data is concentrated around mean. It is desirable Actual distribution. Testing Result Right decision Type II Error Large variation Data scattered around mean. Such process needs to be β improved. Type I Error Right decisionReal Question : αCan we say that the yield of improved Process B is greater than the oldProcess A? Type I Error : Error that you rejects null hypothesis although null Descriptive Statistics hypothesis is true. Variable Process N Mean Std. Dev. risk : Maximum Probability of committing type I Error Yield A 10 84.24 2.90 Type II Error : Error that you accept null hypothesis although null B 10 85.54 3.65 hypothesis is faultStatistical Question: risk : Probability of committing type II ErrorIs there a statistically significant difference between mean of ProcessB(85.54) and mean of Process A(84.24)? or , is this difference in mean justdue to time variation? Example: A TrialAssumption Statistical interpretation: Population mean of process A and Hypothesis Jury’s Decision process B is same. Testing He is not He is Guilty Practical Interpretation : There is no difference in yield between two Guilty processes. Actually Type I Error ( α- Risk) Innocent Correct Innocent Man goes TruthArgument to Prove to jail Statistical interpretation: Population mean of process A and Actually Type II Error process B is different. Guilty (β-Risk) Correct Practical Interpretation : Avg. yield of Process A and Avg. yield of Criminal Goes Free Process B are different.Objective : Determine whether the yield of improved Process B and the Using the following approach one can formulate the hypothesisyield of old Process A are different using sample. a) Discussion with colleagues and experts about the problem, its originTest Statistic and the objectives in seeking a solution;Statistic that is used as criteria for selecting null or alternative hypothesisNeed to set appropriate test statistic such as Z, t, F distribution if necessary.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 7www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 9. b) Examination of data and records, if available, concerning the problem Model For Identification and Formulation of Research for possible trends, peculiarities and other clues; c) Review of similar studies in the area or of the studies on the similar problems; and 1.Define Research d) Exploratory personal investigation which involves original field 2. Review Literature problem interviews on a limited scale with interested parties and individuals with a view to secure greater insight into the practical aspects of the problem.Thus , hypothesis arise as a result of a priori thinking about the subject,examination of available data and material including related studies and thecounsel of experts and interested parties. 4. Design Research 3. Formulate (including sample Hypothesis design) 6. Analysis Data 5. Collect Data (execution) ( Test Hypothesis if Any) 7. Interpret and ReportShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 8www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 10. Research Design : “A Research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.” “The research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted ; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection , measurement and analysis of data.” Research Design may split into the following parts: a) The sampling design which deals with the method of selecting items to be observed for the given study;Unit II : Research design and data collection b) The observational design which relates to the conditions under which observations are to be made; Research designs-exploratory, descriptive, c) The statistical design which concern with the question of how many items are to be observed and how the information and data gathered are to be diagnostic and experimental. analyzed; and Data collection: Universe, population, d) The operational design which deals with the techniques by which the procedures specified in the sampling, statistical and observational sampling and sampling designs. designs can be carried out. Data Collection tools-schedule, questionnaire, Important feature of research design as under interview and observation. (i) It is a plan that specifies the sources and types of information relevant to the research problem. (ii) It is a strategy specifying which approach will be used for gathering and analyzing the data. (iii) It includes the time and cost budgets since most studies are done under these two constraints. In brief , research design must , at least , contain – a) Clear statement of the research problem; b) Procedure and techniques to be used for gathering information; c) The population to be studied; d) Methods to be used in processing and analyzing data.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 9www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 11. Need for Research design 2. Extraneous variable : Independent variables that are not related to theI) Research Design is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of purpose of the study, but may affect the dependent variable are termed the various research operations , thereby making research as efficient as extraneous variable. as possible yielding maximal information with minimal expenditure 3. Control : The term ‘Control’ is used when we design the study minimizing of effort, time and money . the effects of extraneous independent variables.II) We need a research design of plan in advance of data collection and 4. Confounded Relationship: When the dependent variable is not free from analysis for our research project. the influence of extraneous variable, the relationship between theIII) Preparation of the research design should be done with great care as dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by any error in it may upset the entire project. Research design , in fact, extraneous variable. has a great bearing on the reliability of the results arrived at and as 5. Research Hypothesis: When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is such constitutes the firm foundation of the entire edifice of the to be tested by scientific methods, it is termed as research hypothesis. research work. 6. Experimental and non-experimental hypothesis-testing research:IV) The design helps the researcher to organize his ideas in a form Research in which the independent variable is manipulated is termed whereby it will be possible for him to look for flaws and ‘experimental hypothesis-testing research’ and a research in which an inadequacies. Such a design can even be given to others for their independent variable is not manipulated is called ‘non-experimental comments and critical evaluation. hypothesis-testing research’.V) In the absence of such a course of action , it will be difficult for the 7. Experimental and control groups: In an experimental hypothesis-testing critic to provide a comprehensive review of the proposed study. research when a group is exposed to usual conditions, it is termed a ‘control group’ , but when the group is exposed to some novel or specialFeature of Good Research Design condition , it is termed an ‘experimental group’.I) Flexible 8. Treatments: The different conditions under which experimental andII) Appropriate control groups are put are usually referred to as ‘treatments’.III) Efficient 9. Experiment: The process of examining the truth of a statisticalIV) Economical hypothesis, relating to some research problem, is known as anV) Minimises biasness, Maximises reliability of the data experiment.VI) Gives smallest experimental error and supposed to be the best design 10. Experimental unit(s): The pre-determined plots or the blocks, where in many investigation. different treatments are used , are known as experimental units. SuchVII) Yields maximal information and provides an opportunity for experimental units must be selected (defined) very carefully. considering many different aspects of a problem. Different Research DesignsImportant Concepts Relating to Research Design Research design in case of exploratory research studies1. Dependent and Independent variables: If one variable depends upon or is Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research consequence of the other variable , it is termed as dependent variable, studies and the variable that is antecedent to the dependent variable is termed as an independent variable. e.g. if we say that height depends upon age, Research design in case of Experimental studies then height is a dependent variable and age is an independent variable.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 10www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 12. Research design in case of exploratory research studies transition from one stage to another, the reactions of individuals from Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulative research different social strata and the like.studies. The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies:more precise investigation or of developing the working hypotheses from an Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned withoperational point of view. The major emphasis in such studies is on the describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group. Thediscovery of ideas and insights. studies concerned with specific predictions, with narration of facts andGenerally, the following three methods in the context of research design for characteristics concerning individual, group or situation all are examples ofsuch studies are talked about: descriptive research studies. Most of the social research comes under this category.a) The survey of concerning literature: It happens to be the most simple and Diagnostics research studies determine the frequency with which fruitful method of formulating precisely the research problem or something occurs or its association with something else. The studies developing hypothesis. Hypothesis stated by earlier workers may be concerning whether certain variables are associated are examples of reviewed and their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further diagnostic research studies. research. It may also be considered whether the already stated From the point of view of the research design, the descriptive as well as hypothesis suggest new hypothesis. In this way the researcher should diagnostic studies share common requirements and as such we may group review and build upon the work already done by others, but in cases together these two types of research studies. In descriptive as well as in where hypotheses have not yet been formulated , his task is to review the diagnostic studies, the researcher must be able to define clearly, what he available material for deriving the relevant hypothesis from it. wants to measure and find adequate methods for measuring it along with ab) Experience Survey : Experience survey means the survey of people who clear cut definition of ‘population’ he wants to study. Since the aim is to have had practical experience with the problem to be studied. The object obtain complete and accurate information in the said studies, the procedure of such a survey is to obtain insight into the relationships between to be used must be carefully planned. The research design must make variables and new ideas relating to the research problem. For such a enough provision for protection against bias and must maximize reliability, survey people who are competent and can contribute new ideas may be with due concern for the economical completion of the research study. The carefully selected as respondents to ensure a representation of different design in such studies must be rigid and not flexible and must focus attention types of experience. The respondents so selected may then be on the following : interviewed by the investigator. a) Formulating the objective of the study (what the study is about andAnalysis of Insight stimulating examples: It is also a fruitful method for why is it being made?)suggesting method consists of the intensive study of selected instances of the b) Designing the methods of data collection (what techniques ofphenomenon in which one is interested. For this purpose the existing gathering data will be adopted?)records, if any, may be examined, the unstructured interviewing may take c) Selecting the sample (how much material will be needed?)place , or some other approach may be adopted. One can mention few d) Collecting the data (where can the required data be found and withexamples of ‘insight- stimulating’ cases such as the reactions of strangers, the what time period should the data be related?)reactions of marginal individuals, the study of individuals who are in e) Processing and analyzing the data. f) Reporting the findings.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 11www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 13. The difference between research design in respect of the above two types of example , suppose we are to examine the effect of two varieties of rice. Forresearch studies can be conveniently summarized in tabular form as under: this purpose we may divide the field into two parts and grow one variety in one part and the other variety in the other part. We can then compare the Type of study yield of the two parts and draw conclusion on that basis. Research Design Exploratory or Descriptive or Diagnostic Rice of Variety ‘A’ Rice of Variety ‘B’ Formulative aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb Flexible design (design Rigid design (design must aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb must provide opportunity make enough provision aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb Overall design for considering different for protection against aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb aspects of the problem) bias and must maximize aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb reliability) i) Sampling Non –Probability Probability sampling But if we are to apply the principle of replication to this experiment, then we design sampling design design (random first divide the field into several parts, grow one variety in half of these parts (purposive or judgement sampling) and the other variety in the remaining parts. We can then collect the data of sampling ) yield of the two varieties and draw conclusion by comparing the same. The result so obtained will be more reliable in comparison to the conclusion we ii) Statistical No pre-planned design for Pre- planned design for draw without applying the principle of replication. design analysis analysis Rice of Variety ‘A’ Rice of Variety ‘B’ iii) Observational Unstructured instruments Structured or well design for collection of data thought instruments for aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb collection of data aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb iv) Operational No fixed decisions about Advanced decisions about aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb design the operational operational procedures. aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb procedures aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa aaaaaa bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbbbResearch design in case of Experimental studies The entire experiment can even be repeated several times for better results.Professor Fisher has enumerated three principles of experimental designs : Conceptually replication does not present any difficulty, but computationally it does. For example, if an experiment requiring a two –way analysis of I) The principle of replication variance is replicated, it will then require a three –way analysis of variance II) The principle of Randomization and since replication itself may be a source of variation in the data . However, it III) Principle of Local Control. should be remembered that replication is introduced in order to increase theThe principle of replication : The experiment should be repeated more than precision of a study; that is to say, to increase the accuracy with which theonce . Thus , each treatment is applied in many experimental units instead of main effects and interactions can be estimated.one. By doing so the statistical accuracy of the experiments is increased. ForShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 12www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 14. The principle of Randomization: This principle provide protection, when we Design of Survey Researchconduct an experiment, against the effect of extraneous factors byrandomization. In other words, this principle indicates that we should design Choose an Appropriate Mode of Responseor plan the experiment in such a way that the variations caused by  Reliable primary modesextraneous factors can all be combined under the general heading of“chance.” For instance, if we grow one variety of rice , say, in the first half of Personal interviewthe parts of a fields and the other variety is grown in the other half, then it is Telephone interviewjust possible that the soil fertility may be different in the first half in Mail surveycomparison to the other half. If this is so, our results would not be realistic. Insuch a situation, we may assign the variety of rice to be grown in different  Less reliable self-selection modes (not appropriate for makingparts of the field on the basis of some random sampling technique i.e. we may inferences about the population)apply randomization principle and protect ourselves against the effects of the Television surveyextraneous factors (soil fertility differences in the given case). As such, Internet surveythrough the application of the principle of randomization, we can have a Printed survey on newspapers and magazinesbetter estimate of the experimental error. Product or service questionnairesPrinciple of Local Control : It is another important principle of experimental  Identify Broad Categoriesdesigns. Under it the extraneous factor , the known source of variability, is List complete and non-overlapping categories that reflectmade to vary deliberately over as wide a range as necessary and this needs to the themebe done in such a way that the variability it causes can be measured andhence eliminated from the experimental error. This means that we should  Formulating Accurate Questionsplan the experiment in a manner that we can perform a two –way analysis of Clear and unambiguous questions use clear operationalvariance, in which the total variability of the data is divided into three definitions – universally accepted definitionscomponents attributed to treatments( varieties of rice in our case), theextraneous factor (soil fertility in our case ) and experimental error. In other  Testing the Surveywords, according to the principle of local control, we first divide the field into Pilot test on small group of participants to assess clarityseveral homogeneous parts, known as blocks, and then each such block is and lengthdivided into parts equal to the number of treatments. Then the treatments  Writing a Cover Letterare randomly assigned to these parts of a block. Dividing the field into severalhomogenous parts is known as ‘blocking’. In general , blocks are the levels at State the goal and purpose of the surveywhich we hold an extraneous factor fixed, so that we can measure itscontribution to the total variability of the data by means of a two –way Explain the importance of a responseanalysis of variance. In brief, through the principle of local control we can Provide assurance of respondent anonymityeliminate the variability due to extraneous factor(s) from the experimental Offer incentive gift for respondent participationerror.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 13www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 15. Data Collection: Universe, population, sampling and sampling Population/Universe: is the whole collection of things under considerationdesigns. Sample : is a portion of the population selected for analysisWhy We Need Data Parameter: is a summary measure computed to describe a characteristic of  To Provide Input to Survey the population  To Provide Input to Study Statistic : is a summary measure computed to describe a characteristic of the  To Measure Performance of Ongoing Service or Production Process sample  To Evaluate Conformance to Standards Population and Sample  To Assist in Formulating Alternative Courses of Action  To Satisfy Curiosity Population/Universe Sample Types of Data Use statistics to summarize Use parameter to features summarize features Data Reasons for Drawing a Sample Categorical Numerical  Less Time Consuming Than a Census (Qualitative) (Quantitative)  Less Costly to Administer Than a Census  Less Cumbersome and More Practical to Administer Than a Census of the Targeted Population Discrete ContinuousShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 14www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 16. Steps in sampling design Types of Sampling Methods 1.Type of Universe 2. Sampling unit Samples Non-Probability Probability Samples Samples (Convenience) 4. Size of Sample 3. Source list Simple Random Stratified Judgement Chunk Cluster Systematic Quota 5. Parameters of 6. Budgetary interest Constraints Probability Sampling  Subjects of the Sample are Chosen Based on Known Probabilities 7. Sampling Procedure Probability Samples Simple Systematic Stratified Cluster RandomShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 15www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 17. Simple Random Samples  Every Individual or Item from the Frame Has an Equal Chance of Stratified Samples Being Selected  Selection May be With Replacement or Without Replacement  Population Divided into 2 or more Groups according to Some Common Characteristic  One May Use Table of Random Numbers or Computer Random  Simple Random Sample Selected from Each Number Generators to Obtain Samples Group  The Two or More Samples are Combined into OneSystematic Samples  Decide on Sample Size: n  Divide Frame of N individuals into Groups of k Individuals: k=N/n  Randomly Select One Individual from the 1st Group Cluster Samples  Select Every k-th Individual thereafter  Population Divided into Several “Clusters,” Each n=8 Representative of the Population  A Random Sampling of Clusters is Taken k=8  All Items in the Selected Clusters are Studied Randomly Population selected 2 divided clusters. into 4 clusters.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 16www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 18. Advantages and Disadvantages  Simple Random Sample & Systematic Sample Types of Survey Errors  Simple to use  May not be a good representation of the population’s Excluded from underlying characteristics  Coverage Error frame.  Stratified Sample  Non response Error Follow up on  Ensures representation of individuals across the entire nonresponse. population  Sampling Error  Cluster Sample Chance differences from  More cost effective sample to sample.  Measurement Error  Less efficient (need larger sample to acquire the same level of precision) Bad Question!Evaluating Survey Worthiness  What Is the Purpose of the Survey? Data Collection tools-schedule, questionnaire,  Is the Survey Based on a Probability Sample? interview and observation.  Coverage Error – Appropriate Frame The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and research design/plan chalked out. While deciding about the method of  Non response Error – Follow up data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind  Measurement Error – Good Questions Elicit Good Responses two types of data viz., Primary and Secondary.  Sampling Error – Always Exists Primary data : are those which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character. Secondary data : on the other hand , are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 17www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 19. The methods of collecting primary and secondary data differ since primary Merits of observation Methoddata are to be originally collected , while in case of secondary data the nature 1. Subjective biasness is eliminated by using this method if observationof data collection work is merely that of compilation. is done accurately. 2. The information obtained under this method relates to what isWe below try to understand the tools of data collection with merits and currently happening; it is not complicated by either the past behaviordemerits of each tool. or future intentions or attitudes. 3. This method is independent of respondents’ willingness to respondObservation Method and as such is relatively less demanding of active cooperation on theUnder observation method, the information is sought by way of investigator’s part of respondents as happens to be the case in the interview or theown direct observation without asking from the respondent. For instance, in questionnaire method.a study relating to consumer behavior, the investigator instead of asking the 4. This method is particularly suitable in studies which deal withbrand of wrist watch used by the respondent, may himself look at the watch. subjects (i.e. respondents) who are not capable of giving verbal reports of their feeling for one reason or the other.Types of Observation Structured observation : In case the observation is characterized by a Demerits of observation Method careful definition of the units to be observed, the style of recording the 1. It is an expensive method. observed information , standardized conditions of observation and the 2. The information provided by this method is very limited. selection of pertinent data of observation, then the observation is called as structured observation. 3. Sometime unforeseen factors may interfere with the observational Unstructured observation : When observation is to take place without task. these characteristics to be thought of in advance, the same is termed as 4. Sometimes , some people are rarely accessible to direct observation unstructured observation. creates obstacle for this method to collect data effectively. Participant observation : If the observer observes by making himself, more or less, a member of the group he is observing so that he can Interview Method experience what the members of the group experience , the observation is called as the participant observation. The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral –verbal Non-Participant observation : When the observer is observing in such a stimuli and reply in terms of oral –verbal responses. This method can be used manner that his presence may be unknown to the people he is observing, through personal interviews and , if possible, through telephone interviews. such an observation is described as non – participation or disguised observation. Personal Uncontrolled observation: If the observation takes place in the natural Interview setting, it may be termed as uncontrolled observation. No attempt is Types of made to use precision instruments. Interview Controlled observation: When observation takes place according to Telephonic definite pre- arranged plans, involving experimental procedure, the same Interview is then termed controlled observation.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 18www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 20. Personal Interview beliefs and of the frame of reference within which such feelings andPersonal interview method requires a person known as the interviewer beliefs take on personal significance.asking questions generally in a face to face contact to the other person or Major Advantages of Personal interviewpersons.( At times the interviewee may also ask certain questions and the 1) More information and that too in greater depth can be obtained.interviewer responds to these, but usually the interviewer initiates then 2) Interviewer by his own skill can overcome the resistance, if any, of theinterview and collects the information.) respondents.Types of personal Interview 3) Greater flexibility.a) Structured Interview : Such interviews involve the use of a set of 4) Observation method can as well be applied to recording verbal answers predetermined questions and of highly standardized techniques of to various questions. recording . Thus, the interviewer in a structured interview follows a rigid 5) Personal information can as well be obtained easily under this method. procedure laid down, asking questions in a form and order prescribed. 6) Samples can be controlled more effectively as there arises no difficulty ofb) Unstructured Interview: are characterized by a flexibility of approach to the missing returns; non –response generally remains very low. questioning. Unstructured interviews do not follow a system of pre – 7) Group discussions may also be held. determined questions and standardized techniques of recording 8) The language of the interview can be adopted to the ability or educational information. In a non –structured interview, the interviewer is allowed level of the person interviewed. much greater freedom to ask, in case of need, supplementary questions 9) The interviewer can collect supplementary information about the or at times he may omit certain questions if the situation so requires. He respondent’s personal characteristics and environment which is often of may even change the sequence of questions. He has relatively greater great value in interpreting results. freedom while recording the responses to include some aspects and Weaknesses of Personal Interview exclude others. 1) It is very expensive method, especially when large and widely spreadc) Focused Interview: is meant to focus attention on the given experience of geographical sample is taken. the respondent and its effects. The main task of the interviewer in case of 2) There remains the possibility of the bias of interviewer as well as that of a focused interview is to confine the respondent to a discussion of issues the respondent; there also remains the headache of supervision and with which he seeks conversance. Such interviews are used generally in control of interviewers. the development of hypothesis and constitute a major type of 3) Certain types of respondents such as important officials or executives or unstructured interviews. people in high income groups may not be easily approachable under thisd) Clinical Interview: is concerned with broad underlying feelings or method and to that extent the data may prove inadequate. motivations or with the course of individual’s life experience. The method 4) This method is relatively more –time –consuming, especially when the of eliciting information under it is generally left to the interviewer‘s sample is large and recalls upon the respondents are necessary. discretion. 5) The presence of the interviewer on the spot may over stimulate thee) Non –directive Interview: In this case, the interviewer’s function is respondent, sometimes even to the extent that he may give imaginary simply to encourage the respondent to talk about the given topic with a information just to make the interview interesting. bare minimum of direct questioning. The interviewer often acts as a catalyst to a comprehensive expression of the respondents’ feelings andShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 19www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 21. 6) Under the interview method the organization required for selecting , Questionnaire Method training and supervising the field –staff is more complex with formidable This method of data collection is quite popular , particularly in case of big problems. enquiries. It is being adopted by private individuals , research workers ,7) Interviewing at times may also introduce systematic errors. private and public organizations and even by governments . In this method a8) Effective interview presupposes proper rapport with respondents that questionnaire is sent (usually by post) to the persons concerned with a would facilitate free and frank responses. This is often a very difficult request to answer the questions and return the questionnaire. A requirement. questionnaire consists of a number of questions printed or typed in a definiteTelephonic Interview order on a form or set or forms . The questionnaire is mailed to respondentsThis method of collecting information consists in containing respondents on who are expected to read and understand the questions and write down thetelephone itself. It is not a very widely used method, but plays important part reply in the space meant for the purpose in the questionnaire itself. Thein industrial surveys, particularly in developed regions. respondents have to answer the questions on their own.Chief merits of this method Three main aspects of a questionnaire1) More flexible than mailing method.2) Faster than other methods. 1. General form3) Cheaper than personal interviewing method 2. Question Sequence4) Recall is easy; callbacks are simple and economical. 3. Question formulation and wording5) There is a higher rate of response than what we have in mailing method; General form:6) Replies can be recorded without causing embarrassment to respondents. It can either be structured or unstructured questionnaire. Structured7) Interviewer can explain requirements more easily. questionnaire are those questionnaire in which there are definite, concrete8) At times, access can be gained to respondents who otherwise cannot be and pre –determined questions. The questions are presented with exactly the contacted for one reason or the other. same wording and in the same order to all respondents. Resorts is taken to9) No field staff is required. this sort of standardization to ensure that all respondents reply to the same10) Representative and wider distribution of sample is possible. set of questions. The form of the questions may be either closed (i.e. of theDrawbacks of this method type ‘yes’ or ‘no’ ) or open (i.e. inviting free response) but should be stated in1) Little time is given to respondents for considered answers; interview advance and not constructed during questioning. When these characteristics period is not likely to exceed five minutes in most cases. are not present in a questionnaire , it can be termed as unstructured2) Surveys are restricted to respondents who have telephone facilities. questionnaire. More specifically, we can say that in an unstructured3) Extensive geographical coverage may get restricted by cost questionnaire, the interviewer is provided with a general guide on the type of considerations. information to be obtained , but the exact question formulation is largely his4) It is not suitable for intensive surveys where comprehensive answers are own responsibility and the replies are to be taken down in the respondent’s required to various questions. own words to the extent possible; in some situations tape recorders may be5) Possibility of the bias of the interviewer is relatively more. used to achieve this goal.6) Questions have to be short and to the point ; probes are difficult to handle.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 20www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 22. Question Sequence Wording of the questions:The question –sequence must be clear and smoothly –moving , meaning Researcher must pay proper attention to the wordings of questions sincethereby that the relation of one question to another should be readily reliable and meaningful returns depend on it to a large extent.apparent to the respondent, questions that are easiest to answer being put in Since words are likely to affect responses, they should be properlythe beginning. The first few questions are particularly important because chosen.they are likely to influence the attitude of the respondent and in seeking his Simple words, which are familiar to all respondents should be employed.desired cooperation. The opening question should be such as to arouse Words with ambiguous meaning must be avoided.human interest. The following type of questions should generally be avoided Similarly, danger words, catch –words or words with emotionalas opening question in a questionnaire ; connotations should be avoided.1. Question that put too great a strain on the memory or intellect of the Caution must also be exercised in the use if phrases which reflects upon respondent; the prestige of the respondent.2. Question of a personal character; Question wording no case , should bias the answer. In fact, question3. Question related to personal wealth, etc. wording and formulation is an art and can only be learnt by practice.Question sequence should usually go from the general to the more specificand the researcher must always remember that the answer to a given Essentials of a good Questionnaire:question is a function not only of the question itself, but of all previous Size of the questionnaire should be kept to the minimum.questions as well. For instance, if one question deals with the price usuallypaid for coffee and the next with reason for preferring that particular brand, Questions should proceed in logical sequence moving from easy to morethe answer to this latter question may be couched largely in terms of price difficult questions.differences. Personal and intimate questions should be left to the end.Question formulation and wording: Technical terms and vague expressions capable of differentWith regard to this aspect of questionnaire, the researcher should note that interpretations should be avoided in a questionnaire.all questions should meet the following standards – Questions may be dichotomous (yes or no answers), multiple choicea) Should be easily understood (alternative answers listed) or open –ended. The latter type of questionsb) Should be simple i.e. should convey only one thought at a time; are often difficult to analyze and hence should be avoided in ac) Should be concrete and conform as much as possible to the respondent’s questionnaire to the extent possible. way of thinking ( for instance , instead of asking, “How many pens do you There should be some control questions into questionnaire which use annually?” The more realistic question would be to ask, “How many indicate the reliability of the respondent. pens did you use last week?”) Questions affecting the sentiments of respondents should be avoided.Concerning the form of questions, we can talk about two principal forms viz., Adequate space for answers should be provide in the questionnaire to Multiple choice questions: respondents selects one of the alternative help editing and tabulation. possible answers put to him. Finally, the physical appearance of the questionnaire affects the Open ended questions: Respondents supply the answer in his own words . cooperation the researcher receives from the recipient and as such anThe question with only two possible answers (usually ‘Yes’ or ‘No’) can be attractive looking questionnaire, particularly in mail surveys, is plustaken as a special case of the multiple choice question, or can be named as a point for enlisting cooperation.‘closed question’. The quality of paper, along with its color must be good so that it may attract the attention of recipients.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 21www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 23. “It is better to know some of the questions than all of the answer.” big organizations. Population census all over the world is conducted through this method. Session improve participants’ Difference Between Questionnaire and Schedules Ability to put a good Questions. From the technical point of view there is considerable difference between Ability of public speaking. the two. The important point of difference are as under: Ability To find out a root cause of a problem. 1. The questionnaire is generally sent through mail to informants to be Ability of Group discussion. answered as specified in a covering letter. The schedule is generally filled Ability to work as team member. out by the research worker or the enumerator.Collection of data through Schedules 2. To collect data through questionnaire is relatively cheap and economicalThis method of data collection is very much like the collection of data in comparison of schedules. Considerable amount of money has to be spent in appointing enumerator and in importing training to them.through questionnaire, with little difference which lies in the fact that Money is also spent in preparing schedules.schedules (proforma containing a set of questions) are being filled in by the 3. Non- response is usually high in case of questionnaire method. Bias dueenumerators who are specially appointed for the purpose. These to non-response often remains indeterminate. Non response is generallyenumerators along with schedules, go to respondents, put to them the very low in case of schedules. But there remains the danger ofquestions from the proforma in the order the questions are listed and record interviewer bias and cheating.the replies in the space meant for the same in the proforma. In certain 4. Identity of respondent is not clear in case of questionnaire.situations, schedules may be handed over to respondents and enumerators 5. Questionnaire method is likely to be very slow in comparison of schedules as they are filled in by enumerators.may help them in recording their answers to various questions in the said 6. Personal contact is not possible in case of questionnaire method. But inschedules. Enumerators explain the aims and objects of the investigation and case of schedules direct personal contact is established with respondents.also remove the difficulties which any respondent may feel in understanding 7. Questionnaire method can be used only when respondents are literatethe implications of a particular question of the definition or concept of and cooperative. But in case of schedules the information can be gathereddifficult terms. even when the respondents happen to be illiterate.This method requires the selection of enumerators for filling up schedules or 8. Wider and more representative distribution of sample is possible underassisting respondents to fill up schedules and as such enumerators should be the questionnaire method. But in respect of schedules there usually remains the difficulty in sending enumerators over a relatively wide area.very carefully selected. The enumerators should be trained to perform their 9. The information collected through schedules is relatively more accuratejob well and the nature and scope of the investigation should be explained to than that obtained through questionnaires, as enumerators can removethem thoroughly so that they may well understand the implications of the difficulties, if any, faced by respondents and help in correctlydifferent questions put in schedule . Enumerators should be intelligent and understanding the questions.must possess the capacity of cross examination in order to find out the truth. 10. The success of questionnaire method lies more on the quality of theAbove all, they should be honest, sincere , hardworking and should have questionnaire itself, but in the case of schedules much depends upon the honesty and competence of enumerators.patience and perseverance. 11. In order to attract the attention of respondents, the physical appearanceThis method of data collection is very useful in extensive enquiries and can of questionnaire must be quite attractive, but this may not be so in case oflead to fairly reliable results, It is , however, very expensive and is usually schedules as they are to be filled in by enumerators and not byadopted in investigations conducted by governmental agencies of by some respondents. 12. Along with schedules, observation method can also be used but such a thing is not possible while collecting data through questionnaires.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 22www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 24. Technically speaking ,(measurement is a process of mapping aspects of a domain onto other aspects of a range according to some rule of correspondence . In measuring, we devise some form of scale in the range (in terms of set theory ,range may refer to some set) and then transform or ,map the properties of objects from the domain (in terms of set theory , domain may refer to some other set)onto this scale. For example , in case we are to find the male to female attendance ratio while conducting a study of personsUnit III : Scaling Techniques who attend some show , then we may tabulate those who come to the show according to sex. In terms of set theory, this process is one of mapping the observed physical properties of those coming to the show (the domain) on to Need for scaling, problems of a sex classification (the range ).The rule of correspondence is: if the object in the domain appears to be male m assign to “0”and if female assign to “1”. scaling, reliability and validity of Similarly , we record a person’s marital status as 1, 2, 3 or 4, depending on whether the person is single, married , widowed or divorced. scales. Scaling : Scale construction techniques- Scaling describes the procedure of assigning numbers to various degrees of opinion, attitude and other concepts this can be done in two ways Arbitrary approach, consensus i) Making a judgment about some characteristics of an individual and then placing him directly on a scale that has been defined in terms of that characteristics scale approach ( Thurston), Item ii) Constructing questionnaires in such a way that the score of individual’s response assigns him place on a scale. analysis approach (Likert) and Or Scaling is defined as “procedure for the assignment of numbers ( or that cumulative scales ( Gut man’s other symbols ) to a property of objects in order to impart some of the characteristics of numbers to the properties in question” Scalogram)Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 23www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 25. Measurement Scales 2. Ordinal ScaleThe most widely used classification of measurement scales are The ordinal scale places event in order, but there is no attempt to make the intervals of the scale equal in terms of rule. Ordinal scales only permit the ranking of items from highest to lowest median is used for measure. For instance , if Ram’s position in his class is 10 and Mohan’s position is 40, it cannot be said that Ram’s position is four times as good as that of Mohan. The 1.Nominal Scale statement would make no sense at all. The use of an ordinal scale implies a statement of ‘greater than’ or ‘less than’ (an equality statement is also acceptable ) without our being able to state how much greater or less. The real difference between ranks 1 and 2 may be more or less than the difference between ranks 5 and 6. Since the numbers of this scale have only a 4.Ratio Measurement 2.Ordinal Scale rank meaning , the appropriate measure of central tendency is the median. Scale Scale 3. Interval Scale The intervals are adjusted in terms of some rule that has been established as a basis for making the units equal. The units are equal only in so far as one 3.Interval accepts the assumptions on which the rule is based. Interval scale can have Scale an arbitrary zero, but it is not possible to determine for them what may be called an absolute zero or the unique origin. The primary limitation of the interval scale is the lack of true Zero ; it does not have the capacity to measure the complete absence of a trait or characteristic. The Fahrenheit1. Nominal Scale: scale is an example of an interval scale and shows similarities in what oneNominal scale is simply a system of assigning number symbols to events in can and cannot do with it. One can say that an increase in temperature fromorder to label them. The usual example of this is the assignment of numbersof basketball players in order to identify them . Nominal scales provide 300 to 400 involves the same increase in temperature as an increase from 600convenient ways of keeping track of people, objects and events. One cannot to 700 but one cannot say that the temperature of 600 is twice as warm as thedo much with the numbers involved . Nominal scale is the least powerful temperature of 300 because both numbers are dependent on the fact that thelevel of measurement . It indicates no order or distance relationship and has zero on the scale is set arbitrary at the temperature of the freezing point ofno arithmetic origin. A nominal scale simply describes differences between water. The ratio of the two temperature , 300 and 600, means nothing becausethings by assigning them to categories. The counting of numbers of in each zero is an arbitrary point.group is the only possible arithmetic operation when a nominal scale isemployed. Accordingly, we are restricted to use mode as the measure of Interval scales provides more powerful measurement than ordinal scales forcentral tendency. interval scale also incorporates the concept of equality of interval. As such more powerful statistical measures can be used with interval scales. Mean is the appropriate measure of central tendency, while standard deviation is the most widely used measure of dispersion.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 24www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 26. 4. Ratio Scale Scale Classification BasesRatio scales have an absolute or true zero of measurement. The term The number assigning procedure or the scaling procedures may be broadly‘absolute zero’ is not as precise as it was once believed to be. We can conceive classified on one or more of the following bases :of an absolute zero of length and similarly we can conceive of an absolutezero of time. For example, the zero point on a centimeter scales indicates the •Under it a scale may be designed to measurecomplete absence of length or height. But an absolute zero of temperature is characteristics of the respondent who completes it ortheoretically unobtainable and it remains a concept existing only in the to judge the stimulus object which is presented to thescientist’s mind. With ratio scales involved does have significance and respondentfacilities a kind of comparison which is not possible in case of an intervalscale.Ratio scale represents the actual amounts of variables. Measures of physicaldimensions such as weight, height, distance, etc. are examples. Generally , all •Under this we may classify the scales as categorical(ratingstatistical techniques are usable with ratio scales and all manipulations that scales) and comparative (ranking scales)one can carry out with real numbers can be carried out with ratio scalevalues.Multiplication and division can be used with this scale but not with otherscales mentioned above. Geometric and harmonic means can be used as •With this bases the scale data may be based on whether wemeasures of central tendency and coefficients of variation may be calculated. measure subjective personal preferences or simply make non - preference judgements.Table : Measurement Scale Type of Characteristics of data Basic Empirical Example Scale Operation •One may classify the scale as nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales. Nominal Classification (mutually Determination Gender exclusive and collectively of equality (Male, exhaustive categories ), but no Female ) order, distance, or natural origin •Classified as unidimensional ( measure one dimension of an Ordinal Classification and order, but no Determination More attribute) and multidimensional (measure n dimensions of an distance or natural origin of greater or than or attribute. lesser values less than medium Interval Classification , order, and Determination Temperat distance , but no natural origin of equality of -ure in intervals or degrees •Arbitrary approach , consensus approach , item analysis differences approach, cummulative scales , factor scales Ratio Classification , order , distance, Determination Age in yrs and natural origin of equality of ratiosShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 25www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 27. Significance of Scaling the respondent feels that anonymity is not assured , he may be reluctant1. Scaling is used for Measuring the attributes like beauty, intelligence, to express certain feelings. smartness , likeness, intension etc. as the attributes do not have specific C) Measurer: The interviewer can distort responses by rewording or units like cm, kg , pounds etc. one cannot say that a girl is 10kg beautiful. reordering questions. His behavior, style and looks may encourage or2. Scaling is used for making order in a group. discourage certain replies from respondents. Careless mechanical3. Scaling is used for make comparisons between two attributes. processing may distort the findings. Errors may also creep in because of4. Scaling is used to judge the agreement of the respondents. incorrect coding , faulty tabulation and/ or calculations, particularly in5. Without scaling the responses of the respondents cannot go under the the data – analysis stage statistical techniques, like mean , median, std. dev. etc. D) Instrument : Error may arise because of the defective measuring6. In a beauty contest the judges assign the rank to the contestants for their instrument. The use of complex words, beyond the comprehension of the different attributes like beautiful hair , charming face , beautiful eyes etc. respondent, ambiguous meanings , poor printing, inadequate space for and through rank correlation judgment of judges are compared. replies , response choice omissions, etc, are a few things that make the7. For a beautiful girl, perception of 10 different persons are different and measuring instrument defective and may result in measurement errors. similarly perception of a boy for 10 different beautiful girl is different , Another type of instrument deficiency is the poor sampling of the this difference can be judge by the scaling techniques, and also the universe of items of concern. statistical treatment can done on the basis of this.8. Intension of purchasing of the consumer for a particular product can be A judge by the scaling techniques. RespondentProblems of ScalingMeasurement should be precise and unambiguous in an ideal research study.This objective, however is often not met with in entirely. As such the D Problems Bresearcher must be aware about the source of error is measurement. The Instrument of Scaling Situationfollowing are the possible sources of error in measurement.A) Respondent : At times the respondent may be reluctant to express strong negative feelings or it is just possible that he may have very little C knowledge but may not admit his ignorance. All this reluctance is likely to Measurer result in an interview of ‘guesses’. Transient factors like fatigue , boredom, anxiety , etc. may limit the ability of the respondent to respond accurately and fully.B) Situation : Situation factors may also come in the way of correct measurement. Any condition which places a strain on interview can have serious effects on the interviewer –respondent rapport. For instance, ifShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 26www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 28. The Characteristics of good measurement i.e. The reliability What are the characteristics of a good measurement tool? An intuitive answer to this question is that the tool should be an accurate counter orvalidity and practicality of Scales indicator of what we are interested in measuring. In addition, it should be easy and efficient to use. There are three major criteria for evaluation a Content Relevance measurement tool : Validity , Reliability and Practicality. Validity Validity is the extent to which a test measures what we actually wish to measure. Criterion- Freedom Validity Reliability has to do with the accuracy and precision of a Related Validity from bias measurement procedure. Construct Practicality is concerned with a wide range of factors of economy, Reliability Validity convenience, and interpretability. Validity of Scale Availability Validity is the most critical criterion and indicates the degree to which an Stability instrument measures what it is supposed to measure. Validity can also be thought of as utility. In other words, validity is the extent to which Charateristics of Reliability Equivalence differences found with a measuring instrument reflect true differences Good measurement among those being tested. But the question arises ; how can one determine Internal validity without direct confirming knowledge? The answer may be that we consistancy seek other relevant evidence that confirms the answers we have found with our measuring tool. What is relevant, evidence often depends upon the nature of the research problem and the judgement of the researcher. But one Economy can certainly consider three types of validity in this connection : I) Content Validity Convenience II) Criterion – related Validity and Practicality III) Construct Validity Interpretability I) Content Validity : is the extent to which a measuring instrument provides adequate coverage of the topic under study. If the instrument contains a representative sample of the universe , the content validity is good. Its determination is primarily judgemental and intuitive . It can also be determined by using a panel of persons who shall judge how well the measuring instrument meets the standards, but there is no numerical way to express it .Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 27www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 29. II) Criterion –related validity relates to our ability to predict some Reliability of Scaleoutcome or estimate the existence of some current condition. This form of Reliability is another important test of sound measurement. A measuringvalidity reflects the success of measures used for some empirical estimating instrument is reliable if it provides consistent results. Reliable measuringpurpose. instrument does contribute to validity, but a reliable instrument need not beThe concerned criterion must possess the following qualities ; a valid instrument . For instance, a scale that consistently overweighs objects by five kgs., is a reliable scale , but it does not give a valid measure of weight.Relevance : (A criterion is relevant if it is defined in terms we judge to be the But the other way is not true i.e., a valid instrument is always reliable.proper measure.) Accordingly reliability is not as valuable as validity, but it is easier to assessFreedom from bias : (Freedom from bias is attained when the criterion gives reliability in comparison to validity. If the quality of reliability is satisfied byeach subject an equal opportunity to score well.) an instrument, then while using it we can be confident that the transient andReliability: ( A reliable criterion is stable or reproducible.) situation factors are not interfering.Availability : ( The information specified by the criterion must be available.) Aspects of reliability Three aspects of reliability are Stability, Equivalence and InternalIn fact, a criterion –related validity is a broad term that actually refers to Consistency.(i) Predictive Validity and (ii) Concurrent validity. The former refers to the Stability aspect is concerned with securing consistent result with repeatedusefulness of a test in predicting some future performance whereas the latter measurement of the same person and with the same instrument. We usuallyrefers to the usefulness of a test in closely relating to other measures of determine the degree of stability by comparing the results of repeatedknown validity . Criterion –related validity is expressed as the coefficient of measurements . Equivalence aspect considers how much error may get introduced bycorrelation between test scores and some measure of future performance or different investigators or different samples of the items being studied. A goodbetween test scores and scores on another measure of known validity. way to test for the equivalence of measurements by two investigators is toIII) Construct Validity : is the most complex and abstract. A measure is compare their observations of the same events.said to posses construct validity to the degree that it confirms to predicted Internal Consistency is the third aspect of reliability uses only one administration of an instrument or test to assess the internal consistency orcorrelations with other theoretical propositions. Construct validity is the homogeneity among the items. The split –half technique can be used whendegree to which scores on a test can be accounted for by the explanatory the measuring tool has many similar questions or statements to which theconstructs of a sound theory. For determining construct validity, we participant can respond. The instrument is administered and the results areassociate a set of other proposition scale correlate in a predicted way with separated by item into even and odd numbers or into randomly selectedthese other propositions, we can conclude that there is some construct halves. When the two halves are correlated , if the results of the correlationvalidity. are high , the instrument is said to have high reliability in an internal If the above stated criteria and tests are met with, we may state that consistency sense. The high correlation tells us there is similarity (or homogeneity) among the items.our measuring instrument is valid and will result in correct measurement ;otherwise we shall have to look for more information and /or resort to Reliability can be improved in the following two waysexercise of judgement. i) By standardizing the conditions under which the measurement takes place i.e. we must ensure that external sources of variation such as boredom, fatigue , etc., are minimized to the extent possible.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 28www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 30. ii) By carefully designed directions for measurement with no variation interest of limiting the interview or observation time, we have to take only from group to group, by using trained and motivated persons to few items for our study purpose. Similarly, data –collection methods to be conduct the research and also by broadening the sample of items used are also dependent at times upon economic factors. used. Convenience test suggests that the measuring instrument should be easy toAn archer’s bow and target as an analogy for understanding administer. For this purpose one should give due attention to the properthe Validity and Reliability. layout of the measuring instrument. For instance , a questionnaire, with clear Understanding instructions (illustration by examples ), is certainly more effective and easier Validity to complete than one which lacks these features. Validity and High Low Interpretability consideration is specially important when persons other Reliability than the designer of the test are to interpret the results. The measuring instrument, in order to be interpretable, must be supplemented by (a) detailed instructions for administering the test; (b) Scoring keys ; (c) evidence about the reliability and (d) guides for using the test and for High interpreting results. Reliability Scale construction techniques In social science studies, while measuring attitudes of the people we generally follow the technique of preparing the opinionnaire/or attitude scale (An information form that attempts to measure the attitude or belief of an Low individual is known as opinionnaire.) in such a way that the score of the individual responses assigns him a place on a scale . Under this approach , the respondent expresses his agreement or disagreement with a number of statements relevant to the issue. While developing such statements, the researcher must note the following two points;Practicality of ScaleThe practicality characteristic of a measuring instrument can be judged in I) That the statements must elicit responses which are psychologicallyterms of economy, convenience and interpretability. From the operational related to the attitude being measured ;point of view , the measuring instrument ought to be practical i.e. It should be II) That the statements need be such that they discriminate not merelyeconomical, convenient and interpretable. between extremes of attitude but also among individuals who differ slightly.Economy consideration suggests that some trade-off is needed between theideal research project and that which the budget can afford. The length of Researchers must as well be aware that inferring attitude from what hasmeasuring is and important area where economic pressures are quickly felt. been recorded in opinionnaire has several limitations . People may concealAlthough more items give greater reliability as stated earlier, but in the their attitudes and express socially acceptable opinions. They may not really know how they feel about a social issue. People may be unaware of theirShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 29www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 31. attitude about an abstract situation ; until confronted with a real situation, Merit of the scalethey may be unable to predict their reaction. Even behavior itself is at times They can be developed very easily, quickly and with relatively lessnot a true indication of attitude. For instance, when politicians kiss babies, expense.their behavior may not be a true expression of affection toward infants. Thus, They can also be designed to be highly specific and adequate. Because ofthere is no sure method of measuring attitude; we only try to measure the these benefits, such scales are widely used in practice.expressed opinion and then draw inferences from it about people’s real Limitationsfeelings or attitudes. We don’t have objective evidence that such scales measure the conceptsWith all these limitations in mind , psychologists and sociologists have for which they have been developed.developed several scale construction techniques for the purpose. The We have simply to rely on researcher’s insight and competence.researcher should know these techniques so as to develop an appropriatescale for his own study. Consensus Scales approach (Differential /Thurston –TypeSome of the important approaches, along with the corresponding scales Scale)developed under each approach to measure attitude are as follows: The name of L.L. Thurstone is associated with differential scales which have been developed using consensus scale approach. Under such an approach theDifferent Scales for Measuring Attitudes of People selection of items is made by a panel of judges who evaluate the items in S.No. Name of the Scale Name of the Scale Developed terms of whether they are relevant to the topic area and unambiguous in construction Approach implication. The detailed procedure is as under ; 1. Arbitrary Approach Arbitrary Scales a) The researcher gathers large number of statements, usually twenty or more , that express various points of view toward a group, institution, 2. Consensus Scale approach Differential scales ( such as idea, or practice (i.e. statements belonging to the topic area.) Thurstone differential scale) b) These statements are then submitted to a panel of judges, each of whom arranges them in eleven groups or piles ranging from one extreme to 3. Item analysis approach Summated scales ( Such as another in position. Each of the judges is requested to place generally in Likert scale) the first pile the statements which he thinks are most unfavourable to the 4. Cumulative Scale approach Cumulative scales (such as issue, in the second pile to place those statements which he thinks are Guttman’s Scalogram) next most unfavourable and he goes on doing so in this manner till in the eleventh pile he puts the statements which he considers to be the mostArbitrary Scales favourable. Arbitrary scales are developed in ad hoc basis and are designed c) This sorting by each judge yields a composite position for each of the largely through the researcher’s own subjective selection of items. items. In case of marked disagreement between the judges in assigning a The researcher first collects few statements or items which he position to an item, that item is discarded. believes are unambiguous and appropriate to a given topic. d) For items that are retained , each is given its median scale value between Some of these are selected for inclusion in the measuring instrument one and eleven as established by the panel. In other words , the scale and then people are asked check in a list the statements with which value of any one statement is computed as the ‘median’ position to which they agree. it is assigned by the group of judges.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 30www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 32. e) A final selection is made. For this purpose a sample of statements, whose Item analysis approach ( Summated Scales or Likert –type median scores are spread evenly from one extreme to the other is taken. Scales) The statements so selected, constitute the final scale to be administered Summated scales (or likert –type scales )are developed by utilizing the item to respondents. The position of each statement on the scale is the same as analysis approach wherein a particular item is evaluated on the basis of how determined by the judges well it discriminates between those persons whose total score is high andAfter developing the scale as stated above, the respondents are asked during those whose score is low. Those items or statements that best meet this sortthe administration of the scale to check the statements with which they of discrimination test are included in the final instrument.agree. The median value of the statements that they check is worked out andthis establishes their score or quantifies their opinion. It may be noted that in Thus, summated scales consist of a number of statements which expressthe actual instrument the statements are arranged in order of scale value. If either a favourable or unfavourable attitude towards the given object tothe values are valid and if the opinionnaire deals with only one attitude which the respondent is asked to react. The respondent indicates hisdimension, the typical respondent will choose one or several contiguous agreement or disagreement with each statement in the instrument. Eachitems (in terms of scale values ) to reflect his views. However, at times response is given a numerical score, indicating its favourableness ordivergence may occur when a statement appears to tap a different attitude unfavourableness, and the scores are totaled to measure the respondent’sdimension. attitude. In other words , the overall score represents the respondent’sMerits of The Scale position on the continuum of favourable –unfavourableness towards an The thurstone method has been developed widely used for developing issue. differential scales which are utilized to measured attitudes towards varied issues like, war, religion, etc. Such scales are considered most Procedure for developing a likert –type scale is as follows appropriate and reliable when used for measuring a single attitude. 1. As a first step, the researcher collects a large number of statements whichDemerits of Scale are relevant to the attitude being studied and each of the statements Heavy cost and effort required to develop them. expresses definite favourableness or unfavourableness to a particular point of view or the attitude and that the number of favourable and Values assigned to various statements by the judges may reflect their unfavourable statements is approximately equal. own attitudes. 2. After the statement have been gathered, a trial test should be The method is not completely objective; it involves ultimately subjective administered to a number of subjects. In other words, a small group of decision process. people, from those who are going to be studied finally, are asked to Critics of this method also opine that some other scale designs give more indicate their response to each statement by checking one of the information about the respondent’s attitude in comparison to differential categories of agreement or disagreement using a five point scale as stated scales. above. 3. The response to various statements are scored in such a way that a response indicative of the most favourable attitude is given the highest score of 5 and that with the most unfavourable attitude is given the lowest score, say, of 1. We may illustrate as under:Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 31www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 33. Feedback Form Motivation Training Programme (5) (4) (3) (2) (1) Dated:……………………….Venue………………………………………………………………… Respondent’s Name:…………………………………………Contact ………………………. Strongly Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly agree disagree Email:…………………………………………………………………………………………………… Organization……………………………………………Designation:………………………….. “Rating Scale”4. Then the total score of each respondent is obtained by adding his scores Strongly Strongly that he received for separate statements. Agree=4 Undecided=3 Disagree=2 Agree=5 disagree=15. The next step is to array these total scores and find out those statements which have a high discriminatory power. For this purpose, the researcher S.No. Question Score may select some part of the highest and the lowest total scores, say the top 25 percent and the bottom 25 percent. These two extreme groups are 1 Trainer’s Programme objectives were clear interpreted to represent the most favourable and the least favourable Trainer time management skills are effective and attitudes and are used as criterion groups by which to evaluate individual 2 efficient statements. This way we determine which statements consistently correlate with low favourablility and which with high favourability. 3 Trainer encourages group discussion activity6. Only those statements that correlate with the total test be retained in the final instrument and all other must be discarded from it. 4 Trainer shows enthusiasm during the trainingExample of Likert – type Scale 5 Trainer is very effective in presenting the materialAttitude of the participants during a Motivation training programme can be 6 Examples and activities are remarkablecalculate by likert scale as shown below in a feedback form Boredom was not enter at any point in the 7 programme This programme helped me to become a critical 8 thinker 9 This programme challenged me intellectually I recommend this programme in my organization or 10 in other institution TotalShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 32www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 34. Merits of the Likert –Scale There remains a possibility that people may answer according to what It is relatively easy to construct the Likert –type scale in comparison to they think they should feel rather than how they do feel. This particular Thurston –type scale because Likert –type scale can be performed weakness of the Likert –type scale is met by using a cumulative scale without a panel of judges. which we shall discuss next. Likert –type scale is considered more reliable because under it In spite of all the limitations, the Likert –type summated scales are regarded respondents answer each statement included in the instrument. As such as the most useful in a situation wherein it is possible to compare the it also provides more information and data than does the Thurston – type respondent’s score with a distribution of scores from some well defined scale. group. They are equally useful when we are concerned with a programme of Each statement, included in the Likert –type scale, is given an empirical change or improvement in which case we can use the scales to measure test for discriminating ability and as such, unlike Thurstone –type scale, attitudes before and after the programme of change or improvement in order the Likert –type scale permits the use of statements that are not to assess whether our efforts have had the desired effects. We can as well manifestly related (to have a direct relationship) to the attitude being correlate scores on the scale to other measures without any concern for the studied. absolute value of what is favourable and what is unfavourable. All this Likert –type scale can easily be used in respondent –central and stimulus account for the popularity of Likert –type scales in social studies relating to –centred studies i.e. through it we can study how responses differ measuring of attitudes. between people and how responses differ between stimuli. Cumulative scales (such as Guttman’s Scalogram) Likert –type scale takes much less time to construct, it is frequently used Cumulative scales or Louis Guttman’s scalogram analysis , Like other scales, by the students of opinion research. Moreover, it has reported in various consist of series of statements to which a respondent expresses his research studies that there is high degree of correlation between Likert – agreement or disagreement. The special feature of this type of scale is that type scale and Thurstone –type scale. statements in it form a cumulative series. This, in other words, means thatDemerits of the Likert –Scale the statements are related to one another in such a way that an individual, With this scale, we can simply examine whether respondents are more or who replies favourably to say item No.3, also replies favourably to items No. less favourable to a topic, but we cannot tell how much more or less they 2 and 1, and one who replies favourably to item No. 4 also replies favourably are. to items No.3, 2, and 1, and so on. This being so an individual whose attitude There is no basis for belief that the five positions indicated on the scale is at a certain point in a cumulative scale will answer favourably all the items are equally spaced. The interval between ‘strongly agree’ and ‘agree’, may on one side of this point, and answer unfavourably all the items on the other not be equal to the interval between “agree” and “undecided”. This means side of this point. The individual’s score is worked out by counting the that Likert –scale does not rise to a stature more than that of an ordinal number of points concerning the number of statements he answers scale, whereas the designers of Thurstone scale claim the Thurstone scale favourably. If one knows this total score, one can estimate as to how a to be an interval scale. respondent has answered individual statements constituting cumulative Total score of an individual respondent has little clear meaning since a scales. The major scale of this type of cumulative scales is the Guttman’s given total score can be secured by a variety of answers patterns. It is scalogram. Brief description is given below unlikely that the respondent can validly react to a short statement on a printed form in the absence of real –life qualifying situations.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 33www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 35. Table : Ideal Scalogram Response Pattern stages. The scalogram is used much less often today, but retains potential for specific applications. Item Participant Merits of The Cumulative Scale Score It assures that only a single dimension of attitude is being measured. 2 4 1 3 Researcher’s subjective judgement is not allowed to creep in the × × × × 4 development of scale since the scale is determined by the replies of respondents. 0 × × × 3 We require only a small number of items that make such a scale easy to 0 0 × × 2 administer. 0 0 0 × 1 Scalogram analysis can appropriately be used for personal, telephone or mail surveys. 0 0 0 0 0 De merits of The Cumulative Scale × = Agree, 0 = Disagree The main difficulty in using this scaling technique is that in practice perfect cumulative or unidimensional scales are very rarely found and weAssume we are surveying opinions regarding a new style of running shoe. We have only to use its approximation testing it through coefficient ofhave developed a preference scale of four items; reproducibility or examining it on the basis of some other criteria. 1. The Airsole is good – looking . This method is not a frequently used method for the simple reason that 2. I will insist on Airsole next time because it is great – looking . its development procedure is tedious and complex. 3. The appearance of Airsole is acceptable to me. Such scales hardly constitute a reliable basis for assessing attitudes of 4. I prefer the Airsole style to other styles. persons towards complex objects for predicting the behaviouralParticipants indicate whether they agree or disagree. If these items form a responses of individuals towards such objects.uni–dimensional scale, the response patterns will approach the ideal Conceptually, this analysis is a bit more difficult in comparison to otherconfiguration shown in the table above. Item 2 is the most extreme position scaling methods.of the four attitude statements. A participant who agrees with item 2 willagree with four items. The items are ordered in the scalogram left to rightfrom most to least extreme. If each agreement renders a score of 1, a score of4 indicates all statements are agreed upon and represents the most favorableattitude. Persons with a score of 3 should disagree with item 2 but agree withall others, and so on. According to scalogram theory, this pattern confirmsthat the universe of content (attitude toward the appearance of this runningshoe) is scalable.The scalogram and similar procedure for discovering underlying structureare useful for assessing attitudes and behaviors that are highly structured,such as social distance, organizational hierarchies and evolutionary productShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 34www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 36. After collecting and analyzing the data, the researcher has to accomplish the task of drawing inferences followed by report writing. This has to be done very carefully, otherwise misleading conclusions may be drawn and the whole purpose of doing research may get vitiated. It is only throughUnit IV: Interpretation and interpretation that the researcher can expose relations and processes that underlie his findings. In case of hypotheses testing studies, if hypotheses areReport writing tested and upheld several times, the researcher may arrive at generalizations. But in case the researcher had no hypothesis to start with, he Introduction, meaning of would try to explain his findings on the basis of some theory. This may at times result in new questions , leading to further researches. All this interpretation analytical information and consequential and inference(s) may well be communicated, preferably through research report, to the consumers of research results who may be either an individual or a group of individuals or Techniques and precautions in some public/private organization. interpretation and generalization. Meaning of Interpretation Interpretation refers to the task of drawing inferences from the collected Report writing–purpose, steps and facts after an analytical and/or experimental study. In fact, it is a search for broader meaning of research findings. format of research report and final The task of interpretation has two major aspects viz., (i) the effort to establish continuity in research through linking the results of a given presentation of the research study with those of another, and (ii) the establishment of some explanatory concepts. report. “In one sense, interpretation is concerned with relationships within the collected data , partially overlapping analysis. Interpretation also extends beyond the data of the study to include the results of other research, theory and hypotheses .” Thus interpretation is the device through which the factors that seem to explain what has been observed by researcher in the course of the study can be better understand and it also provides a theoretical conception which can serve as a guide for further researches.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 35www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 37. Need for Interpretation It is advisable, before embarking upon final interpretation, to consult someone having insight into the study and who is frank and honest and It is through interpretation that the researcher can well understand the will not hesitate to point out omissions and errors in logical abstract principle that works beneath his findings. Through this he can argumentation. Such a consultation will result in correct interpretation link up his findings with those of other studies, having the same abstracts and, will enhance the utility of research results. principle, and thereby can predict about the concrete world of events. Researcher must accomplish the task of interpretation only after Fresh inquiries can test these predictions later on. this way the continuity considering all relevant factors affecting the problem to avoid false in research can be maintained. generalization. He must be in no hurry while interpreting results, for Interpretation leads to the establishment of explanatory concepts that quite often the conclusion, which appear to be all right at the beginning, may not at all be accurate. can serve as a guide for future research studies; it opens new avenues of intellectual adventure and stimulates the quest for more knowledge. Precautions in Interpretation Researcher can better appreciate only through interpretation why his One should always remember that even if the data are properly collected and findings are what they are and can make others to understand the real analyzed, wrong interpretation would lead to inaccurate conclusions. It is, significance of his research findings therefore, absolutely essential that the task of interpretation be accomplished with patience in an impartial manner and also in correct The interpretation of the findings of exploratory research study often perspective. Researcher must pay attention to the following points for results into hypothesis for experimental research and as such correct interpretation: interpretation is involved in the transition from exploratory to 1) At the outset , researcher must invariably satisfy himself that experimental research. Since and exploratory study does not have a a) The data are appropriate, trustworthy and adequate for drawing hypothesis to start with, the findings of such a study have to be inferences: interpreted on a post –factum basis in which case the interpretation is b) The data reflect good homogeneity : technically described as post – factum interpretation. c) Proper analysis has been done through statistical methodsTechniques of Interpretation 2) The researcher must remain cautious about the errors that can possiblyInterpretation is art that one learns through practice and experience. The arise in the process of interpreting results. Errors can arise due to falseresearcher may , at times , seek the guidance from experts for accomplishing generalization and/or due to wrong interpretation of statisticalthe task of interpretation. measures, such as the application of findings beyond the range ofThe techniques of interpretation often involves the following steps: observations, identification of correlation with causation and the like. Researcher must five reasonable explanations of the relations which he Another major pitfall is the tendency to affirm that definite relationships has found and he must interpret the lines or relationship in terms of the exist on the basis of confirmation of particular hypotheses. In fact , the underlying processes and must try to find out the thread of uniformity positive test results accepting the hypothesis must be interpreted as that lies under the surface layer of his diversified research findings. In “being in accord” with the hypothesis , rather than as “confirming the fact, this is the technique of how generalization should be done and validity of the hypothesis”. The researcher must remain vigilant about all concepts be formulated. such things so that false generalization may not take place. He should be Extraneous information, if collected during the study, must be considered well equipped with and must know the correct use of statistical measures while interpreting the final results of research study, for it may prove to be key factor in understanding the problem under consideration. for drawing inferences concerning his study.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 36www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 38. 3) He must always keep in view that the task of interpretation is very much report as part and parcel of the research project. Writing of report is the last intertwined with analysis and cannot be distinctly separated. As such he step in a research study and requires a set of skills somewhat different from must take the task of interpretation as a special aspect of analysis and those called for in respect of the earlier stages of research. The task should be accordingly must take all those precautions that one usually observes accomplished by the researcher with utmost care; he may seek the assistance while going through the process of analysis viz., precautions concerning and guidance of experts for the purpose. the reliability of data, computational checks, validation and comparison of results. Steps in Report Writing4) He must never lose sight of the fact that his task is not only to make sensitive observations of relevant occurrences, but also to identify and 1. Logical Analysis 2. Preparation of disengage the factor that are initially hidden to the eye. This will enable of the subject final outline him to do his job of interpretation on proper lines. Broad generalization matter should be avoided as most research is not amenable to it because the coverage may be restricted to particular time, a particular area and particular conditions. Such restrictions, if any, must invariably be specified and the results must be framed within their limits.5) The researcher must remember that “ideally in the course of a research study, there should be constant interaction between initial hypotheses, 4. Rewriting and 3. Preparation of empirical observation and theoretical conceptions. It is exactly in this polishing of the the rough draft area if interaction between theoretical orientation and empirical rough draft observation that opportunities for originality and creativity lie.” He must pay special attention to this aspect while engaged in the task of interpretation.Report WritingPurpose of the report writingResearch report is considered a major component of the research study for 5. Preparation of 6. Writing thethe research task remains incomplete till the report has been presented the final final draftand/or written. As a matter of fact even the most brilliant hypothesis , highly bibliographywell designed and conducted research study, and the most strikinggeneralizations and findings are of little value unless they ate effectively 1. Logical Analysis of the subject mattercommunicated to others. The purpose of research is not well served unless It is the first step which is primarily concerned with the development of athe findings are made known to others. Research results must invariably subject. There are two ways in which to develop a subject (a) logically andenter the general store of knowledge . All this explains the significance of (b) chronologically. The logical development is made on the basis of mentalwriting research report. There are people who do not consider writing of connections and associations between the one thing and another by means ofreport as an integral part or the research process. But the general opinion is analysis. Logical treatment often consists in developing the material from thein favour of treating the presentation of research results or the writing ofShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 37www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 39. simple possible to the most complex structure. Chronological development is the names of magazine and newspaper articles. Generally, this pattern ofbased on a connection or sequence in time or occurrence. The directions for bibliography is considered convenient and satisfactory from the point of viewdoing or making something usually follow the chronological order. of reader, through it is not the only way of presenting bibliography. The2. Preparation of final outline entries in bibliography should be made adopting the following order:It is next step in writing the research report “outlines are the framework For book and pamphlets the order may be as underupon which long written works are constructed. They are an aid to the logical 1. Name of the author, last name first.organization of the material and a reminder of the points to be stressed in the 2. Title , underlined to indicate italics.report.” 3. Place , publisher , and date of publication.3. Preparation of the rough draft 4. Number of volumes.This follows the logical analysis of the subject and the preparation of the final Example: Sharma Narender, Quantitative Techniques, New Delhi, XYZoutline. Such a step is of utmost importance for the researcher now sits to Publication House Pvt. Ltd., 2009write down what he has done in the context of his research study. He will For magazines and newspapers the order may be as under:write down the procedure adopted by him in collecting the material for his 1. Name of the author, last name first.study along with various limitations faced by him, the technique of analysis 2. Title of article, in quotation marks.adopted by him, the broad findings and generalizations and the various 3. Name of periodical, underlined to indicate italics.suggestions he wants to offer regarding the problem concerned. 4. The volume or volume and number.4. Rewriting and polishing of the rough draft 5. The date of issue.This step happens to be the most difficult part of all formal writing. Usually 6. The pagination.this step requires more time than the writing of the rough draft. The careful Example: Sharma Narender , “Train–ed to be a Leader”, Lead India MAILBOX,revision makes the difference between a mediocre and a good piece of My times, My Voice , The Times of India, New Delhi, India, August 24, 2007,writing. While rewriting and polishing, one should check the report for p.2.weakness in logical development or presentation. The researcher should also The above examples are just the samples for bibliography entries and may be“see whether or not the material, as it is presented, has unity and cohesion; used but one should also remember that they are not the only acceptabledoes the report stand upright and firm and exhibit a definite pattern, like a forms. The only thing important is that, whatever method one selects, it mustmarble arch? Or does it resemble an old wall of moldering cement and loose remain consistent.brick “. In addition the researcher should give due attention to the fact that in 6. Writing the final drafthis rough draft he has been consistent or not. He should check the mechanics This constitutes the last step. The final draft should be written in a conciseof writing –grammar, spelling and usage. and objective style and in simple language, avoiding vague expressions such5. Preparation of the final bibliography as “it seems”, “ There may be”, and the like ones . While writing the final draft,Next in order comes the task of the preparation of the final bibliography, the researcher must avoid abstract terminology and technical jargon.which is generally appended to the research report, is a list of books in some Illustrations and examples based on common experiences must beway pertinent to the research which has been done. It should contain all incorporated in the final draft as they happen to be most effective inthose works which the researcher has consulted. The bibliography should be communicating the research findings to others. A research report should notarranged alphabetically and may be divided into two parts; the first part may be dull, but must enthuse people and maintain interest and must showcontain the names of books and pamphlets, and the second part may contain originality. It must be remembered that every report should be an attempt toShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 38www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 40. solve some intellectual problem and must contribute to the solution of a 1. Introduction : The purpose of introduction is to introduce the researchproblem and must add to the knowledge of both the researcher and the project to the readers. It should contain a clear statement of theleader. objectives of research i.e. enough background should be given to make clear to the reader why the problem was considered worth investigating.Format/Layout of research report A brief summary of other relevant research may also be stated so that theThe layout of the report means as to what the research report should contain. present study can be seen in that context. The hypothesis of study, if any,A comprehensive layout of the research report should comprise and the definitions of the major concepts employed in the study should(A) preliminary pages; (B) the main text ; and (C) the end matter. Let us deal be explicitly stated in the introduction of the report.with them separately. The methodology adopted in conducting the study must be fullyA) Preliminary Pages explained. The scientific reader would like to know in detail about suchIn its preliminary pages the report should carry a title and date, followed by thing: How was the study carried out? What was its basic design? If theacknowledgements in the form of ‘Preface’ or Foreword’. Then there should study was an experimental one, then what were the experimentalbe a table of contents followed by list of tables and illustrations so that the manipulation? If the data were collected by means of questionnaires ordecision–maker or anybody interested in reading the report can easily locate interviews, then exactly what questions were asked(The questionnaire orthe required information in the report. interview schedule is usually given in an appendix)? If measurementsB) Main Text were based on observation, then what instructions were given to theThe main text provides the complete outline of the research report along observers? Regarding the sample used in the study the reader should bewith all details. Title of the research study is repeated at the top of the first told: Who were the subjects? How many were there? How were theypage of the main text and then follows the other details on pages numbered selected? All these questions are crucial for estimating the probableconsecutively, beginning with the second page. Each main section of the limits of generalizability of the findings. The statistical analysis adoptedreport should begin on a new page. The main text of the report should have must also be clearly stated. In addition to all this, the scope of the studythe following sections: should be stated and the boundary lines be demarcated. The various limitations, under which the research project was completed, must be 2. Statements of narrated. 1. Introduction findings and recommendations 2. Statements of findings and recommendations : After introduction, the research report must contain a statement of findings and recommendations in non–technical language so that it can be easily understood by all concerned. If the findings happen to be extensive, at this point they should be put in the summarized form. 3. Results : A detailed presentation of the findings of the study, with 4. Implications of 3. Results supporting data in the form of tables and charts together with a 5. Summary the results validation of results, is the next step in writing the main text of the report. This generally comprises the main body of the report, extending over several chapters. The result section of the report should contain statistical summeries and reductions of the data rather than the raw data.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 39www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 41. All the results should be presented in logical sequence and splitted into Final Presentation of a research report readily indentifiable sections. All relevent results must find a place in the There are very definite and set rules which should be followed in the actual report. presentation of the research report or paper. Once the techniques are finally4. Implications of the results : Towards the end of the main text, the decided, they should be scrupulously adhered to, and no deviation permitted. researcher should again put down the results of his research clearly and The criteria of format should be decided as soon as the materials for the precisely. He should, state the implications that flow from the results of research paper have been assembled. The following points deserve mention the study, for the general reader is interested in the implications for so far as the mechanics of writing a report are concerned: understanding the human behavior. Such implications may have three 1. Size and physical design aspects as stated below: The manuscript should be written on unruled paper 8 ½”×11” in size. If it is a) A statement of the inferences drawn from the present study which to be written by hand, then black or blue–black ink should be used. A margin may be expected to apply in similar circumstances. of at least one and one–half inches should be allowed at the left hand and of b) The conditions of the present study which may limit the extent of at least half an inch at the right hand of the paper. There should also be one– legitimate generalizations of the inferences drawn from the study. inch margins, top and bottom. The paper should be neat and legible. If the c) The relevant questions that still remain unanswered or new manuscript is to be typed, then all typing should be double–spaced on one questions raised by the study along with suggestions for the kind of side of the page only except for the insertion of the long quotations. research that would provide answers for them. 2. ProcedureIt is considered a good practice to finish the report with a short conclusion Various steps in writing the report should be strictly adhered (All such stepswhich summarizes and recapitulates the main points of the study. have already been explained earlier in this chapter). 3. Layout5. Summary : It has become customary to conclude the research report Keeping in view the objective and nature of the problem, the layout of the with a very brief summary, resting in brief the research problem, the report should be thought of and decided and accordingly adopted ( The methodology, the major findings and the conclusions drawn from the layout of the research report has been described in this unit earlier which research results. should be taken as a guide for report– writing in case of a particular problem.C) End Matter 4. Treatment of Quotations Quotations should be placed in quotation marks and double spaced, formingAt the end of the report, appendices should be enlisted in respect of all an immediate part of the text. But if a quotation is of a considerable lengthtechnical data such as questionnaires, sample information, mathematical (more than four or five type written lines) then it should be single–spacedderivations and the like ones. Bibliography of sources consulted should also and indented at least half an inch to the right of the normal text margin.be given. Index( an alphabetical listing of names, places and topics along with 5. The footnotesthe numbers of the pages in a book or report on which they are mentioned or Regarding the footnotes one should keep in view the followings :discussed) should invariably be given at the end of the report. The value ofindex lies in the fact that it works as a guide to the reader for the contents in The footnotes serve two purposes viz., the identification of materialsthe report. used in quotations in the report and the notice of materials not immediately necessary to the body of the research text but still of supplemental value. In other words, footnotes are meant for crossShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 40www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 42. references, citation of authorities and sources, acknowledgement and 3. Place and date of publication ; elucidation or explanation of a point or view. It should always be kept in 4. Number of volume; view that footnote is not an end nor a means of the display of 5. Pagination references( The page number). scholarship. The modern tendency is to make the minimum use of III) Regarding works arranged alphabetically footnotes for scholarship does not need to be displayed. For works arranged alphabetically such as encyclopedias and dictionaries, no Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page on which the reference or pagination references is usually needed. In such cases the order is illustrated quotation which they identify or supplement ends. Footnotes are as under; customarily separated from the textual material by a space of half an inch Example1: “Salamanca,” Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th Edition. and a line about one and a half inches long. Example2: “Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin,” Dictionary of national biography. Footnotes should be numbered consecutively, usually beginning with 1 in But if there should be a detailed reference to long encyclopedia article, each chapter separately. The number should be put slightly above the volume and pagination reference may be found necessary. line, say at the end of a quotation. At the foot of the page, again, the IV) Regarding periodicals reference footnote number should be indented and typed a little above line. Thus, 1. Name of the author in normal order; consecutive numbers must be used to correlate the reference in the text 2. Title of article, in quotation marks; with its corresponding note at the bottom of the page, except in case of 3. Name of periodical, underlined to indicate italics; statistical tables and other numerical material, where symbols such as the asterisk(*) or the like one may be used to prevent confusion. 4. Volume number; Footnotes are always typed in single space though they are divided from 5. Date of issuance; one another by double space. 6. Pagination.6. Documentation Style V) Regarding anthologies and collections referenceRegarding documentation, the first footnote reference to any given work Quotations from anthologies or collections of literary works must beshould be complete in its documentation, given all the essential facts about acknowledged not only by author, but also by the name of the collector.the edition used. Such documentary footnotes follow a general sequence. The VI) Regarding second –hand quotations referencecommon order may be described as under: In such cases the documentation should be handled as follows;I) Regarding the single –volume reference 1. Original author and title; 1. Author’s name in normal order (and not beginning with the last name 2. “quoted or cited in,”; as in a bibliography) 3. Second author and work. 2. Title of work , underlined to indicate italics; Example: J. F. Jones, Life in Ploynesia, p. 16, quoted in History of the Pacific 3. Place and date of publication ; Ocean area, by R. B. Abel, p. 191 4. Pagination references( The page number). VII) Case of multiple authorshipExample: John Gassner, Master of the Drama, New York: Dover Publication, If there are more than two authors or editors, then in the documentation theInc, 1954, p. 315 name of only the first is given and the multiple authorship is indicated byII) Regarding multivolumed reference “et al.” or “and others”. 1. Author’s name in normal order; Subsequent reference to the same work need not be so detailed as stated 2. Title of work , underlined to indicate italics; above. If the work is cited again without any other work intervening, it mayShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 41www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 43. be indicated as ibid , followed by a comma and the page number. A single researcher should learn to recognize them as well as he should learn to usepage should be referred to as p., but more than one page be referred to as pp. them);If there are several pages referred to at a stretch, the practice is to use often Abbreviations Meaningthe page number, for example , pp. 190ff , which means page number 190 and anon., anonymousthe following pages; but only for page 190 and the following page ‘190f’. ante., beforeRoman numerical is generally used to indicate the number of the volume of a art., articlebook. Op. cit.( opera citato, in the work cited ) or Loc. cit. ( loco citato, in the aug., augmentedplace cited ) are two of the very convenient abbreviations used in the bk., bookfootnotes. Op. cit. or Loc. cit. after the writer’s name would suggest that the bull., bulletinreference is to work by the writer has been cited in detail in an earlier cf., comparefootnote but intervened by some other references. ch., chapter7. Punctuation and abbreviations in footnotes col., columnThe first item after the number in the footnotes is the author’s name, given in diss., dissertationthe normal signature order. This is followed by a comma. After the comma, ed., editor, edition, edited.the title of the book is given : the article (such as “A” , “An” , “The” etc. ) is ed. cit., edition citedomitted and only the first word and proper nouns and adjective are e.g., exempli gratia; for examplecapitalized. The title is followed by a comma. Information concerning the eng., enlargededition is given next. This entry is followed by a comma. The place of et. al., and otherspublication is then stated; it may be mentioned in an abbreviated form, if the et seq., and the followingplace happens to be a famous one such as Lond. for London, N.Y. for New ex., exampleYork, N.D. for New Delhi and so on. This entry is followed by a comma. Then f., ff., and the followingthe name of the publisher is mentioned and this entry is closed by a comma. fig(s)., figure(s)It is followed by the date of publication if the date is given on the title page. If fn., footnotethe date appears in the copyright notice on the reverse side of the title page ibid., ibidem: in the same place (when two or moreor elsewhere in the volume, the comma should be omitted and the date successive footnotes refer to the sameenclosed in square brackets [ c 1978], [1978]. The entry is followed by a work, it is not necessary to repeatcomma. Then follow the volume and page references and are separated by a complete reference for the secondcomma if both are given. A period closes the complete documentary footnote. ibid. may be used. if differentreference. But one should remember that the documentation regarding pages are referred to, pagination mustacknowledgements from magazine articles and periodical literature follow a be shown).different form as stated earlier while explaining the entries in the id., idem: the samebibliography. ill., illus., or illust(s). illustrated, illustration(s)Certain English and Latin abbreviations are quite often used in bibliographies Intro., intro., introductionand footnotes to eliminate tedious repetition. The following is a partial list of l, or ll, line (s)the most common abbreviations frequently used in report–writing ( theShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 42www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 44. loc. cit., loco citato: in the place cited; used as op.cit.,(when 9. The final draft new reference is made to the same Revising and rewriting the rough draft of the report should be done with pagination as cited in the previous great care before writing the final draft. For the purpose, the researcher note) should put to himself questions like: Are the sentences written in the reportMS., MSS., Manuscript or Manuscripts clear? Are they grammatically correct? Do the various points incorporated inN.B., nota bene: note well the report fit together logically? “Having at least one colleague read then.d., no date report just before the final revision is extremely helpful. Sentences that seemn.p., no place crystal–clear to the writer may prove quite confusing to other people; ano pub., no publisher connection that had seemed self evident may strike others as non–sequitur. Ano(s)., number(s) friendly critic, by pointing out passages that seem unclear or illogical, ando.p., out of print perhaps suggesting ways of remedying the difficulties, can be an invaluableop. cit: opera citato in the work cited (if reference has been aid in achieving the goal of adequate communication.” made to a work and new reference is to 10. Bibliography: be made, ibid., may be used, if Bibliography should be prepared and appended to the research report as intervening reference has been made to discussed earlier. different works, op.cit. must be used. 11. Preparation of the index: the name of the author must precede. At the end of the report, an index should invariably be given, the value ofp. or pp., page(s) which lies in the fact that it acts as a good guide, to the reader. Index may bepassim: here and there prepared both as subject index and as author index. The former gives thepost: after names of the subject–topics or concepts along with the number of pages onrev., revised which they have appeared or discussed in the report, whereas the latter givestr., transe., translator, translated, translation the similar information regarding the names of authors. The index shouldvid or vide: see, refer to always be arranged alphabetically. Some people prefer to prepare only oneviz., namely index common for names of authors, subjects–topics, concepts and the likevol. or vol(s)., volume(s) ones.vs., versus: against Precautions For Writing Research Reports8. Use of statistics, charts and graphs: Research report is a channel of communicating the research findings to theA judicious use of statistics in research reports is often considered a virtue readers of the report. A good research report is one which does this taskfor it contributes a great deal towards the clarification and simplification of effectively. As such it must be prepared keeping the following precautions inthe material and research results. One may well remember that a good view:picture is often worth more than a thousand words. Statistics are usually 1. While determining the length of the report (since research reports varypresented in the form of tables, charts, bars and line–graphs and pictograms. greatly in length), one should keep in view the fact that it should be longSuch presentation should be self explanatory and complete in itself. It should enough to cover the subject but short enough to maintain interest. In fact,be suitable and appropriate looking to the problem at hand. Finally,statistical presentation should be neat and attractive.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 43www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 45. report–writing should not be a means to learning more and more about 11. Bibliography of sources consulted is a must for a good report and must less and less. necessarily be given.2. A research report should not, if this can be avoided, be dull ; it should be 12. Index is also considered and essential part of a good report and as such such as to sustain reader’s interest. must be prepared and appended at the end.3. Abstract terminology and technical jargon should be avoided in a 13. Report must be attractive in appearance, neat and clean, whether typed research report. The report should be able to convey the matter as or printed. possible. This, in other words, means that report should be written in an 14. Calculated confidence limits must be mentioned and the various objective style in simple language, avoiding expressions such as “it constraints experienced in conducting the research study may also be seems,” there may be “ and the like. stated in the report.4. Readers are often interested in acquiring a quick knowledge of the main 15. Objective of the study, the nature of the problem, the methods employed findings and as such the report must provide a ready availability of the and the analysis techniques adopted must all be clearly stated in the findings. For this purpose, charts, graphs and the statistical tables may be beginning of the report in the form of introduction. used for the various results in the main report in addition to the summary of important findings.5. The layout of the report should be well thought out and must be appropriate and in accordance with the objective of the research problem. An interesting recent research study cracked the amount of6. The report should be free from grammatical mistakes and must be time–which apparently runs into years–women spend doing prepared strictly in accordance with the techniques of composition of report writing such as the use of quotations, footnotes , documentation , seemingly trivial stuff. proper punctuation and use of abbreviations in footnotes and the like.7. The report must present the logical analysis of the subject matter. It must reflect a structure wherein the different pieces of analysis relating to the research problem fit well.8. A research report should show originally and should necessarily be an attempt to solve some intellectual problem. It must contribute to the solution of a problem and must add to the store of knowledge.9. Towards the end, the report must also state the policy implications relating to the problem under consideration. It is usually considered desirable if the report makes a forecast of the probable future of the How many women have wished there were more than 24 hours in a day? For, subject concerned and indicates the kinds of research still needs to be going by recent research, a woman has quite a packed life. She might plan her done in that particular field. next meal with delighted precision and then spend the time after it worrying10. Appendices should be enlisted in respect of all the technical data in the about how she’ll lose all the calories! We took some such figures to women, report. who nod in total agreement.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 44www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 46. The obsession with size zero may be recent, but the desire to have a svelte Those tresses have to be washed, cut, colored and styled, which takes awayand toned figure is old and time consuming. An average woman goes on two two and a half years from one’s lifespan.diets every year, with each lasting an average of five weeks, equivalent to 104 “I always carry a hair brush with me and use it after every few hours.” Saysdiets or 10 yrs in a lifetime! Pooja Bhalla, an IT executive.“I prepare a fresh diet chart each week and that’s largely because I fall tostick to it ,” says Kanika Dev, a business consultant. Mulling over the next meal takes two years of a woman’s life! “I start thinking of yum evening snack option during the lunch hour itself.”Woman love to shop and they indulge in it for a whopping 399 hours and 46 Confesses Shalini, a call centre executive.minutes each year, which is nine years of retail therapy over a lifetime .“ My wife can shop or window shop for hours without feeling tired,” sighsNavdeep Brar, a business analyst. Women spend one year, seven months and 15days in washroom in their entire lives. “You shower, dry and powder yourself, and moisturize. Each of these things A study claims that girls spend four years of their life on the phone. Women is important. Women are not as dirty as men!” explains Shreya.make or receive an average of 2,88,000 calls in their lives which last for42,000 hours or 4.75 yrs!“I talk on the phone for more than four hours each day,” admits Amrita, who Trying to decide the perfect outfit consumes a year of a woman’s life.works in an advertising firm. “I spent 20 minutes daily deciding what to wear to work. It takes even longer to pick an outfit for a Saturday night.” Says Aman Khaullar, a bank executive.Just two minutes more–that’s the most often heard line from the women folk.Those two minutes actually sum up to three years in a lifetime. “It’s a basic hygiene need and not a beauty treatment.” Verifies Anjana“It’s important to have one last look in the mirror before stepping out of Shukla, a class XI student.home, but then it doesn’t take that long!” protests Meghna Wadhwa, Well, going by that women spend 58.4 days in shaving, waxing or usinga budding architect. creams. And, if you still think you have some time at hand, then digest this ! You spend 27 years of your life sleeping, another 2 standing in a queue and ifYour mascara and lipstick might be taking about 603 days of your life. And nothing at all, 2 years in simply getting bored!another 170 are spent taking it off!“What’s wrong with looking good? Don’t men want us to look good too?” asksMelinda, who works in the hospitality industry.Shakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 45www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 47. Ref. Books :Kothari, C.R., Research Methodology , New Age International Publishers.Coope, Donald R., Schindler, Pamela S., Business Research Methods, TataMcgraw Hill Publication.Ref. Article :“IT ALL ADDS UP”, Delhi Times, The Times of India, New Delhi, August 08,2009, p.1Ref. notes : Contact :My Six – Sigma Green Belt training. Call me for telephonic support on Wednesday , Thursday , Friday , Saturday , Sunday at 7:00PM to 9:00PM. I request for your seriousness and honesty. Plz have patience if you hear “your call is on wait”. For home tuition and contact classes student and institute first send a request on my email id below mentioned. You can mail me at : sharma_ndr21@rediffmail.com narendersharma21@indiatimes.com You can find me at: http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100000837976546 http://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=68376470&trk=tab_pro Visit: www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.comShakehand with Life Quality : A Parameter of Customer Satisfaction Page 46www.shakehandwithlife.blogspot.com
  • 48. “Success can never lower its standard, you have to raiseyour standard to achieve it.”I wish for your dreams to be succeed.All the Best !