7 qc toolsTraining pdf

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Visit www.shakehandwithlife.in to buy this Book. This E-Book on 7QC tools is complete training workshop for Junior, Middle and Senior quality quality professionals. The USP of this workshop is the text and graphics in the book for understanding the tools while applying to solve the practial problems. Illustrative worked examples , Construction of tools in Excel like Histogram, Pareto Chart, Scatter Diagram, Control charts are beautifully explained in step step manner. A newcomer in the area of quality can easily understand how the tools be used and applied.

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7 qc toolsTraining pdf

  1. 1. E-mail: shakehandwithlife@gmail.com, narender@shakehandwithlife.in ShakehandwithLife.in With MS-Excel commands and images of construction; Histogram, Pareto Chart, Scatter Diagram, Control Charts. Introduction of Kaizen and 5S.Practice Problems. MCQ’s Test Paper with Ans. Key. by
  2. 2. ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page i 7QC Tools E-Book Code: 7QCTT Telephonic Training + e-book+ login Id and password of your Online Study Room To Practice MCQ’s test paper, Online assignments, Discussion forum and many more things to do……. . Visit: www.shakehandwithlife.in e-mail shakehandwithlife@gmail.com , narender@shakehandwithlife.in “Save Paper, Save Trees, Save Environment”
  3. 3. ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page ii Dedicated to my loving parents (Sh. Somdutt Sharma) and (Smt. Urmila Devi).
  4. 4. ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page iii Salient features of the Book The workshop is specially designed and prepared for senior, middle and junior level quality professionals, engineers, managers of manufacturing and service industries. Graphics in the workshop elucidates the text and help to better understand the tools. Excel Images for Histogram, Pareto Analysis, Scatter diagram and Control charts are given with excel commands. This helps the learner to work easy in excel while construction the tools. Illustrative worked examples with manual calculation for better understanding. Data based practical problems for self practice. Project work based on 7QC Tools. Test paper with Multiple Choice Questions to check learning. Introduction of Kaizen and 5-S.
  5. 5. ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page iv About Author Narender Sharma has worked with a leading container glass manufacturing organization since 2001 to 2014 as a quality professional. He passed his B.Sc. (Mathematics, Physics and Electronics) in 1997. After passing his B.Sc. he had been in school education since 1997. In 2001 he successfully completed his B.Ed. in (Teaching of mathematics and teaching of Science). But he did not remain in the field of school teaching and enter into corporate life. In 2008 he completed his course work for MBA (Production and Operation Management) along with his job. He has gone under various training programs like Six Sigma Green Belt, ISO9001:2008, Internal Auditor Course. Teaching gives him immense pleasure ‘cause he understands that in this area we are not only teaching but learning also and expand our boundary of knowledge from our next generation. He writes blogs, makes sketches, read books as his part of hobby. Presently he is working on E-Learning through his website ; www.shakehandwithlife.in . Narender Sharma tried to put his all experience and knowledge gained from his work and study area. “It is very difficult to make things easy to understand by others and I sincerely do this by designing graphics in this book. If you still find difficult to understand these tools, definitely I need to work more hard to make things easier. The book contains not only the theoretical concept of all 7 QC tools but the practical application with illustrative worked examples and construction of tools like Histogram, Pareto Chart, Scatter diagram, Control charts in MS Excel with help of commands and images also.” …………………..Narender Sharma The Trainer can be contacted at Website: www.shakehandwithlife.in E-Mail : narender@shakehandwithlife.in shakehandwithlife@gmail.com Facebook : www.facebook.com/shakehandwithlife SlideShare: www.slideshare.net/shakehandwithlife Google + : www.google.com/+narendersharma Linkedin : http://www.linkedin.com/pub/narender-sharma/1a/a95/872 Twitter www.twitter.com/sharma_ndr Mobile : +91-9315132462 Narender Sharma
  6. 6. ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page v Testimonials Awesome post this is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free. I love seeing websites that understand the value of providing a quality resource for free…………….Rajesh Master Commented on the blog post “ Kaoru Ishikawa: Father of QCC” http://shakehandwithlife.blogspot.in/2013/04/kaoru-ishikawa-father-of-qcc.html Generally I do not learn article on blogs, but I would like to say that this write-up very compelled me to take a look at and do so! Your writing taste has been surprised me. Thanks, very great article………….William J. Cornett Commented on the blog post “Honesty is the Best Policy* - conditions apply” http://shakehandwithlife.blogspot.in/2012/01/honesty-is-best-policy-conditions-apply. html Very simple & hence nice explanation. When the line balancing is done Line of Balance need to be monitored for efficiency..............Pramod Nice explanation of Line Balancing. Make-times on each work station should, after they have been balanced, equal TAKT time. TAKT time is the average time between customer orders. If perfect balance can be obtained so that Make-Times are equal and are equal to TAKT Time then inventories will be minimised........Anonymous Commented on the blog post “Line Balancing Vs Line of Balance” http://shakehandwithlife.blogspot.in/2011/08/line-balancing-vs-line-of-balance.html I absolutely adore reading your blog posts, the variety of writing is smashing. This blog as usual was educational, I have had to bookmark your site and subscribe to your feed in ifeed. Your theme looks lovely. Thanks for sharing……….Iso9000 Commented on the blog post “Correction , Corrective Action and Preventive Action with illustrations” http://shakehandwithlife.blogspot.in/2011/06/correction-corrective- action-and.html Wow! these two factor can change our life definitely. Such a nice blog, people should read this. Really very nice...............vk Commented on the blog post “Personality of person is same as an engine for a train.” http://shakehandwithlife.blogspot.in/2011/05/personality-of-person-is-same-as-engine. html Nice and comprehensive article on the use of six sigma in process improvement…………..Carl wright This site certainly has all the information I needed about this subject and didn’t know who to ask………..Anonymous Commented on the blog post “Six Sigma : A gauge of measuring goodness of our product, services and processes” http://shakehandwithlife.blogspot.in/2011/04/six-sigma- gauge-of-measuring-goodness.html Hi, Mr. Sharma, It is really touching for me ........after reading there are some tears in my eyes, some thing is very true in that blog.......thanks for writing .......Keep rocking and writing Thanks……………Anonymous Commented on the blog post “I am here because she was there..........” http://shakehandwithlife.blogspot.in/2011/03/i-am-here-because-she-was-there.html Thank you Narender. What you have said makes perfect sense and a great antidote for those who confuse loving with being loved……Val Mckie Commented on the blog post “Love: A sense of Responsibility” http://shakehandwithlife.blogspot.in/2011/02/love-sense-of-responsibility.html
  7. 7. ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page vi Nice information. keep it up……………..Anonymous Commented on the blog post “AIDS: Striking on Backbone of Nation” http://shakehandwithlife.blogspot.in/2010/11/aids-striking-on-backbone-of-nation.html Good one ...........but usually girls are not so much logical as explained in the story in deciding their partners.......anyhow interesting story explaining significance of stats in human life.....................Anonymous WOW... just hope it could be as true and as easy as depicted by this example... nonetheless, stats always allow you to reach a point :))………………..Praveen Good one.... But may be we should give other two guys chance to reduce the variation by carrying DMAIC and lets observe the improvement……….Manish Rawat Commented on the blog post “Statistics of Love” http://shakehandwithlife.blogspot.in/2010/10/statistics-of-love.html Εxcellent blog pοst. I аbsоlutely lovе thiѕ websіte. Contіnuе thе good work……………..Anonymous Excellent Narender!!! Would like to learn more………………Anonymous Commented on the blog post “5S : Best Management Practices from Kitchen to workplace.” http://shakehandwithlife.blogspot.in/2010/09/5s-best-management-practices- from.html
  8. 8. ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page vii Click on Contents Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Tool No. 1 – Process Flow Diagram ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 What is Process Flow Diagram? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2 Application and uses of Process Flow Diagram ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Value Added Steps .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Non- Value Added Steps ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3 Construction of Process Flow Diagram ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Illustrative Work Examples ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6 Measuring Cycle Time .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Process Efficiency ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10 Tool No. 2 – Check Sheet ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11 What is Check Sheet? ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Application and uses of Check Sheet ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11 Construction of Check Sheet ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11 Illustrative Worked Examples..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Tool No. 3 – Histogram ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................14 What is Histogram? ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Histogram Shapes ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Application and uses of Histogram ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Construction of Histogram ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Histogram For Ungrouped Data ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Histogram for Grouped data ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16 Illustrative Worked Examples..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17 Construction of Histogram in Excel .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Tool No. 4 – Pareto Diagram ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................21
  9. 9. ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page viii What is Pareto Diagram? ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Who was Pareto? ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 ABC Analysis. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 22 80 – 20 Rule .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 22 Application and uses of Pareto Diagram ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22 Manual Construction of Pareto Chart....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23 Construction of Pareto Chart in Excel ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 Illustrative Worked Example ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 Tool No. 5 – Cause and Effect Diagram ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 28 What is Cause and Effect diagram? ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 28 Application and uses of C&E Diagram ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 29 Construction of Cause and Effect Diagram ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 30 Brainstorming ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Essentials for organizing Brainstorming sessions to get more accurate and usable result ......................................................................................................................... 30 Illustrative Worked Example ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31 Tool No. 6 Scatter Diagram ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 33 What is Scatter Diagram? .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 Application and uses of scatter diagram................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 Interpretation of Different Patterns of Scatter Diagram .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 34 Algebraic value of relationship between two variables (X and Y) i.e. Correlation Coefficient ........................................................................................................................................ 36 Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation (r). ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36 Interpretation of value of 'r' ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 37 Construction of Scatter diagram ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Illustrative Worked Examples..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 Construction of Scatter Diagram in Excel ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 41 Calculation of Coefficient of Correlation (r) ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 43
  10. 10. ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page ix Tool No. 7 Control Chart ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 44 What is Control Chart? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 44 Types of Charts ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 45 Mean Charts ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 45 Run Charts .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 45 Accuracy and Precision .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 46 Archer’s Bow and Target analogy for understanding accuracy and precision ............................................................................................................................................. 47 Application and uses of Control Charts ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 48 Continuous Use of Control Charts, Showing Improved Quality .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 49 Construction of Control Charts ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50 Steps of Construction of Mean Chart ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50 Steps of construction of Run/Range charts .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 51 Illustrative Worked Example ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 52 Construction of Control Chart in Excel .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 56 Mean Chart ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 57 Range Chart ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 59 Problems for Practice ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................61 Project work : Reduce monthly electricity bill by 50% using 7qc tools .......................................................................................................................................... 63 Test Paper ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 65 Answer Key ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 71 Result .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 72 Introduction of Kaizen ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 73 What is Kaizen? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 73 Foundation for Kaizen: ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 73 Kaizen Strategy .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 74 Kaizen Practices ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 75
  11. 11. ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page x Introduction of 5 S .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 76 What is 5S? .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 76 Why does 5S practice useful? ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 77 How to implement 5S? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 77 References ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 78 Feedback ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 78
  12. 12. 7QC Tools : Introduction ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page 1 Introduction Fundamental Tools to solve 95% quality related problems These seven effective methods or tools which will offer any organization means of collecting, presenting, and analyzing most of its data problems. 95% of quality related problems in the factory can be solved with these 7 fundamental quality tools. Developed by The Seven QC tools were developed by Prof. Kaoru Ishikawa, ‘The father of QCCs’ (Quality Control Circle). Through his experience, he identifies a set of tools which can be used by teams and individuals to interpret the data fully and derive the maximum information out from it. Can be used by Business owners, Junior, Middle and Senior level quality professionals, Engineers, Managers in different kind of manufacturing and service industries, Sports, Research. Applied in Production ,Quality Control, Warehouse , Sales and Purchase, Personnel Management, Storekeeping, Marketing , Service delivery, Housekeeping, Accounting, Banking , Airline, Insurance, Telecommunication, Medical and healthcare, Education and so on……. Applied by an individual or team in Process Audit, Data Collection and Analysis, Data presentation, Identifying Critical Issues, Identification of root causes, Brain Storming, Quality control , Process Control, Problem solving , Decision Making, Continual Improvement , Maintaining Accuracy and Precision, Kaizen Activities, Six Sigma projects, Cost reduction Business Research etc…. Getting expertise in various skills while using 7QC Tools Control over the process, Finding value added and Non value added activities, Reducing cycle time, Learning of data collection techniques, Smart presentation of data, Tracking the most appropriate cause for a problem, Dig out the root cause for a problem, Calculation of degree of relation between cause and effect of a problem, Accuracy of results, data analytic skills, Comparing past and future trends of data with present, Learning statistics process control, MS-Excel.
  13. 13. 7QC Tools : Process Flow Diagram ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page 2 Tool No. 1 – Process Flow Diagram What is Process Flow Diagram? Process flow diagram is a symbolic representation of all steps of whole process through which any product or service move. All steps of process shown diagrammatically in a sequential manner. Process flow diagram can easily be seen nearby the actual process in the organization.
  14. 14. 7QC Tools : Process Flow Diagram ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page 3 Application and uses of Process Flow Diagram It uses to clearly define and analyzing the processes. Step by Step picture of the process use for the purpose of analysis, discussion or communication. It uses for standardization of the process. It uses for locating the areas of improvement in the process. It uses for the purpose of training and development of new employees before working on actual process. Process flow diagram improve the efficiency of process The diagram makes it easy to visualize the entire system, identify potential trouble spots, and locate control activities. It answers the question, “Who/What is next?” Improvements can be accomplished by changing, reducing, combining or eliminating steps. It helps to finding NVA ( Non Valuable Activities) tasks and their elimination. It helps to avoid the duplication of the work. Its helps to avoid unnecessary activities. Total cycle time and time per activity can be calculated with help of process flow diagram. Idle time between two steps or throughout the process can be calculated and eliminated. To elude repetition of work. Value Added Steps Customers are willing to pay for it It physically changes the product It’s done right the first time Example value added activities; Entering order, ordering materials preparing drawing, Assembling, Mandatory testing, packaging, Shipping to customer. Non- Value Added Steps Not essential to produce output Does not add value to the output. Example activities : Waiting, Storing , Staging, Counting, Inspecting, Recording, Obtaining approvals, Testing, Reviewing, Copying, Filing, Reworking, Tracking
  15. 15. 7QC Tools : Process Flow Diagram ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page 4 Symbols use to make process flow diagram are Rounded Rectangle uses for Start or Terminate the process Rectangle like symbol uses for an operation. Any kind of activity on product is comes under operation. It indicates main steps in a process, method or procedure. Usually the part , material , or product concerned is modified or changed during operation, e.g. In a garment industry the cloth passes under different kind of operation like stitching, washing, folding, press, embroidery, making border etc. similarly in an Insurance industry to do an Insurance policy of a customer different kind of operation are collecting data of the customer, filling the form, printing the form, dispatch the form, collection of payments etc. Diamond like symbol uses for decision or any condition like “yes or no, OK or Not OK”. If the condition satisfied or the decision is ‘yes’ then process move with arrow coming out in forward direction otherwise follow the arrow coming our left or right An arrow like symbol uses for the purpose of sequence flow of the process. It connect each step and helps to read the Flow Chart. ‘D’ like symbol uses for the ‘Delay’. This show the temporary hold for any correction or wait. Inverted Triangle uses for the storage of the product. When product do not go for any further operation or the product has passed all the stages of process then product needs to be stored at some specific place then this stage of the process will be shown by the inverted triangle in the process diagram. Note : There are many other symbols use to make process flow diagram. But most of time only these symbols shown above are use . Some time Round shape is used for operation instead of Rectangle. This is because there is no standard rule for using symbols to make process flow diagram. Different organization and different department using symbols according to there technical areas. Some time they make there own symbols. But still the basic rule of process flow diagram is same and very much necessary to learn by all quality professionals.
  16. 16. 7QC Tools : Process Flow Diagram ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page 5 Construction of Process Flow Diagram Steps of construction of process flow diagram. 1. Make the team of those persons related to the process. 2. Fix the Start and End point to create the boundaries of the process.  Where does the process begin?  Where does the process terminate? 3. Write down all the steps of the process separately.  Write down Activities, Decision points or conditions, store or delay points.  Write the connecting sequences of all steps explaining the process flow. 4. Select proper symbol for each step of the process. 5. Put all the symbols at one place. 6. Connect all the symbols by arrows in a proper sequence flow. 7. No. the steps of process and time elapse in each step to calculate cycle time. 8. Write mandatory Heading on the process flow diagram.  Task  Starting point of the diagram  Terminating point of the diagram  Process diagram made by  Date of Charting/Making 9. Finalize the process diagram  Confirm the process is actually working in the same way as designed.  People related to the process are following the process as charted.  Make a consensus among all members on designed process diagram.  If any logical suggestion then remove the extra step and add if any step is missing.
  17. 17. 7QC Tools : Process Flow Diagram ShakehandwithLife.in www.shakehandwithlife.in Page 6 Illustrative Work Examples Example 1. Prepare Process flow diagram of Tea Making in kitchen. Title/ Task :Tea Making in Kitchen Starting Point : Ignite the Burner End Point: Close the Burner Process Diagram Made by : Narender Sharma Date of Charting : Summary Event Sequence Flow Frequency 2 10 1 15 Start/End Activity Decision n

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