IPR protection of plants


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gives info about types of IPR forms and plant protection

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IPR protection of plants

  1. 1. Presented By 10AB1R0042, Shajeeya Amren. Sk Guided By A. Viswanath, R. Karthikeyan, Vignan Pharmacy College 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 1
  2. 2. 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 2
  3. 3. Protection • The term protection is to be understood in the sense of intellectual property (IP) protection. • MAPs can be protected by way of patents or plant breeder’s right. • The term protection does not refer to the concept of protection in environmental law, or to the concept of preservation or conservation. 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 3
  4. 4. Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. ……..WIPO • UN organization dedicated to promoting the use and protection of works of the human spirit. • Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. • 185 nations as member states. • Manages all IPs. • Training through Academy and Seminars 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 4
  5. 5. • Reward original efforts • Stimulate innovation and creativity • Prevent duplication of work • Commercial value in research • Prevent exploitation of workers • Technical information for research & to prevent litigation 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 5
  6. 6. Patents Trade secrets Plant Breeder Rights CopyRights Trademark IPR Int. circuits Ind. Design Geographical Indication 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 6
  7. 7. • Property  Right INTELLECT – PROPERTY – RIGHT Idea  Expression  COPYRIGHT Idea  Innovation  Invention  PATENT Idea  Quality + Identity  TRADEMARK Idea  Appearance  DESIGN 1/16/2014 Idea  Keep Confidential No Disclosure Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 7
  8. 8.  Trade marks –The Trademarks Act 1999  Copy Right Works- The Copyright Act 1957  Designs- lines colours shapes etc. –The Designs Act 2000  Inventions- Products or Process-The Patents Act 1970  Plant variety protection – Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act, 2001  Integrated circuits- The Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layoutdesign Act, 2000  Geographical Indications - Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 came in force with effect Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. from September 2003. 1/16/2014 8
  9. 9. Act Ministry/Department The Copyright Act, 1957 Higher Education The Patents Act, 1970 Industrial Policy & Promotion The Designs Act, 2000 Industrial Policy & Promotion The Trade Marks Act, 1999 Industrial Policy & Promotion The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 Industrial Policy & Promotion The Semiconductor Integrated Circuits LayoutDesign Act, 2000 Information Technology The Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001 Agriculture and Cooperation 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 9
  10. 10. Plant Intellectual Protection Plant Patent Trade Secret Genetic Mechanism Utility Patent Hybrid Plant Patent Contracts GURT’s Plant Breeder Rights Material Transfer Agreements Bag Labels Technology Use Agreements 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 10
  11. 11. New Distinct Mentha piperita light Uniform Stable Mentha piperita dark 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 11
  12. 12. The patent application must show: 1) novelty 2) non-obviousness, or an inventive step 3) usefulness (US) or industrial applicability (Europe, Australia) 4) enablement 5) claim clarity 6) written description 7) best mode (United States only) 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 12
  13. 13. A utility patent grants the owner the right to exclude others from: 1) making, 2) using, 3) selling or offering for sale or 4) Importing the protected invention for a 20 year period* from the earliest file date. 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 13
  14. 14. • available in very few countries. The Plant Patent Act was enacted by US congress in 1930. • It was introduced primarily to benefit the horticulture industry by encouraging plant breeding and increasing plant genetic diversity. • Limited types of plants are eligible for protection The Plant Patent Act 1930 (35 U.S.C. 161) provides for: patent protection of all asexually reproduced plants EXCEPT: 1) tuber-propagated plants and 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy 2) plants found in an uncultivated College, Vadlamudi. state. 14
  15. 15.  Requirement for plant protection under TRIPs  International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV)  Plant protection mechanisms provided by sample countries • Protection confers the right to exclude others from: 1) producing or reproducing, 2) propagating, 3) offering for sale, 4) selling or other marketing, 5) exporting, importing or 6) stocking for any of the above purposes the protected variety. 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 15
  16. 16. A trade secret is confidential information any formula, pattern, device, or compilation of information that is used in a business and gives that business an opportunity to obtain advantages over competitors. • Secrecy: in the form of a confidentiality agreement or covenant. External forms of protection such as security systems etc also impart the necessary requirement of secrecy. • Novelty: The subject of the secrecy must have been novel. • Value: The subject of the trade secret must be of some value or give some advantage over competitors. 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 16
  17. 17. • In some cases, specialized plant breeding can present an alternative to intellectual property protection. • Seeds resulting from hybrids show an extremely poor ability to reliably reproduce the trait of interest in their progeny or next generation. • Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (GURTs) is technology that allows the control of gene expression of an organism, further allowing constraints or restrictions on the use of the organism or trait. • There are two main types of GURTs: variety-level GURT (vGURT) and trait- level GURT (t-GURT). 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 17
  18. 18. Material Transfer Agreements • Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) are legal agreements made between a provider and a recipient party when research material is being transferred between institutions. Bag Labels • Bag label contracts are another form of legal protection which can be applied to plants, especially seeds Technology Use Agreements • A technology use agreement is an agreement most commonly between technology suppliers and farmers which usually controls the right to plant a given seed on a 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, specific area of land often for a certain period Vadlamudi. of time. 18
  19. 19. Plant Patents • Whoever invents or discovers and asexually reproduces any distinct and new variety of plant, including cultivated spores, mutants, hybrids, and newly found seedlings, other than a tuber propagated plant or a plant found in an uncultivated state. . . (35 U.S.C. § 161) – No bacteria or similar single-cell organisms need apply! 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 19
  20. 20. • Register able varieties and criteria:  New Varieties  Novelty, Distinctiveness, uniformity and stability  Extant varieties  Distinctiveness, uniformity and stability • Persons who can Register  Breeders, farmers, universities, agricultural institutes • Period of protection  15 years for annual crops  18 years for trees and vines 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 20
  21. 21. • This Law Established Patent Rights For Developers Of New Varieties Of Many Asexually Propagated Plants. • Conventional Intellectual Property Law Does Not Adequately Cover Or Protect Traditional Knowledge And Innovations Of Indigenous And Local Peoples. 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 21
  22. 22. • Mohan devan, IPR protection an overall view, journal of intellectual property rights • Alimpan chatterjee, traditional knowledge herbal medicine and intellectual property: a debate over rights • Geertrui van overall intellectual property protection for medicinal and aromatic plants centre for intellectual property rights, catholic university Leuven, e-mail: geertrui.Vanoverwalle@law.Kuleuven.Ac.Be • Bimal b.Bhaskar corporate & IPRpresentation on the protection of plant varieties • Edmund jason g. Baranda plant variety protection • Okan arihan, a. Mine gençler özkan2traditional medicine and intellectual property rights hacettepe university, faculty of medicine, department of pharmacology. • Internet source: http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/plant/ 1/16/2014 Vignaan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi. 22
  23. 23. I be grateful of my guides A. Viswanath, R. Karthikeyan for their immense support and encouragement I also convey my in depth gratitude to our beloved principle Dr P. Srinivasa Babu
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