Human Rights 1195738519552204 2Presentation Transcript
HUMAN RIGHTS Presented by: Bharat Jhalani July 2008
The basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law. Human Rights Day is observed by the international community every year on 10 December .
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
The Magna Carta or "Great Charter" was the world's first document containing commitments by a sovereign to his people to respect certain legal rights.
Human rights commonly include:
security rights that prohibit crimes such as murder/"enforced" involuntary suicide, massacre, torture and rape
liberty rights that protect freedoms in areas such as belief and religion, association, assembling and movement
political rights that protect the liberty to participate in politics by expressing themselves, protesting, participating in a republic
due process rights that protect against abuses of the legal system such as arrest and imprisonment without trial, secret trials and excessive punishments
equality rights that guarantee equal citizenship, equality before the law and nondiscrimination
welfare rights (also known as economic rights) that require the provision of, e.g., education, paid holidays, and protections against severe poverty and starvation
Human rights violations
Human rights violations are abuses of people in ways that abuse any fundamental human rights.
It is a term used when a government violates national or international law related to the protection of human rights.
According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights fundamental human rights are violated when, among other things:
A certain race, creed, or group is denied recognition as a "person". (Articles 2 & 6)
Men and women are not treated as equal. (Article 2)
Different racial or religious groups are not treated as equal. (Article 2)
Life, liberty or security of person is threatened. (Article 3)
A person is sold as or used as a slave. (Article 4)
Cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment is used on a person (such as torture or execution). (Article 5) (See also Prisoners' rights)
Victims of abuse are denied an effective judicial remedy. (Article 8)
Punishments are dealt arbitrarily or unilaterally, without a proper and fair trial. (Article 11)
Arbitrary interference into personal, or private lives by agents of the state. (Article 12)
Citizens are forbidden to leave or return to their country. (Article 13)
Freedom of speech or religion is denied. (Articles 18 & 19)
The right to join a trade union is denied. (Article 23)
Education is denied. (Article 26)
In over 110 countries National human rights institutions (NHRIs) have been set up to protect, promote or monitor human rights in a given country.