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  1. 1. Democracy in Indian Neighbourhood Presented by: Bharat Jhalani July 2008
  2. 2. Pillars of Peace <ul><li>T hree pillars of peace can be identified: democracy, economic interdependence, and institutional mechanism to mitigate conflict. In South Asia, these three are not strong. Democracy is confined to India. The rest, &quot;illiberal democracies,&quot; may hold elections every now and then, but do not have other characteristics of democracy. There is no economic interdependence between South Asian countries, unlike in Southeast Asia. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Neighbourhood Nemesis <ul><li>India's most important challenge in the foreseeable future is the growing instability in its neighbourhood. </li></ul><ul><li>-Defense Minister A.K.Antony </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reason for that Instability <ul><li>One and the only reason for that instability is absence of a democracy or an effective democracy in Indian neighbourhood. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006 and 2007, five of the South Asian states entered the top 25 of Foreign Policy magazine's index of failed states: Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Nepal. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why India has to worry? <ul><li>Because when your neighbour catches fire you also feel the heat . </li></ul><ul><li>Troubled border areas. Huge expenditure on defense. </li></ul><ul><li>Migrants causing security and social problems. </li></ul>
  6. 6. A Weak State <ul><li>A weak state has deficiencies in three areas: security deficiency (security forces, both military and police are unable to provide basic security), participation deficiency (for example, absence of fair or impartial elections), infrastructure deficiency (poor physical infrastructure, literacy and health not accorded national priority). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Indicator of a Weak State <ul><li>mounting demographic pressures </li></ul><ul><li>massive movements of refugees </li></ul><ul><li>legacy of vengeance seeking groups </li></ul><ul><li>chronic and sustained human plight </li></ul><ul><li>uneven economic development along group lines </li></ul><ul><li>sharp economic decline </li></ul><ul><li>criminalization-of the state </li></ul><ul><li>progressive deterioration of public services </li></ul><ul><li>suspension or arbitrary application of the rule of law </li></ul><ul><li>widespread violations of human rights </li></ul><ul><li>intervention of other states or external actors </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pakistan <ul><li>The first Constitution of Pakistan was adopted in 1956, but was suspended in 1958 by General Ayub Khan. </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution of 1973, was suspended in 1977 by Zia-ul-Haq </li></ul><ul><li>military presidents ruling from 1958–71, 1977–88 and from 1999-08 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bangladesh <ul><li>Emergency law </li></ul><ul><li>No chances of election in distant future because of lack of coordination between election commission and govt. and political parties. </li></ul><ul><li>one of the world's poorest and most densely populated countries causing people migrating to India. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nepal <ul><li>New Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>On April 10, 2008, there was the first election in Nepal for the constitution assembly ending 239 years of royal rule. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sri Lanka <ul><li>Though a democracy but troublesome </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka was considered one of the &quot;world's most politically unstable countries&quot; by the World Bank and Asian Development Bank in 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>The Economist labels Sri Lanka a &quot;flawed democracy&quot; in its 2006 rankings </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy ranks Sri Lanka 25th in its Failed States Index for 2007 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Afghanistan <ul><li>Politics in Afghanistan has historically consisted of power struggles, bloody coups and unstable transfers of power. </li></ul><ul><li>The National Assembly – the first freely elected legislature in Afghanistan since 1973 – sat in December 2005, and was noteworthy for the inclusion of women as voters, candidates, and elected members. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other neighbours <ul><li>China is a communist authoritarian country. </li></ul><ul><li>Burma is governed by a strict military dictatorship. </li></ul>