Alternative Energy Sources


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Alternative Energy Sources

  1. 1. Alternative Energy Sources Presented by: Bharat Jhalani July 2008
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Power plays a great role wherever man lives and works. The living standard and prosperity of a nation vary directly with the increase in the use of power. The electricity requirement of the world is increasing at an alarming rate due to industrial growth, increased and extensive use of electrical gadgets. </li></ul>
  3. 3. We cant continue like this for long <ul><li>According to world energy report, we get around 80% of our energy from conventional fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>oil (36%), natural gas (21%) and coal (23%). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why cant we? <ul><li>Limited fossil fuels’ll soon going to get exhausted. </li></ul><ul><li>AND even before that earth will die out of high levels of greenhouse gases these fossil fuels emit. </li></ul><ul><li>This realisation prompted us to look for alternative energy sources. </li></ul>
  5. 5. BENEFITS OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY OPTIONS <ul><li>Help the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Use of renewable energy helps save the environment from further degradation and gives it an opportunity to regenerate. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide sustainable fuel systems </li></ul><ul><li>Afforestation and agro forestry, combined with the introduction of energy-efficient devices, can help to create a sustainable fuel-use system within the rural community and sustain the ecological balance of a region </li></ul>
  6. 6. BENEFITS OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY OPTIONS <ul><li>Provide better lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Better lighting enables the poor to stretch their period of economic activity; their children can help them in daily chores and then study in the evenings. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit women </li></ul><ul><li>Lower dependency on fuel wood and other household fuel sources reduces the drudgery of women by shortening or eliminating the distances they travel for fuel collection . </li></ul>
  7. 7. BENEFITS OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY OPTIONS <ul><li>Benefit human health </li></ul><ul><li>Use of improved cook stoves and biogas plants, for example, helps reduce or eliminate health problems associated with using conventional cook stoves, including respiratory diseases and eye problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance income </li></ul><ul><li>provide local employment opportunities through direct use of energy in small-scale industry and agriculture </li></ul>
  8. 8. What options we have? <ul><li>Nuclear Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear power stations use nuclear fission to generate energy by the reaction of uranium-235 inside a nuclear reactor. The reactor uses uranium rods, the atoms of which are split in the process of fission, releasing a large amount of energy. The process continues as a chain reaction with other nuclei. The heat released, heats water to create steam, which spins a turbine generator, producing electricity . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pros <ul><li>The energy content of a kilogram of uranium or thorium, if spent nuclear fuel is reprocessed and fully utilized, is equivalent to about 3.5 million kilograms of coal. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of making nuclear power is about the same as making coal power, which is considered very inexpensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear power plants are guarded with the nuclear reactor inside a reinforced containment building, and thus are relatively impervious to terrorist attack or adverse weather conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Coal mining is the second most dangerous occupation in the United States. Nuclear energy is much safer per capita than coal derived energy </li></ul><ul><li>For the same amount of electricity, the life cycle emissions of nuclear is about 4% of coal power </li></ul><ul><li>Fast breeder reactors have the potential to power humans on earth for billions of years, making it sustainable. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Biomass <ul><li>Biomass production involves using garbage or other renewable resources such as corn or other vegetation to generate electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass is grown from several plants, including miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sugarcane and palm oil. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Advantages <ul><li>Biomass production can be used to burn organic waste products resulting from agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass is abundant on Earth and is generally renewable. </li></ul><ul><li>When methods of biomass production other than direct combustion of plant mass are used, such as fermentation and pyrolysis, there is little effect on the environment. Alcohols and other fuels produced by these alternative methods are clean burning and are feasible replacements to fossil fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Since CO2 is first taken out of the atmosphere to make the vegetable oil and then put back after it is burned in the engine, there is no net increase in CO2. </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetable oil has a higher flash point and therefore is safer than most fossil fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Transitioning to vegetable oil could be relatively easy as biodiesel works where diesel works, and straight vegetable oil takes relatively minor modifications. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hydroelectric Energy <ul><li>In hydro energy, the gravitational descent of a river is compressed from a long run to a single location with a dam or a flume. </li></ul><ul><li>This creates a location where concentrated pressure and flow can be used to turn turbines or water wheels, which drive a mechanical mill or an electric generator. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Vantages <ul><li>Hydroelectric power stations can promptly increase to full capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity can be generated constantly, so long as sufficient water is available. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric power produces no primary waste or pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower is a renewable resource. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Wind Power <ul><li>This type of energy harnesses the power of the wind to propel the blades of wind turbines. These turbines cause the rotation of magnets, which creates electricity. Wind towers are usually built together on wind farms. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Advantages <ul><li>Wind power produces no water or air pollution that can contaminate the environment, because there are no chemical processes involved in wind power generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Power from the wind does not contribute to global warming because it does not generate greenhouse gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind generation is a renewable source of energy, which means that we will never run out of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming and grazing can still take place on land occupied by wind turbines. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the ability of wind turbines to coexist within agricultural fields, siting costs are frequently low </li></ul>
  16. 16. Solar Power <ul><li>Solar power involves using solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity, using sunlight hitting solar thermal panels to convert sunlight to heat water or air, using sunlight hitting a parabolic mirror to heat water (producing steam), or using sunlight entering windows for passive solar heating of a building. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Advantages <ul><li>Solar power imparts no fuel costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar power is a renewable resource. As long as the Sun exists, its energy will reach Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar power generation releases no water or air pollution, because there is no combustion of fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar energy can be used very efficiently for heating (solar ovens, solar water and home heaters) and day lighting. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Tidal Energy <ul><li>It is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal power can be extracted from Moon-gravity-powered tides by locating a water turbine in a tidal current, or by building impoundment pond dams that admit-or-release water through a turbine. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Pros <ul><li>It is clean, free, renewable, and sustainable energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Geothermal Energy <ul><li>Geothermal power (from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and thermal, meaning heat) is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earth's surface. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Pros <ul><li>the energy harnessed is clean and safe for the surrounding environment. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also sustainable because the hot water used in the geothermal process can be re injected into the ground to produce more steam </li></ul><ul><li>geothermal power plants are unaffected by changing weather conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal power plants work continuously, day and night, making them base load power plants. </li></ul><ul><li>From an economic view, geothermal energy is extremely price competitive in some areas and reduces reliance on fossil fuels and their inherent price unpredictability. </li></ul><ul><li>It also offers a degree of scalability: a large geothermal plant can power entire cities while smaller power plants can supply more remote sites such as rural villages. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>THANK YOU