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    World map report World map report Presentation Transcript

    • WORLD MAP Reported by: Francis R. Cuenca Mitzi Lou L.Ancog Karl MichaelV. Edquila
    • Let’s start with the basics… Map -Is a visual representation of an area -a symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of that space such as objects, regions, and themes
    • A little history  The earliest existing maps were made by the Babylonians about 2300 BC that were cut on clay tiles for the purposes of taxation.  Extensive regional maps drawn on silk and dating from the 2nd century BC, have been found in China.The ability and need to make maps would appear to be universal.  The art of mapmaking was advanced in both the Maya and Inca civilizations, and the Inca as early as the 12th century AD made maps of the lands they conquered.
    • Ptolemy’sMapoftheWorld This map shows the world as Greekgeographerand astronomerPtolemy envisionedit in the 2nd century ad. Ptolemy’s map, basedon the accounts ofsailors, traders, and armies who had traveledin Europe,Africa, and Asia, shows the Indian Ocean as an enclosedbodyof water. This misconceptionpersistedin Europe until 1488, when BartolomeuDias roundedthe Cape of GoodHopein southernAfrica and sailed from the Atlantic Oceanto the Indian Ocean.
    • World Map of the 15th Century This world map is attributed to 15th-century Italian mathematician Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli. Although his map contained the same cartographical errors that had existed since classical times, Toscanelli was among the first scholars to postulate that ships could reach Asia by sailing west from Europe, an idea later embraced by Christopher Columbus.
    • Early Map of Eastern Europe Early maps often served several purposes. They provided topographical details about a country as well as information about the area in relation to the navigator’s country. This map from about 1600 depicts the maritime commerce of Barcelona, Spain, with the Near East and the area around the Black Sea.
    • Globe  a model of the earth or of the heavens  Globes are a kind of map
    • World Map
    • World Map  a map of the surface of the Earth  are often either 'political' or 'physical‘  political map is to show territorial borders  physical map is to show features of geography such as mountains, soil type or land use
    • Political Map
    • Parts of a world map  Compass rose—a map, a nautical chart or a paving used to display the orientation of the cardinal directions, — north, south, east, and west —It is also the term for the graduated markings found on the traditional magnetic compass
    • Parts of a world map  Scale— the ratio representing the measurement of the distance and area in relation to the size of the actual object it represents Ex. 1(map) : 10,000(on the earth’s surface)
    • Parts of a world map  Map legend— since a map is a reduced representation of the real world, map symbols are used to represent real objects  e.g. Colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads.
    • Parts of a world map  Geographic grid—made up of meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude.  1884- an international prime meridian, passing through London's Greenwich Observatory, was officially designated. —By agreed convention, longitude is marked 180° east and 180° west from 0° at Greenwich, England. Latitude is marked 90° north and 90° south from the 0° parallel of the equator
    • PROJECTIONS
    • Mercator Projection  a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish (Belgian) geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator, in 1569  became the standard map projection for nautical purposes because of its ability to represent lines of constant course, known as rhumb lines or loxodromes, as straight segments  while the linear scale is constant in all directions around any point, thus preserving the angles and the shapes of small objects (which makes the projection conformal), the Mercator projection distorts the size and shape of large objects, as the scale increases from the Equator to the poles, where it becomes infinite  a modified form of cylindrical projection
    • Azimuthal projection  derived by projecting the globe onto a plane that may be tangent to it at any point  includes the gnomonic, orthographic, and stereographic plane projections  other types of plane projections are known as the azimuthal equal area and the azimuthal equidistant
    • Azimuthal projection (cont.)  gnomonic projection is assumed to be formed by rays projected from the center of the earth  In the orthographic projection the source of projecting rays is at infinity, and the resulting map resembles the earth as it would appear if photographed from outer space  source of projecting rays for the stereographic projection is a point diametrically opposite the tangent point of the plane on which the projection is made
    • Gnomonic projection
    • Stereographic projection
    • Orthographic projection
    • Azimuthal equidistant projection - Azimuthal equidistant projections are sometimes used to show air-route distances. Distances measured from the center are true. Distortion of other properties increases away from the center point.
    • Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area - This projection was developed by Lambert in 1772 and is typically used for mapping large regions like continents and hemispheres. It is an azimuthal equal-area projection, but is not perspective. Distortion is zero at the center of the projection, and increases radially away from this point.
    • More projections… (last na lang jud)  Mollweide projection is a pseudocylindrical map projection generally used for global maps of the world (or sky). Also known as the Babinet projection, homalographic projection, homolographic projection, and elliptical projection  A type of equal-area projection  Published by mathematician and astronomer Karl (or Carl) Brandan Mollweide (1774 – 1825) of Leipzig in 1805  Popularized by Jacques Babinet in 1857, giving it the name homalographic projection
    • Butterfly World Map projection  B.J.S.Cahill (Bernard Joseph Stanislaus Cahill, 1866- 1944), cartographer and architect, was the inventor of the octahedral "Butterfly Map" (published 1909; patented 1913)  Enabled all continents to be uninterrupted, and with reasonable fidelity to a globe  Cahill demonstrated this principle by also inventing a rubber-ball globe which could be flattened under a pane of glass in the "Butterfly" form, then return to its ball shape
    • Dymaxion Map Projection(Fuller Map)  A world map onto the surface of a polyhedron, which can be unfolded and flattened to two dimensions  Depicts the earth's continents as "one island," or nearly contiguous land masses  Created by Buckminster Fuller and patented by him during 1946  The title The Air-OceanWorld Map was used in the 1954 version. It used a modified but mostly regular icosahedron as the base for the projection
    • COMMON THEMES and/or TYPES OF MAPS
    • Economy World Map  Shows the location and distribution of economic activities around the world  Includes: business, exports and imports of materials, currency, population, food consumption, banks, etc.
    • Climate World Map  Shows the average weather or the regular variations in weather in a place such as country and region over a period of years  Includes: precipitation, temperature, storms, wind and pressure,
    • Amount of precipitation a year
    • Physical World Map  Shows the physical attributes of a place  Includes: topography (this includes elevation, water systems, and land formations) and geographical(underlying surface).
    • Shows elevation with the darkest color as the lowest and the brightest as the highest. Proof: Mt. Everest is in Nepal which is the red part above India.
    • Travel Map  Shows destinations people usually want to go to  Most commonly found (or sold) in stands for tourist spots such as the map of Philippines showing the most sought-after vacationing places.
    • Wala unta… wala unta… wala unta… please lang jud…
    • Sources:  WikiPedia  Microsoft Student with Encarta Premium 2009  Maps OfWorld (.com)  http://www.mgaqua.net/AquaDoc/Projection s/Projections_Azimuthal.aspx