It is an infection that causes diarrhea and
also called enteric fever
Caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi
It can spread through contaminated
food, drink, or water.
It can also spread through poor hygiene
habits and public sanitation
conditions, and sometimes also by flying
insects feeding on feces.
A slowly progressive fever as high as 40
°C (104 °F), profuse sweating
and gastroenteritis. Less
commonly, a rash of flat, rose-colored spots
Classically, the course of untreated
typhoid fever is divided into four individual
stages, each lasting approximately one
a slowly rising temperature with
relative bradycardia, malaise, headache
, and cough. A bloody nose (epistaxis) is
seen in a quarter of cases and
abdominal pain is also possible.
The patient lies prostrate with high
fever in plateau around 40
°C (104 °F) and bradycardia(sphygmoth
ermic dissociation), classically with
a dicrotic pulse wave. Delirium is
frequent, frequently calm, but sometimes
Intestinal hemorrhage due to bleeding
in congested Peyer's patches; this can
be very serious but is usually not fatal.
Intestinal perforation in the distal ileum:
this is a very serious complication and is
frequently fatal. It may occur without
alarming symptoms until septicaemia or
diffuse peritonitis sets in.
The fever is still very high and oscillates
very little over 24 hours. Dehydration
ensues and the patient is delirious
Fluids and electrolytes may be given
through a vein (intravenously), or you
may be asked to drink uncontaminated
water with electrolyte packets.
Appropriate antibiotics are given to kill
the bacteria. There are increasing rates
of antibiotic resistance throughout the
world, so your health care provider will
check current recommendations before
choosing an antibiotic.
YES!! There are vaccines and other
immunizations everywhere in the world
whether for travelling or for care.
Eventhough immunization is not always
completely effective you can also drink
only boiled or bottled water and eat well-
cooked food. Studies of an oral live
attenuated typhoid vaccine are now under
way and appear promising.