Typhoid fever

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What is Typhoid fever, causes, symptoms, prevention and cure...

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Typhoid fever

  1. 1. By: Julian PhilipA. Soriano
  2. 2.  It is an infection that causes diarrhea and a rash  also called enteric fever  Caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi
  3. 3.  It can spread through contaminated food, drink, or water.  It can also spread through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions, and sometimes also by flying insects feeding on feces.
  4. 4. GENERALLY: A slowly progressive fever as high as 40 °C (104 °F), profuse sweating and gastroenteritis. Less commonly, a rash of flat, rose-colored spots may appear Classically, the course of untreated typhoid fever is divided into four individual stages, each lasting approximately one week.
  5. 5. 1st WEEK: a slowly rising temperature with relative bradycardia, malaise, headache , and cough. A bloody nose (epistaxis) is seen in a quarter of cases and abdominal pain is also possible.
  6. 6. 2nd WEEK: The patient lies prostrate with high fever in plateau around 40 °C (104 °F) and bradycardia(sphygmoth ermic dissociation), classically with a dicrotic pulse wave. Delirium is frequent, frequently calm, but sometimes agitated.
  7. 7. 3rd WEEK: Intestinal hemorrhage due to bleeding in congested Peyer's patches; this can be very serious but is usually not fatal. Intestinal perforation in the distal ileum: this is a very serious complication and is frequently fatal. It may occur without alarming symptoms until septicaemia or diffuse peritonitis sets in.
  8. 8. 4th WEEK: The fever is still very high and oscillates very little over 24 hours. Dehydration ensues and the patient is delirious (typhoid state).
  9. 9.  Fluids and electrolytes may be given through a vein (intravenously), or you may be asked to drink uncontaminated water with electrolyte packets.  Appropriate antibiotics are given to kill the bacteria. There are increasing rates of antibiotic resistance throughout the world, so your health care provider will check current recommendations before choosing an antibiotic.
  10. 10. YES!! There are vaccines and other immunizations everywhere in the world whether for travelling or for care. Eventhough immunization is not always completely effective you can also drink only boiled or bottled water and eat well- cooked food. Studies of an oral live attenuated typhoid vaccine are now under way and appear promising.

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