Genessa Rica R. Bolante
Wensette B. Ladion
Leira Jim V. Tangian
Destruction of all forms
Heating- common method
used for sterilization
Usually done by steam
under pressure or a
Sufficient heat treatment to kill
endospores of Clostridium
botulinum in canned food.
More resistant endospores of
thermophilic bacteria may
survive, but will not germinate and
grow under normal storage
May make us of
physical or chemical
on living tissue.
Treatment is almost
always by chemical
Removal of microbes from a limited
area such as the skin around an
Mostly a mechanical removal by an
Treatment intended to
lower microbial counts on
eating and drinking utensils
to safe public health
Maybe done with high
temperature washing or by
dipping into a chemical
Usually have the suffix –
cide, meaning kill.
1) Biocide/Germicide – kills
microorganisms (usually with
certain exceptions, such as
2) Fungicide – kills fungi.
Other treatments only inhibit the growth
and multiplication of bacteria. Their names
have the suffix –stat or –stasis, meaning to
stop or to study.
NOTE: Once a bacteriostatic agent is
removed, growth might resume.
Sepsis, from the Greek for decay or putrid
, indicates bacterial contamination, as in
septic tanks for sewage treatments.
means that an object or area is
free of pathogens. Aseptic
techniques are important in surgery
to minimize contaminations from the
personnel, and the patient. Aseptic
packaging is used in the food-
processing industry to make
packages in a sterile environment
that are then filled with presterilized
population are heated or
they usually die at a
The number of microbes. The more microbes
to begin with, the longer it takes to eliminate
the entire population.
Environmental Influences. The presence of
organic matter often inhibits the action of
Time of exposure. Longer exposure to lower
heat can produce the same effect as shorter
time at higher heat. The effects of irradiation
on microbes, other factors being equal, are
also very dependent upon time of exposure.
Microbial Characteristics. The concluding
section of this report discusses how microbial
characteristics affect chemical and physical