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Pcra lecture (camotes pcra orientation)
 

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    Pcra lecture (camotes pcra orientation) Pcra lecture (camotes pcra orientation) Presentation Transcript

    • Lecture Outline 1.Importance of Coastal Resource Assessment 2. Why Protection and Management of our coastal resources are critical? 3.Participatory Coastal Resource Assessment (PCRA) 4 CSCST-FIC fisheries research from conceptualization , implementation, presentations and publication Expected output: Concept paper production and presentation
    • Values of Phil. Coastal Resources  -coastal ecosystems of the Phil. aSouthre some of the most productive and biologically diverse in the world.  Phil. lies in a rich biogeographic area in South east Asia
    •  Coastal ecosystems in the Phil . And all over SEA are under stress from the combined impacts of human overexploitation, physical disturbance ,pollution, sedimentation and general neglect
    • Why manage our coastal resources  Huge natural and economic resource in the country  Food supply  Livelihood  Other revenue and quality environment Management implies wise use and maintenance of the resource
    • Issue identification and baseline assessment CRM plan preparation and adoption Action plan and project implementation Local legislation Coastal law enforcement Regulation External revenue sources Annual program preparation and budgeting Revenue generation Monitoring and evaluation Information management, education and outreach Issue identification and baseline assessment CRM plan preparation and adoption Action plan and project implementation Local legislation Coastal law enforcement Regulation Local legislation Coastal law enforcement Regulation External revenue sources External revenue sources Annual program preparation and budgeting Annual program preparation and budgeting Revenue generation Revenue generation Monitoring and evaluation Information management, education and outreach The CRM Cycle
    • Commitment and Willingness of the LGU and the Communities  Data gathering, consolidation and analysis  Community consultations  Drafting of plan  Legislation  Implementation, monitoring and evaluation The Planning Process
    • Objectives: 1. Provide the rationale for PCRA in the context of good governance in CRM 2. Familiarize participants with some participatory methods and apply these in actual coastal habitat, fisheries and socio-economic assessment 3. Compile a preliminary coastal environment and socio- economic and cultural profile based on PCRA results 4. Analyze results to identify issues and recommend possible management guidelines.
    • Importance of PCRA: • facilitates validation of the status of coastal habitats and resources, their current uses and resource users by local community members •generates quantitative technical descriptions of coastal habitats and resources (e.g. fisheries) •documents local and indigenous knowledge crucial for CRM •generates baseline information for the formulation of management strategies •generates baseline information for monitoring and evaluation (i.e. revision and refinement of management actions)
    • Why is it important to be participatory? •Facilitates broader understanding of coastal resources uses and users so that communities can make informed decisions about how to best manage local coastal resources •Provides an opportunity to develop and enhance the knowledge of local communities •Contributes to community empowerment •Enhances ownership in decision-making •Facilitates consensus building and information dissemination
    • • coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves are major life-support systems - source of products and diverse fishery resources - serve as nursery and feeding grounds - provide areas for recreation and tourism - prevent soil erosion and stabilize coastal areas - buffer wave action and protect coastlines Coastal Habitats and Fisheries
    • 1. Community Resource and Resource Use Map • Collective perception of a group of community members about the spatial distribution of coastal resources and habitats Validated and enriched during PCRA Data Collation and Analysis
    • 2. Indicative Zoning Map Initial delineation of primary uses in particular areas based on analysis of PCRA results
    • Expected Intermediate Outputs of PCRA 1. Spatial and temporal profile of coastal habitats and fisheries 2. Identification of issues to be addressed 3. Preliminary recommendations and possible management guidelines •To be presented for feedback and validation during baranggay consultations
    • COASTAL AND MARINECOASTAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMECOSYSTEM Ecosystem Is the basic functional unit of ecology in which both the biotic communities (living) and the abiotic (non- living) environment are inseparably connected and interact, maintaining the equilibrium necessary for life
    • Coastal Zone/Area • a band of dry land and adjacent ocean space within a landward limit of 1km from the shoreline at high tide and within a seaward limit of 200m isobath. •Includes adjacent upland and watershed areas that affect and influence coastal ecosystems. •Contains a number of ecosystems with biophysical properties and processes. •
    • Important Marine/Coastal Ecosystem Mangrove Forests Seagrass BedsCoral reefs Estuaries
    • CoralCoral reefsreefs
    • What are Coral Reefs •“rain forest of the sea” •One of the most complex and diverse ecosystems in the world •Primarily consist of hard corals •Slow growing colonies of animals with growth rate ranging between 0.1cm and 10 cm per year in length •Occur along shallow, tropical coastlines •Consist of large and rigid structural mass of calcium carbonate (limestone) formed by cemented skeletal remains resulting from the successive growth and development of reef-building corals •Up to 3,000 species of marine animals may co-exist in a single reef •Can grow to tens of meters high and as long as 2,000 km •18,000 km2 of coral reef areas in the Phils. •1 km2 coral reef = 20 tons of fishes per year
    • Corals •Colonies of small animals •Each living unit contains algal populations (zooxanthellae) within it own tissue (capable for photosynthesis), providing an energy source for both the coral and the algae •Growth rates ranging between 0.1cm and 10cm per year in length
    • Figure 1. Coral reefs contribute about 30% of the fish catch in the country. The Philippines has an estimated 27,000 km2 of coral reefs which occupy 7% our of 30% of coral reefs in Asia. Ecological Limits required for reef survival: >temperature (18-300C) >salinity (30-36ppt) >Sedimentation must be low so that the water is clear sufficient circulation of nutrient-limited and pollution-free water
    • Coral reefs are grouped into one of three categories: (a) fringing reefs, (b) barrier reefs, and (c) atoll.
    • Benefits derived from coral reefs •Home to various species of corals, benthic algae, fish molluscs and crustaceans •Protect the coasts from storms and waves •Popular areas for ecotourism and recreation •Source of medicine Threats to coral reefs •Siltation and sedimentation •Raw domestic wastes •Industrial and agricultural pollution •Construction near reef areas •Uncontrolled tourism activities •Natural causes •Destructive fishing practices Dead coral covered with silt
    • How well are the coral reefs in your area? To be able to know the status of your reef in your area. The community shall conduct a monitoring scheme to be able to identify the changes done over a period of time. Thus, promote suggestive action for reef restoration and preservation. How to monitor? There are a lot of ways in monitoring the reef in which all throughout has been used by scientist. However, to name a few wherein even a local fisherfolk can participate and can easily understand: • Manta Tow Survey • Point Intercept Transect • Coral Reef Fish Visual Census
    • Coral Reef Assessment
    • Manta Tow Definition A manta tow survey is the observation of an underwater area of good visibility by a snorkeler who is being pulled by a small boat. Purpose Manta tows are used to get a general idea of the various types and amounts of habitat types and large obvious things in an area. The information incurred from the survey may be used:  To help in the selection of sites and number of samples for closer observation  For comparison wit h local perception of the coastal area  In the detection of large scale changes (e.g. due to storms and mass siltation Requirements •Mask and snorkel (antipara) •Small boat and fuel •Manta board •Pencil attached to slate •GPS or Compass •Map of the area
    • Methods 1. Copy a map of the area onto a slate 2. On the map, plan and mark the tow survey path 3. Choose the items (e.g. live hard coral, dead coral, soft coral, sand/silt etc.) to estimate. 4. Attach the manta board to the boat using the rope or if no available board, the observer may cling unto the boat. 5. When the observer (snorkeler) is ready and gives the “ok” signal, tow the observer parallel and over the reef edge along the area to be surveyed. 6. During each tow, the observer estimates the approximate % cover of the items chosen in step 3. The area viewed is up to 10m wide depending on depth and water clarity. 7. After 2 minutes of towing (around 100 to 150m), the timer should inform the driver and the observer to pause and take notes. 8. The observer then records onto the board the tow number and his/her observations of the last 2-minute tow. 9. Repeat step 5-8 until the entire planned tow path has been surveyed.
    • MANTA TOW DATA FORM FORM 3 Site Name: No. Municipality & Province: Time/Mapper: Date (month/day/year): Time: Observer: Notes (e.g. crown-of-thorns starfish, Diadema urchins, algae, etc) Tow No. Start Time Location Estimate % Substrate cover Latitude & Longitude/Compass bearing/Landmarks Depth (m) Hard Coral Soft Coral Dead Coral DC w/ Algae Sand /Silt Start End 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
    • OK!/ Start Tow STOP! LEFT! RIGHT! FASTER! SLOWER Hand Signals (for manta tow)
    • Definition Snorkel survey is a method used by a snorkler for estimating the relative abundance of living and non-living things on the reef bottom observed within a defined area. Purpose The snorkler survey estimates the abundabce of hard corals, dead corals, algae, and various reef substrates which may reflect the health of the reef. Requirements • Mask & snorkel (antipara) • 50-m transect line • Underwater slates • Pencil attached to the slates • Fins and life jacket (optional) • Picture book of plants or animal types to be quantified • boat Snorkel Survey
    • Methods 1. Select representative sampling stations to be surveyed/monitored based on the manta tow results. 2. Copy the data Form 4A (with the selected benthic lifeform types) onto the plastic slates used for writing underwater) 3. Lay the transect line on a constant depth contour. Record the depth 4. Starting at one of the transect line, the snorkeler swims over the transect estimating the % cover of each benthic life form w/in 2.5 m on either side of the transect until the 5-m mark. The estimates of each 5 x 5 m quadrat should total 100% 5. Similarly record each 5-m interval until the entire 50-m transect line has been observed. 6. Add the 10 readings and divide by 10
    • BENTHIC LIFEFORMS & INVERTEBRATES DATA FORM Site Name Municipality and Province: Transect No.: Scuba: Snorkel: Coordinates Date(mo/day/yr): Benthos observer: Invertebrates observer: Horizontal water visisbility (m): Depth (m): Reef Zone: Topography: Slope: Habitat Notes BENTHIC LIFE FORMS Tally number pts or est. % occupied by each lifeform e.g. IIII-IIII-IIII-II or 12%+34% +22%... Total Count % Cover Coral HC Live Hard Coral Buhi nga gahi SC Soft Coral Buhi nga humok Dead coral DC White dead coral Patay nga gahi DCA Dead coral with algae Patay nga gahi nga naay lumot Other Animal SP Sponges Spongha OT Other animals Uban pang matang
    • Plants TA Turf algae Lumot MA Fleshy macroalgae Samo/layog-layog CA Coralline algae Lumot SG Seagrass Lusay Non-living R Rubble Dugmok nga bato RCK Rock Bato S/SI Sand/Silt balas TOTAL 100% INVERTEBRATES # within 5-m width Causes of Coral Damage Diadema Put x if found on corals.Circle the box of dominant forms Pencil urchin Sediment seaweed overgrowth Crown-of-thorns sea star; dap-ag Blasting pattern coral eating snails Giant clam; Taklobo Anchor damage cron-of-thorns Triton Shell; tambuli Other breakage plastics Lobster; banagan Bleaching other trash Sea cucumber; balat Black band disease other causes
    • DATA SUMMARY FORM Form 5B Site Name: Municipality & Province Zone/sector Month & year Transect #: Types/groups Subtotal Total Avg Sub Total Total Avg
    • Different Benthic Lifeforms
    • CORAL BRANCHING
    • CORAL SUBMASSIVE
    • CORAL DIGITATE
    • MASSIVE CORAL
    • CORAL ENCRUSTING
    • FIRE CORAL
    • FOLIOSE BRANCHING
    • BLUE CORAL
    • ORGAN PIPE CORAL
    • SOFT CORAL
    • SPONGE
    • MUSHROOM CORAL
    • ANEMONE
    • DEAD CORAL
    • DEAD CORAL WITH ALGAE
    • CORAL RUBBLE
    • Common Invertebrates (indicator)
    • SEA URCHINS (DIADEMA SP.)
    • SEA STAR
    • LOBSTER
    • GIANT CLAM
    • BANDED CORAL SHRIMP
    • PENCIL URCHIN
    • CROWN-OF-THORN SEA STAR
    • SEA CUCUMBER
    • Fish Visual Census Definition Fish visual census is the identification and counting of fishes observed within a defined area. Purpose Fish visual census can be used to estimate the variety, numbers, and even sizes of common, easily-seen, easily-identified fishes in areas of good visibility. Requirements •Mask and snorkel (Antipara) •1 or 2 (50-m) transect lines •Underwater slates •Pencil (attached to the slate) •fins (optional) •Picture book of animals (e.g. reef fishes) to be counted •Boat (optional)
    • Methods 1. Select representative sampling stations and fish types to be census 2. Copy the data Form (for FVC) onto the slates and draw columns for different size classes. 3. Lay the transect line on a constant depth contour. Record the depth 4. Wait 10-15 minutes for the disturbed fishes to return. Be careful not to disturb the fishes during the census. 5. Starting at one end of the line, each observer floats on each side of the transect line while observing 5m to his/her side of the transect and forward until the next 5m mark. 6. Both observers swim to and stop every 5m along the line to record the counts of fish per size class until the transect is completed. 7. Total counts on both sides and transcribe onto Data Form (for FVC). 8. Standardize the subtotal by sample size: Divide the total counts by the number of transect actually observed Example: (Parrotfish) 12+8+9+20+6 = 11 fishes/transect 5 transects
    • Common Reef Fish Families Lapu-lapu, pogapo, sono Katambak, awoman, mayamaya, islawan lipti Katambak, dugso Dalagang bukid, solid Silay timbongan
    • Common Reef Fish Families Indangan, lababhita, sunghan, bagis labayanadloAlibangbang, pisos-pisos molmol Dangit, kitong, samaral Pata. Kapaw, palata Bilong-bilong
    • MURAENIDAE: EEL
    • SERRANIDAE: GROUPER SERRANIDAE:GROUPER
    • MULLIDAE:GOAT FISH
    • POMACANTHIDAE:ANGELFISH
    • LUTJANIDAE:SNAPPER
    • ACANTHURIDAE:SURGEONFISH
    • LABRIDAE:WRASSE
    • POMACENTRIDAE:DAMSEL
    • SCARIDAE:PARROTFISH
    • LABRIDAE:WRASSE
    • HAEMULIDAE:SWEETLIPS
    • NEMIPTERIDAE:EMPEROR
    • CHAETODONTIDAE:BUTTERFLYFISH
    • CAESIONIDAE:FUSILIERS
    • BALISTIDAE:TRIGGERFISH
    • SIGANIDAE:RABBITFISH
    • CARANGIDAE:TREVALLIES
    • ZANCLIDAE:MOORISH IDOL
    • SPHYRAENIDAE:BARRACUDA
    • HOLOCENTRIDAE:SOLDIERFISH/SQUIRRELFISH
    • MUGILIDAE:MULLET
    • PINGUIPEDIDAE:SANDPERCH
    • AULOSTOMIDAE/FISTULARIDAE:TRUMPETFISH/FLUTEMOUTH
    • SCORPAENIDAE:SCORPIONFISH/LIONFISH
    • APOGONIDAE:CARDINALFISH
    • BELONIDAE:NEEDLEFISH
    • EPHIPPIDAE:BATFISH
    • OSTRACIIDAE:COWFISH/TRUNKFISH
    • MONACANTHIDAE:LEATHERJACKET
    • BOTHIIDAE:SOLEFISH
    • PRIACANTHIDAE/TETRAODONTHIDAE:BIG-EYE/PUFFERFISH
    • FISH ABUNDANCE DATA FORM FORM 5A Site Name: Municipality & Province: Transect No.: Depth (m): Coordinates Date (mo/day/yr): Time: Left Observer: Right Observer: Habitat Notes: Horizontal Angle of Transect visibility (m): Slope: Orientation FAMILY Species Record No. of fishes per class 1-10 cm 11-20 cm 21-30 cm Specify sizes for >30 cm <EPINEPHELINAE>* Groupers;lapulapu <LUTJANIDAE>* Snappers;maya-maya <HAEMULIDAE>* Sweetlips;grunts;lipti <LETHRINIDAE>* Emperors;katambak CARANGIDAE* Jacks;trevallies;talakitok CAESIONIDAE* Fusiliers;dalagang-bikid;solid Barramundi cod;senorita
    • NEMIPTERIDAE* CORAL BREAMS;silay MULLIDAE* goatfishes;timbongan BALISTIDAE triggerfishes;pakol CHAETODONTIDAE butterflyfishes;alibangbang POMACANTHIDAE Angelfishes;adlo LABRIDAE Wrasses;labayan (SCARIDAE)* Parrotfishe;molmol (ACANTHURIDAE)* Surgeonfishes;indangan (SIGANIDAE)* Rabbitfihses;kitong;danggit (KYPHOSIDAE)* Rudderfish;ilak (POMACENTRIDAE Damselfishes;palata Humphead wrasse;mameng Bumphead parrotfish;taungan
    • ANTHIINAE fairy bassletss;bilongbilong Zanclus cornutus Sharks;Iho Rays;pagi Sea turtles;pawikan Others: e.g. tuna; tulingan Legend:<fishes> = major reef carnivores; (fishes) = major reef herbivores, fishes= fishes which are indicators of hard corals, * = fishery target families
    • DATA SUMMARY FORM Form 5B Site Name: Municipality & Province Zone/sector Month & year Transect #: Types/groups Subtotal Total Avg Sub Total Total Avg
    • BENTHOS GRAPHING FORM Form 4D Site Name: Municipality & Province: Month & year Zone/sector
    • Seagrass Assessment
    • Requirements • Mask and snorkel (/Antipara) • 100-m rope (approx. 10mm diameter marked at every 10-m) • Pencil (attached to the slate) • Underwater slates • Geographic Positioning System receiver (GPS) or compass • Map of the area • Quadrat (1m x 1m) Methods 1. Select representative sampling stations to be surveyed/monitored 2. Record the position of each transect. The start (shore end) of the transect is the most useful reference 3. Survey at least 3 replicate transect at each site. Swim the transect along perpendicular to the shore. The length of the transect depends on the size of the seagrass meadows, and should extend to outer limits of the bed (where seagrass disappears). 4. Place the quadrat to every interval of 10m along the transect. 5. Estimate the % cover of the plants (per species) found in each quadrat and tally it on the slate board. The sum of the% per species should have an equivalent of 100% in every quadrat. 6. Transfer data to the Form and calculate the mean percentage cover in each species.
    •  Example:  Species Q1 Q2 Q3 Mean  H. ovalis 15% 20% 10% 15%  H. minor 40% 50% 30% 40%  Sand 45% 30% 60% 55%  Total 100% 100% 100% 100%
    • NUTRIENT INDICATOR ALGAE
    • PADINA SP.
    • CAULERPA: SEA GRAPES
    • HALIMEDA SP.
    • HALIMEDA SP.
    • Seagrass Beds flowering terrestrial plants adapted to living submerged in seawater seed-producing marine plants reproduce by vegetative spreading and by production and dispersal of seeds
    • Common Seagrass Genus
    • Seagrass Beds Importance:  bottom stabilizer  sediment trap  maintains water quality  source of food of various marine organisms Threats:  illegal and destructive fishing methods  aquaculture  sedimentation and siltation
    • Tropical eelgrass Enhalus acoroides
    • Dugong grass Thalassia hemprichii
    • Fiber-strand grass Halodule uninervis Halodule pinifolia
    • Round & toothed seagrass Cymodocea rotundata Cymodocea serrulata
    • Spoon grass Halophila minor Halophila ovalis Halophila becarri
    • woody sea grass Thalassodendron ciliatum
    • Syringe grass Syringodium isoetifolium
    • Parameters Measured: Expected Output: • species of segrass and macro invertebrates •% cover of segrass •Substrate type •Species composition •Average % seagrass cover •Density of macroinvertebrates 1. Transect Quadrat Method
    • Halophila ovalis
    • Halodule uninervis Halodule uninervis
    • Halophila minor
    • Halophila decipiens
    • Halophila spinulosa
    • Halodule pinifolia
    • Enhalus acoroides Thalassia hemprichii
    • Figure 4. Fisherfolk laying the quardrat
    • Cymodocea rotundataCymodocea serrulata
    • Syringodium isoetifolium Thalassodendron ciliatum
    • Seagrass Assessment Definition Seagrass assessment is the identification and estimation of seagrass species covering within a defined area. Purpose Seagrass assessment is used to more precisely estimate the abundance of seagrass species which may reflect the health of the reef. What is a Seagrass? A seagrass is a flowering plant, complete with leaves, a rhizome and a root system. They are found in marine or estuarine waters. Most seagrass species are located in soft (silty or sandy) sediments. Seagrasses worldwide encompass only about 58 species (Kuo and McComb, 1989). Benefits derived from seagrass beds: > Helps reduce wave and current energy > Help to filter suspended sediments from the water; > Stabilize bottom sediments > Breeding area for selected fish species > Used as processing feritilizers Seaweeds > Consumed as food Seaweeds Threats to seagrass beds: > Siltation and sedimentation > Overharvesting > Pollution
    • Mangrove Forest tropical inshore communities dominated by several species of trees or shrubs that have the ability to grow in salt water; well developed in estuarine areas; Requirements for growth: moderate salinity (25 ppt) neutral acidity (pH 6 to 7) year-round warm temperature regular surface-water flushing exposure to moderate terrestrial-water runoff
    • Adaptations shallow rooted; prop roots; pneumatophores; tough and succulent leaves; reproductive strategy
    • Common Mangrove Genus Avicennia Bruguiera Rhizophora Sonneratia
    • Importance:  provide protection from erosion and typhoons  feeding/breeding ground of various organisms  maintains water quality  source of timber products  provide shelter for coastal communities Threats:  land conversion and reclamation  unsustainable harvest of timber products Mangrove Forests
    • Parameters measured: •encountered species; •number of mature trees; •number of saplings; •number of seedlings •diameter at breast height (DBH) •total plant height Expected Output: • species diversity • relative abundance of seedlings saplings, trees (per hectare) •stem density (per hectare) •basal area 1. Transect Plot Method
    • Coastal Fishery Resources - fish, invertebrates, seaweeds
    • Common Gear Types
    • Economic benefits from fisheries and coastal ecosystems Municipal fisheries- food security and livelihood Total fishery production per fishery sector • comprise ~32% of total fishery production Contribution to employment per fishery sector • provides employment to 5% of the national labor force; ~68% involved in municipal fisheries
    • Municipal fisheries production is declining Trends of catch per unit effort since 1948 • legally most municipal waters are reserved exclusively for use of municipal fishers Total fishery production trends per sector