are mental health problems
(depression, bipolar disorder, and
mania) that affects daily activities.
Neurotransmitter (a brain chemical)
-Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
-Depressive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (DD-NOS)
-Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (BD-NOS)
Major Depressive Disorder:
› Also known as “unipolar depression”
unipolar depression: remaining at one state of
› Occurs when a person has one or more
cases of depression.
› Could cause the person to commit suicide.
› Happens when a person experiences low
mood for two years.
› Affected people are subject to secondary
episodes of major depression (known as
› Not as severe as MDD
Recurrent Brief Depression (DD-NOS)
› Depressions occuring once a month
› Episodes of depressions last for no more than
Minor Depressive Disorder (DD-NOS)
› Characterized by two symptoms of a major
disorder occuring for two weeks or less.
Happens when mania and depression
alternates (rapidly or non-rapidly) or mix.
Also known as “manic depression”.
› distinguished by the presence or history of
one or more manic episodes or
sometimes mixed episodes with or without
major depressive episodes.
› consisting of recurrent and
intermittent hypomanic and depressive
› Characterized by recurrent hypomanic
and dysthymic episodes, without full manic
episodes or full major depressive episodes.
Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
› Occurs when a patient is afflicted by
symptoms of bipolar disorder not qualifying
for a formal bipolar disorder.
Changes in appetite
Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, helplessness or
Hostility or aggression
Irritability and mood changes
Loss of interest in daily life
Problems interacting with loved ones
Abnormally high energy level
Feelings of omnipotence
Impulsive behaviors such as spending
Talking fast or switching conversational
Feelings of wanting to die
Hearing voices or seeing things that do
Inability to care for your basic needs
Suicidal thoughts or expression of suicidal
Treatments is based on:
your age, overall health, and medical
extent of the condition
type of mood disorder
your tolerance for specific medications,
procedures, or therapies
expectations for the course of the condition
your opinion or preference
(note: the ff. are to be determined by a
antidepressant medications: effective when
combined with psychotherapy in treating
Psychotherapy: most often cognitive-
behavioral and/or interpersonal therapy
that is focused on changing the individual's
distorted views of themselves and the
environment around them, working through
difficult relationships, and identifying
stressors in the environment and how to
family therapy: since the family plays a vital