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This is a powerpoint presentation entitled Introduction to botany. This was discussed in our Bio 103: Fundamentals in Plant Biology.

This is a powerpoint presentation entitled Introduction to botany. This was discussed in our Bio 103: Fundamentals in Plant Biology.

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  • In gardening, annual often refers to a plant grown outdoors in the spring and summer and surviving just for one growing season. Many food plants are, or are grown as, annuals, including virtually all domesticated grains
    A biennial plant is a flowering plant that takes two years to complete its biological lifecycle.[1] In the first year the plant grows leaves, stems, and roots (vegetative structures), then it enters a period of dormancy over the colder months. Usually the stem remains very short and the leaves are low to the ground, forming a rosette. Many biennials require a cold treatment, or vernalization, before they will flower. During the next spring or summer, the stem of the biennial plant elongates greatly, or "bolts". The plant then flowers, producing fruits and seeds before it finally dies. There are far fewer biennials than either perennial plants or annual plants.
    A perennial plant or simply perennial (Latin per, "through", annus, "year") is a plant that lives for more than two years.[1] The term is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter lived annuals and biennials. The term is sometimes misused by commercial gardeners or horticulturalists to describe only herbaceous perennials. More correctly, woody plants like shrubs and trees are also perennials.


  • 1. FUNDAMENTALS OFFUNDAMENTALS OF PLANT BIOLOGYPLANT BIOLOGY (Bio 103)(Bio 103) Nanette Hope N. Sumaya, MSc Department of Biological Sciences CSM, MSU-IIT, Iligan City , Philippines
  • 2. COURSE DESCRIPTIONCOURSE DESCRIPTION Overview of plant body, plant functioning, reproduction and embryonic development, growth and development
  • 3. Course Coverage 1- Brief Introduction - Forms of Plants 2- Microscopy (lab part) 3- Cells and Tissues -Plant Cells -Plant Tissues 4- Organs - Roots -Stems -Leaves -Flowers -Fruits -Seeds Reproductive Parts PRELIM MIDTER M
  • 4. Cont... 5- Physiology -Water Relations -Photosynthesis -Cellular Respiration 6-Plant Movements FINALS
  • 5.  Examination – 60%  Quizzes – 15 %  Reporting/Oral - 10%  Attendance and Assignments- 15% TOTAL – 100% GradingGrading SystemSystem
  • 6. Course Materials References:  Mauseth, J.D. 1998. Botany: an introduction to plant biology—2/e, Multimedia enhanced ed. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Sudbury, Massachusetts.  Raven, P.H., R.F. Evert, and S.E. Eichorn. 1999. Biology of Plants. 6th Edition. W.H. Freeman and Co., New York.
  • 7. Describe plantsDescribe plants
  • 8. Botany is a branch of biology whichis a branch of biology which deals with the study of with the study of PLANTS. Modern plantsModern plants studiesstudies
  • 9.  Kingdom Plantae  Over 325, 000 species of plants known  Have different characteristics with different sizes ranging from microscopic to macroscopic  Diversity of plant forms leads to classification  Various classification scheme - based on water requirements - based on habitat or environment location -based on life duration -based on natural system classification -based on their habit of body appearance FORM OF PLANTS
  • 10. Autotrophic or independent plants - Can manufacture their own food - Include ALL green plants which make their organic food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS - Also few non-green plants just like bacteria which manufacture their organic food
  • 11. A. Based on Water Requirements 1. Mesophytes – those which require moderate supply of water. 2. Xerophytes – those which live in deserts or dry places and can withstand scanty supply of water. 3. Hydrophytes – those which thrive in watery or moist places and require abundant supply of water. 4. Halophytes- those which live in watery places, but in which the water is
  • 12. Mesophytes Rosa multiflora Leucanthemum vulgareSolidago canadensis
  • 13. Xerophytes Cereus peruvianus Euphorbia virosa
  • 14. Hydrophytes- aquatic plants Water lilies Nymphaea alba Nelumbo nucifera Water hyacinth
  • 15. Halophytes Seagrasses are found on the seaward edges of lagoons Mangroves Salicornia bigelovii
  • 16. B. Based on their habitat or environment location 1. Aquatic plants- live in water 2. Terrestrial plants- live on land 3. Aerial plants- are above- ground and attached to other plants
  • 17. C. Based on their life duration 1. Annual plants – live for one year or only one growing season 2. Biennial plants – live for two years. The first year is mainly limited to vegetative growth, and the second year is its reproductive year 3. Perennial plants – live from year to year or more than two years
  • 18. Examples:  annual plants - corn, wheat, rice, lettuce, peas, watermelon, beans, zinnia, marigold and etc.  biennial plants - onion, parsley, carrot, and etc.  perennial plants – fruits like avocado,pineapple, strawberry, banana,apple,tomato and etc.. -herbs like garlic, basil, oregano, ginger, black pepper and etc... -vegetables like okra, potato, gabi, camote, eggplant and etc - shrubs and trees
  • 19. D. Based on their habit of body appearance 1. Trees – woody plants with single main stem which is commonly about 20 ft in length 2. Shrubs– woody plants in a relatively short 3. Herbs – plants with soft or succulent stems 4. Vines- climbing or twining plants, with stems which may be tender or tough
  • 20. Nonvascular Plants- lack vascular plants´ specialized means of transporting water and organic nutrients, do not have true roots, stems and leaves. a. Division Hepatophyta (liverworts) b. Division Bryophyta (mosses) c. Division Anthocerophyta (hornworts) E. Based on natural systems of classification
  • 21. Seedless Vascular Plants: a. Division Psilotophyta (whisk ferns) b. Division Lycopodophyta (club mosses) c. Division Equisetophyta (horsetails) d. Division Pteridophyta (ferns) Seed Vascular Plants: Gymnosperms a. Division Pinophyta (conifers) b. Division Cycadophyta (cycads) c. Division Gingkophyta (maidenhair tree) d. Division Gnetphyta (gnetophytes) Angiosperms a. Division Magnoliophyta (flowering plants) Class Magnoliopsida (dicots) Class Liliopsida (monocots)
  • 22.  Divisions Bryophyta, Hepatophyta, Anthocerophyta –liverworts, mosses, hornworts. All are non- vascular and non-seed.
  • 23. Seedless vascular plants
  • 24. Divisions Psilotophyta, Lycopodophyta, Equisetophyta, Pteridophyta whisk ferns, horsetails, and ferns vascular and non-seed.
  • 25. Seed Bearing Plants
  • 26.  Gymnosperms are vascular plants that produce seeds on scales of woody strobili called cones.
  • 27.  In other words, they have naked seeds - seeds not enclosed in a fruit.
  • 28.  The four divisions of Gymnosperms are: –Cycadophyta –Ginkgophyta –Gnetophyta –Pinophyta
  • 29.  Cycads have a terminal rosette of leaves and bear seeds in cones.  All cycads have separate male and female plants.
  • 30.  Division Ginkgophyta has only on living species – Ginkgo biloba.  The leaves are lobed.  Like Cycads, Ginkgos have separate male and female trees.
  • 31.  Division Gnetophyta has 3 genera: – Gnetum – Ephedra – Welwitschia
  • 32.  Pinophyta is the largest and most diverse division of the gymnosperms.  Most are evergreen – keeping their leaves year-round.  A very few are deciduous – dropping all of their leaves at the same time
  • 33. Angiosperms include one division - Magnoliophyta
  • 34.  Though there is only one division of angiosperms, Magnoliophyta ….  It is the largest and most diverse group of seed plants on Earth.  Magnoliophytes produce flowers, then seeds enclosed in a fruit.  Magnoliophytes can be annuals, biennials, or perennials.
  • 35. THANK YOU!!!