Shaina Mavreen D. Villaroza
III - Sodium
1) Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr.
While in power he implemented wide-ranging programs of infrastructure development and
economic reform. However, his administration was marred by
massive authoritarian corruption,despotism, nepotism, political repression, and human rights violations.
In 1983, his government was accused of being involved in the assassination of his primary
political opponent, Benigno Aquino, Jr. Public outrage over the assassination served as the catalyst for
the People Power Revolution in February 1986 that led to his removal from power and eventual exile in
Hawaii. It was later discovered that he and his wife Imelda Marcos had moved billions of dollars
of embezzled public funds to the United States, Switzerland, and other countries, as well as into alleged
corporations during his 20 years in power.
Ferdinand Marcos was elected president in 1965, defeating incumbent Diosdado Macapagal by a
very slim margin. During this time, Marcos was very active in the initiation of public works projects and the
intensification of tax collections. Marcos and his government claimed that they "built more roads than all
his predecessors combined, and more schools than any previous administration". Amidst charges of vote
buying and a fraudulent election, Marcos was reelected in 1969, this time defeating Sergio Osmeña Jr.
2) Armed Forces of the Philippines under Fabian Ver
He was most trusted military officer of then President Ferdinand Marcos as Martial Law was
declared on September 21, 1972. and he was also known as Marcos' chief enforcer, and was the highest
among the Rolex 12. Ver worked his way up the military ranks, serving in World War IIas an guerrilla
intelligence officer and after. He was fiercely loyal to Marcos, and Marcos repaid his loyalty by appointing
him as the head of the Presidential Security Group, then known as the Presidential Security Command.
When he was due for retirement in 1976, Marcos extended his term indefinitely. He also headed the then
National Intelligence and Security Agency (now, the National Intelligence and Coordinating Agency), the
spy department of the Philippines, sending government agents to search for anti-Marcos critics.
3) Armed Forces of the Philippines rebels under Fidel V. Ramos
During the historic 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution, Ramos upon the invitation of then Defense
Minister Juan Ponce Enrile, was hailed as a hero even though he was not part of the plan by many
Filipinos for his decision to break away from the administration of the late strongman Ferdinand
Marcos and pledge allegiance and loyalty to the newly established revolutionary government of President
Aquino, following the downfall of Marcos from power in February 1986. Previously, he was the AFP vice
chief-of-staff, chief of PC/INP under President Marcos.
4) Secretary of Defense Juan Ponce Enrile
Enrile was appointed Defense Chief in 1972. One of Marcos' justifications for the declaration ofmartial
law that year was terrorism. He cited the alleged bombing attack on Enrile's car on September 21, 1972.
In 1973, under the new modified parliamentary system then in place under the country's new
constitution, Enrile's title became Defense Minister. As Defense Minister, he presided over the Executive
Committee of the National Security Council, making him one of the prime architects of Marcos' martial
As the 1980's began, Marcos began to disregard Enrile's authority as defense secretary when he
changed the chain of command in the military. Under the new chain of command, the authority would
evolve from him as president and commander-in-chief of the armed forces to his trusted military officer,
General Fabian Ver, then the chief of staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
5) Protesters led by Jaime Cardinal Sin
Cardinal Sin was the third native Filipino Archbishop of Manila, following centuries
of Spanish,American and Irish episcopacy. He led the Archdiocese of Manila as its archbishop and was
created a cardinal by Pope Paul VI. As Archbishop of Manila, he was widely considered Primate of the
Philippines, though no formal dignity has ever been attached to the archdiocese.
When And Where:
Quezon City, Philippines
February 22-25, 1986
Why And What:`
The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine
Revolution of 1986) was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines that began in 1983
and culminated in 1986. The methods used amounted to a sustained campaign of civil
resistance against regime violence and electoral fraud. This case of nonviolent revolution led to
the departure of President Ferdinand Marcos and the restoration of the country's democracy. It
is also referred to as the Yellow Revolution due to the presence of yellow ribbons during the
demonstrations and the arrival of then assassinated Benigno Aquino, Jr.
It was widely seen as a victory of the people against the 20-year running authoritarian,
repressive regime of then president Ferdinand Marcos and made news headlines as "the
revolution that surprised the world".
The revolution had an effect on democratization movements in places such as Taiwan and South
Korea; other effects include the restoration of the freedom of the press, adoption of a new constitution,
and the subordination of the military to civilian rule, despite several coup attempts during the Aquino
While democracy as Filipinos knew it was restored, rampant corruption plagued the government
that led to the 2001 EDSA Revolution, which deposed President Joseph Estrada. While the Marcoses
fled, and the former president died in exile in Hawaii, his wife Imelda later won a seat in the House of
Representatives and his sonFerdinand Jr. was elected senator in 2010. The revolution may have had
brought changes to the leadership in the country, the power "remained concentrated among a small rich
elite." The perception of the public about the Marcos regime is changing, with some people "focusing on
his investments, infrastructure and public works, rather than the human rights abuses and claims of lavish