Architectural pattern of an animal


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Bio 102: Fundamentals in Animal Biology. These pdf slides discusses about the architectural pattern of an animal and other introductory topics.

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Architectural pattern of an animal

  1. 1. Architectural Pattern of an Animal
  2. 2. Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity Protoplasmic grade of organization. Found in unicellular organisms. All life functions are confined within the boundaries of a single cell. Within the cell, protoplasm is differentiated into organelles capable of performing specialized functions. Cellular grade of organization. Aggregation of cells that are functionally differentiated. Such cells have little tendency to become organized into. Some flagellates, such as Volvox, that have distinct somatic and reproductive cells might be placed at the cellular level of organization. Cell-tissue grade of organization. A step beyond the preceding is the aggregation of similar cells into definite patterns or layers, thus becoming a tissue. The jellyfishes and their relatives (Cnidaria) more clearly demonstrate the tissue plan. An excellent example of a tissue in cnidarians is the nerve net, in which nerve cells and their processes form a definite tissue structure, with the function of coordination.
  3. 3. Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity Tissue-organ grade of organization. Organs are usually composed of more than one kind of tissue and have a more specialized function than tissues. The first appearance of this level is in flatworms (Platyhelminthes), in which there are well-defined organs such as eyespots, proboscis, and reproductive organs. In fact, the reproductive organs are well organized into a reproductive system. Organ-system grade of organization. When organs work together to perform some function, we have the highest level of organization—the organ system. Systems are associated with the basic body functions—circulation, respiration, digestion, and the others. Most animal phyla demonstrate this type of organization.
  4. 4. A tissue is a group of similar cells (together with associated cell products) specialized for the performance of a common function. Types of Tissues The study of tissues is called histology . During embryonic development, the germ layers become differentiated into four kinds of tissues. These are epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues.
  5. 5. Epithelial Tissue An epithelium (pl., epithelia) is a sheet of cells that covers an external or internal surface. Outside the body, the epithelium forms a protective covering. Inside, the epithelium lines all organs of the body cavity, as well as ducts and passageways through which various materials and secretions move. On many surfaces epithelial cells are modified into glands that produce lubricating mucus or specialized products such as hormones or enzymes. Functions: -Cover external body surfaces and cavities, and line other internal body cavities. - form necessary portions of glands - forms a protective covering of all body surfaces against mechanical injury and loss of water. - may be modified to carry out special functions of absorption, secretion, excretion, sensation and respiration. All types of epithelia are supported by an underlying basement membrane, which is a condensation of the ground substance of connective tissue.
  6. 6. Epithelial Tissue Classifications: Simple epithelium Made up of only one layers, and are found in all metazoan animals. Stratified epithelium Made up of two or more layers of the cell, and are mostly restricted to vertebrates
  7. 7. Combination of several shapes of cells
  8. 8. Connective tissues are a diverse group of tissues that serve various binding and supportive functions. They are so widespread in the body. It is composed of relatively few cells, many extracellular fibers, and a ground substance (also called matrix), in which the fibers are embedded. Connective Tissue Classifications: -Connective Tissue Proper - Cartilage - Bone (Osseous Tissue) - Blood (Vascular Tissue) Connective Tissue Proper Fibers form the main bulk of the tissue embedded within the matrix. 3 kinds of intercellular fiber -Collagenous fibers – colorless, fine & flexible protein fibers lying parallel forming bundles - Elastic fibers – fibrillar branched & elastic protein fibers forming irregular network. - Reticular fibers – extremely fine & highly branched forming networks -Collagenous and reticular fibers may simply be diff. morph. expressions of a single fibrous protein.
  9. 9. Made up of highly elastic fibers w/ few scattered thin collagen fibers. This tissue fills the space between organs & serves as packing materials surrounding elements of other tissues. Binds muscle cells together & binds skin to underlying tissues. 2 Kinds of Connective Tissue Proper Loose Connective Tissue Dense Connective Tissue Made up of thick collagen fibers and dark, compressed cells between the fiber bundles. This tissue occurs in tendons, ligaments, dermis of the skin, and submucous layer of the intestine and urinary tract.
  10. 10. - not covered by perichondrium found in intervertebral discs, symphysis pubis, and in mandibular joints Cartilage Elastic cartilageHyaline cartilage Made up of cartilage cells, chondrocytes, lodged in cavities or spaces called lacunae scattered irregularly in the matrix that appears transparent and homogenous but composed of dense collagen fibers and elastic fibers embedded in a rubbery ground substance. It is produced by the chondroblast in a process called chondrification. 3 types of cartilage -Covered by a fibrous layer, perichondrium - found in nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, ends of ribs, surfaces of bones w/in cavities - yellow in color, greater flexibility and elasticity due to prominince of elastic fibers. - enveloped by perichondrium found in external ear, eustachian tube & epiglottisFibrocartilage Cartilage facilitate movements of joints, provide flexibility and support
  11. 11. Bone (Osseous) Tissue A hard specialized connective tissue w/ its collagenous matrix impregnated w/ mineral salt deposits, including calcium and phosphorus. Consists of cells called osteocytes & masked collagenous fibers embedded in a matrix containing ostein. Derived from ossein, bone collagen. Fibrous CT covering the bone is periosteum, while endosteum lines the bone marrow cavity. Bone is produced by osteoblast in a process called ossification. Functions for support, protection, assisting for movement and storage of minerals. Classification according to shape Long bone Composed of middle portion, the diaphysis or shaft, and the epiphysis or ends of the bone. Bones of legs and arm. Flat bone Lacks a bone marrow. Bones of skull and scapula. Irregular bone Neither long nor flat & also lacks bone marrow. Bones of wrist and ankle.
  12. 12. Bone (Osseous) Tissue Lamellae Series of concentric rings/circles arround a central Haversian canal Lacunae Small spaces in between the Lamellae w/c contain the osteocytes. Osteocytes Bone cells Canaliculi Minute channels that linked lacunae together w/c provides routes by w/c nutrients can nutrients can reach the osteocytes & removal of waste materials Haversian canals Central tubes w/c contain blood vessels and nerves Bone marrow Responsible for production of blood cells and storage of chemical energy.
  13. 13. Blood (Vascular) Tissue Consists of cells, matrix, and fibers. Functions in transporting gases, nutrients, hormones, enzymes and other substances to and from different parts of the body; in blood clotting; defense of the body; regulating body fluid electrolytes; in controlling pH (7.4); & in maintaining body temperature. Components of the blood Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) Most numerous. Disc shape containing large amounts of hemoglobin. Tend to adhere one another by thin flat or broad surfaces and form rows resembling piles of coins known as Ruoleaux formation. White Blood Cells (Leucocytes) Generally bigger, nucleated, w/out hemoglobin, fewer in number w/c originates from bone marrow, spleen, & lymphatic tissues. Do not exhibit Ruoleaux formation. Functions in body defense against microorganisms by their phagocytic action & antibody production Granulated (granulocyte) w/ granules on cytoplasm & w/ 1 or more nucleus -Eosinophil – two lobed nucleus -Basophil – S-shaped nucleus -Neutrophil – w/ 3 or 4 nuclei Agranulated (agranulocyte) w/out granules on cytoplasm & with only 1 nuclei -Lymphocyte – the smallest; produces antibody - Monocyte – mono-nucleated cell; transformed into macrophage
  14. 14. Blood (Vascular) Tissue Components of the blood Platelets (Thrombocytes) Small, non-nucleated, colorless, round/ovel biconcave corpuscle produced by a giant cell called megakaryocyte found in bone marrow. Plays vital role in blood clotting. Plasma Liquid component of blood (90% water) w/c contains numerous cells, organic & inorganic salts, hormones, nitrogenous wastes and other substances like prothrombin and fibrinogen, and antibodies against infection. Hemoglobin Protein constituent of the blood responsible for the attachment of oxygen and for the red coloring of the blood.
  15. 15. Hemostasis: Prevention of Blood Loss
  16. 16. Muscular Tissue Responsible for body’s movement, heat production, and posture maintenance. Displays excitability, contractility in response to stimulation due to the presence of numerous fine fibers, myofibrils. Muscle fibers Consist of myofibrils, composed chemically of a protein called actomyosin. Each myofibril is made up of alternating myofilaments, the thin actin and the thick myosin filaments. Myofibril exhibits alternate anisotropic (A) & isotropic (I) striations. A relaxed myofibril has A and I bands approximately of equal width. The I band transverse at the middle by a thin zigzag line, Z disk (darker zone), while A band is transversed by a thin M-line & H-zone (central light area). The segment between the two Z-disks represents sarcomere, functional unit of muscle contraction. Contraction of muscle is the result of the sliding of two sets of myofilaments w/ respect to each other, wherein A band remains constant but I band shortens. With relaxation, the original arrangement of disks returns.
  17. 17. Muscular Tissue
  18. 18. Classification Muscular Tissue Consist of long, cylindrical muscle fibers w/ crossbanded or striated appearance. Found attached to skeleton, voluntary in action because movement is the result of impulses. Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Muscle Striated, branched muscle fibers (Y-shaped), has single central nucleus. Multifibers are attached by intercalated discs. Formed by myocardium (middle, thicker layer). Involuntary.
  19. 19. Classification Muscular Tissue Consist of spindle shaped cells w/c are thickened at the middle but tapered towards the ends. An oval or rod-shaped nucleus occupies in the central, thickest portion of the cell body. Consist of unstriated muscle. Capable of peristalsis, contractions on the walls of the digestive tract. Involuntary in action. Visceral/Smooth Muscle
  20. 20. Nervous Tissue Specialized for conduction of nerve impulses. Consists of 2 specialized elements, neurons, w/c is the functional/structural units capable of receiving & conducting impulses; neuroglia, composed of glial cells & fibers, w/c serve support & bind together the component nervous elements. Cell body (Cyton) Composed of central nucleus w/in the protoplasmic fluid called neuroplasm. Cell processes Cytoplasmic extensions that continue for a considerable length from the cell body. Dendrite/Dendron One or more process; Short; carries impulses towards cell body Axon/axis cylinder Single process; Long; do not branch near cell body. Conveys impulses away from cell body
  21. 21. Nervous Tissue During the nerve impulse transmission, association of processes of two nuerons forms a synapse (junction between two successive neurons). Dendrites of one neuron, associated through synapse with axon endings of functionally related neurons, receive the nerve impulse from another neuron. Neurons are sensitive to different types of stimuli s.a temperature, pressure, light, etc. These nerve cells transmit electrical nerve impulses thereby moving information around the body. Nervous tissue is specialized for reception of stimuli and conduction of impulses from one region to another. Two basic types of cells in nervous tissue are neurons (nerve), the basic functional unit of the nervous system, and neuroglia, a variety of non-nervous cells that insulate neuron membranes and serve various supportive functions.
  22. 22. Type of Neurons according to function Sensory (Afferent Neuron) conducts impulses towards CNS Motor (Efferent neuron) conducts impulses away from the CNS Association (Interneuron) conducts impulses w/in CNS Type of Neurons according number of cell processes Myelin sheath Covers axon of a neuron
  23. 23. Animal Body Plans
  24. 24. Animal Symmetry Symmetry refers to balanced proportions, or correspondence in size and shape of parts on opposite sides of a median plane. Spherical symmetry means that any plane passing through the center divides the body into equivalent, or mirrored, halves. This type of symmetry is found chiefly among some unicellular forms and is rare in animals. Spherical forms are best suited for floating and rolling.
  25. 25. Radial symmetry applies to forms that can be divided into similar halves by more than two planes passing through the longitudinal axis. These are tubular, vase, or bowl shapes found in some sponges and in hydras, jellyfish, sea urchins, and related groups, in which one end of the longitudinal axis is usually the mouth. The two phyla that are primarily radial, Cnidaria and Ctenophora, are called the Radiata. Animal Symmetry Echinoderms (sea stars and their kin) are primarily bilateral animals (their larvae are bilateral) that have become secondarily radial as adults.
  26. 26. Bilateral symmetry applies to animals that can be divided along a sagittal plane into two mirrored portions— right and left halves. Animal Symmetry The appearance of bilateral symmetry in animal evolution was a major advancement, because bilateral animals are much better fitted for directional (forward) movement than are radially symmetrical animals. Bilateral animals form a monophyletic group called the Bilateria. Bilateral symmetry is strongly associated with cephalization.
  27. 27. Animal Symmetry Invertebrates pectoral refers to the chest region or the area supported by the forelegs, and pelvic refers to the hip region or the area supported by the hind legs. Terms used for locating regions of bilaterally-symmetrical animals: anterior, used to designate the head end posterior, the opposite or tail end ventral, the front or belly side Medial refers to the midline of the body dorsal, the back side lateral, to the sides Distal parts are far from the middle of the body proximal parts are nearer frontal plane (coronal plane) divides a bilateral body into dorsal and ventral halves. Sagittal plane the plane dividing an animal into right and left halves transverse plane (cross section) would cut through a dorsoventral and a right-left axis at right angles to both the sagittal and frontal planes and would result in anterior and posterior portions.