10 major divisions of plants complete


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This is a handout for our Bio 103: Fundamentals in Plant Biology. It enumerates the 10 major divisions of plant kingdom.

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10 major divisions of plants complete

  1. 1. 10 Major Divisions of Plants: Nonvascular 1) _Bryophyta Small compact green plants, lack well developed vascular tissues. Leaves are only 1-2 cells thick, limited to moist habitats. Ex. Mosses, liver warts, horn warts vascular Vascular Can be further divided into seedless w/o seeds. Vascular w/o seeds 2) Psilophyta- simplest vascular plants have no roots and generally no obvious leaves. Thought to represent first kind- dwelling Plants. Ex. Whisk ferns some botanist believe that they Should merely be classified as simple ferns. 3) Lycophyta- there are more than 1,000 species in 10 genera, simple spore producing vascular plants, some form of coal, limited to moist habitats. Ex. Club mosses 4) Pterophyta- 12,000 species largest division of seedless vascular plants spore producing, very diverse, primarily tropical. 5) Equisetophta (sphenophtya) - only one genus, equisetum present day species is very small fossil relatives much larger Ex. Horsetails Vascular with seeds Gymnosperms - no flowering 6) Ginkgophyta - only one living species Ginko Biloba thought to be unchanged for 80 million years, trees are very hardy, resistant to pollution and insects. Ex. Ginko Biloba is a nutrition supplement.
  2. 2. 7) Cycadophyta - 100 different species, primary in tropics and subtropics short palm like trees with shady trunks Ex. Zamia genus only found in North America Not outside of Florida. 8) Coniferophyta – vascular plants that produce naked seeds in cones, short shoots, long shoots 2 kinds of leaves, most recognized is needle Ex. Spruces, yews, redwood, junipers,sequia, cedar, cypress 9) Gnetophyta - 3 clearly defined genera all very distinctive. 1. Welwitchia: (one species) confined to 2 deserts, moisture is derived from fog. 2. Gnetum: (30 species) inhabit tropical forests, climbing vines/trees, broad leaves 3. Ephedra: (40species) used as a stimulant in medicinal tea, contains chemicals similar to human neutransmitters, appear leafless, but leaves are really small and lose pholosynthetic ability as mature. Ex. Mormon tea, ma huang, joint fir _Angiosperms -Flowering 10) Anthophyta - more than 250,000 species, live everywhere except conifer forests and tundra vary from large to small, two major classes monocots and dicots Monocots Ex. Lilies, tulips, lawn, corn, iris, palms, orchids Dicots Ex. Most tree leaves, maple, oak, periwinkle, roses, Sunflowers, cacti