STD Education and
Prepared by: Shaina Horton,
Sherise Galoerito, & Chuck Heckman
Prepared For: Duke Walker
What is an STD?
• A sexually transmitted disease (STD), also known as sexually
transmitted infection (STI) or venereal disease (VD), is an illness that
has a significant probability of transmission between humans or
animals by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral
sex, and anal sex. While in the past, these illnesses have mostly been
referred to as STDs or VD, in recent years the term sexually
transmitted infection (STI) has been preferred, as it has a broader
range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially
infect others, without showing signs of disease.
• Some STIs can also be transmitted via use of an IV drug needle after
its use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breast
feeding. Sexually transmitted infections have been well known for
hundreds of years.
• Gonorrhea is caused by a bacteria called Neisseria
• Gonorrhea is spread through contact with the penis, vagina,
mouth or anus. Ejaculation does not have to be present to
spread infection. It is also passed through child birth.
• Can get infection in the eyes or throat.
• Bacteria can grow in warm moist areas in the reproductive
– Cervix, opening to the womb, in women.
– Fallopian Tubes, egg canals, in women.
– Urethra, Urine canal, in men or women.
Symptoms of Gonorrhea.
• Some men and women • Complications
have no symptoms at all. include:
• However some men have – Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
signs or symptoms two to (PID)
five days after infection. – Epididymitis
Can take as long as 30 – Infertility
days for symptoms to • Women:
appear. – Painful or burning when
• Most women mistake
– Increased vaginal discharge.
gonorrhea for a bladder – Bleeding between periods.
Symptoms of Gonorrhea
– Burning sensation when
– White, yellow, or green
discharge from penis.
– Swollen or painful testicles
– Anal Discharge
– Anal itching
– Painful bowel Movements
• Gonorrhea can be passed • Gonorrhea is diagnosed by
onto a baby during child a sample being taken from
birth. the infected area or a urine
• This can cause blindness, sample.
joint infection, or blood • Several antibiotics have
infection. been successful in curing
• However many drug
resistant strains have
developed around the
world including the U.S.
• The word hepatitis
means inflammation of
the liver. Heavy alcohol
use, toxins, certain
drugs, bacterial, and
viral infections all can
• The Hepatitis that
generally affects the
U.S. population is A,B,
• Hepatitis A is an acute liver disease caused by the hepatitis
A virus (HAV), lasting from a few weeks to several months.
It does not lead to chronic infection.
• Transmission: Ingestion of fecal matter, even in
microscopic amounts, from close person-to-person contact
or ingestion of contaminated food or drinks.
• Vaccination: Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for
all children starting at age 1 year, travelers to certain
countries, and others at risk.
• Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus
(HBV). It ranges in severity from a mild illness, lasting a few
weeks (acute), to a serious long-term (chronic) illness that
can lead to liver disease or liver cancer.
• Transmission: Contact with infectious blood, semen, and
other body fluids from having sex with an infected person,
sharing contaminated needles to inject drugs, or from an
infected mother to her newborn.
• Vaccination: Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all
infants, older children and adolescents who were not
vaccinated previously, and adults at risk for HBV infection.
• Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the
hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV infection
sometimes results in an acute illness, but most
often becomes a chronic condition that can lead to
cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.
• Transmission: Contact with the blood of an
infected person, primarily through sharing
contaminated needles to inject drugs.
• Vaccination: There is no vaccine for hepatitis C
• Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted
disease (STD) caused by the herpes
simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2
• Most genital herpes is caused by HSV-2.
Most individuals have no or only
minimal signs or symptoms from HSV-1
or HSV-2 infection.
HSV-1 and HSV-2
• HSV-1 • HSV-2
– The characteristics of primary
– Most cases of cold sores are genital herpes infection range from
caused by HSV-1. In fact, no noticeable symptoms to tingling
more than 95 percent of and numbness in the legs (lower
recurrent cold sore outbreaks extremities) and lower part of the
are caused by HSV-1. Most body between the genitals and anus
people infected with the (perineum), painful genital ulcers,
HSV-1 virus usually become painful urination, and tender lymph
infected before they are 10 nodes in the groin. Primary genital
herpes can also include fever,
years old. malaise, and headache. Symptoms
may last for several weeks before
How Common is Genital Herpes?
• Nationwide at least 45
million people ages 12
• One out of five
adolescents and adults.
• HSV-2 infection is more
common in women.
• It is estimated that each
year 500,000 to 1,000,000
new infections occur.
• HSV-2 is more common
Signs and Symptoms
of Genital Herpes
• Most people infected are
unaware. Though outbreak
usually occurs within two
weeks after transmission.
• Sores can take up to two
to four weeks to heal.
• Along with the second
symptoms may arise.
• Most people with the
HSV-2 infections may
never have sores.
Associated with Herpes
• Recurrent painful Genital
• Herpes frequently causes
psychological distress in people
who know they are infected.
• Herpes Can lead to
potentially fatal infections
• Herpes can leave those who are
infected more susceptible to
• Herpes can make those
with HIV more infectious.
How is Herpes
Diagnosed and Treated?
– Diagnosis – Treatment
• Health care professionals • There is no treatment that
can diagnose Herpes by can cure herpes.
visually examining the • Antiviral medications can
infected area. shorten and prevent
• They also take a specimen outbreaks.
from area and send it out • Daily suppressive therapy
to a lab test. for symptomatic herpes
• A blood test is also can reduce transmission to
available. Though blood sexual partners.
tests are not always clear • No medication is 100%
cut. effective in preventing
• Chlamydia is a common • Even though symptoms of
sexually transmitted chlamydia are usually
disease (STD) caused by mild or absent, serious
the bacterium, Chlamydia complications that cause
trachomatis, which can irreversible damage,
damage a woman's including infertility, can
reproductive organs. occur “silently.”
• Chlamydia is called the • Symptoms occur within
“silent” disease because 1 to 3 weeks after
three quarters of women exposure.
do not know they are
• Chlamydia Can be
transmitted during, anal,
vaginal, or oral sex.
• Chlamydia can also be
passed to a child during
Symptoms of Chlamydia
• Women: The bacteria initially • Men: signs or symptoms might
infect the cervix and the urethra have a discharge from their penis
(urine canal). Women who have or a burning sensation when
symptoms might have an abnormal urinating. Men might also have
vaginal discharge or a burning burning and itching around the
sensation when urinating. When opening of the penis. Pain and
the infection spreads from the swelling in the testicles are
cervix to the fallopian tubes (tubes uncommon.
that carry fertilized eggs from the • Anal: Men or women who receive
ovaries to the uterus), some women anal intercourse may acquire
still have no signs or symptoms; chlamydial infection in the rectum,
others have lower abdominal pain, which can cause rectal pain,
low back pain, nausea, fever, pain discharge, or bleeding.
during intercourse, or bleeding • Throat: Chlamydia can also be
between menstrual periods. found in the throats of women and
men having oral sex with an
Diagnosis and Treatment
– Diagnosis – Treatment
• There are laboratory tests to • Chlamydia can be easily
diagnose chlamydia. Some treated and cured with
can be performed on urine, antibiotics. A single dose of
other tests require that a azithromycin or a week of
specimen be collected from a doxycycline (twice daily) are
site such as the penis or the most commonly used
cervix. treatments. HIV-positive
persons with chlamydia
should receive the same
treatment as those who are
• Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease
(STD) caused by the bacterium Treponema
pallidum. It has often been called “the great
imitator” because so many of the signs and
symptoms are indistinguishable from those
of other diseases.
• Syphilis is passed from person
to person through direct contact
with a syphilis sore. Sores
occur mainly on the external
genitals, vagina, anus, or in the
rectum. Sores also can occur on
the lips and in the mouth.
Transmission of the organism
occurs during vaginal, anal, or
oral sex. Pregnant women with
the disease can pass it to the
babies they are carrying.
• Many people carry it for years
Primary Stage of Syphilis
• The primary stage of • The chancre is usually
syphilis is usually marked firm, round, small, and
by the appearance of a painless. It appears at the
single sore (called a spot where syphilis
chancre), but there may be entered the body.
multiple sores. • The chancre lasts 3 to 6
• The time between weeks, and it heals
infection with syphilis and without treatment.
the start of the first • If not taken care of the
symptom can range from syphilis will move on to
10 to 90 days (average 21 the secondary stage.
Secondary Stage of Syphilis.
• This stage typically starts • In addition to rashes,
with the development of a symptoms of secondary
rash on one or more areas syphilis may include
of the body. The rash fever, swollen lymph
usually does not cause glands, sore throat, patchy
itching. hair loss, headaches,
• The characteristic rash of weight loss, muscle aches,
secondary syphilis may and fatigue.
appear as rough, red, or • Without treatment the
reddish brown spots both infection will progress to
on the palms of the hands the latent and possibly late
and the bottoms of the stages of disease.
Late and Latent Syphilis
• The latent (hidden) stage • The disease may subsequently
of syphilis begins when damage the internal organs,
including the brain, nerves,
primary and secondary eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver,
symptoms disappear. bones, and joints.
• The late stages of syphilis • Signs and symptoms of the late
can develop in about 15% stage of syphilis include
difficulty coordinating muscle
of people who have not movements, paralysis,
been treated for syphilis, numbness, gradual blindness,
and can appear 10 – 20 and dementia.
years after infection was • These symptoms can be fatal.
• Primary Syphilis Late Syphilis
• Secondary Syphilis Late and the brain
Diagnosis and Treatment
• Some health care • Syphilis is easy to cure in
providers can diagnose its early stages. A single
syphilis by examining intramuscular injection of
material from a chancre penicillin, an antibiotic,
(infectious sore) using a will cure a person who has
special microscope called had syphilis for less than a
a dark-field microscope year. Additional doses are
• a blood test is another way needed to treat someone
to diagnose it. who has had syphilis for
longer than a year
What is HIV / AIDS?
• HIV - The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a
virus that kills your body’s "CD4 cells." CD4 cells
(T-helper cells) help your body fight off infection
• AIDS - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is
when a person who has HIV’s T-cells fall below
• A normal CD4 or • A person with HIV
T-cell count is has a T-cell count
anywhere from 600 between 201 to 599.
too 1200. – With an abnormal
– With a normal t- cell t-cell count fighting off
count a person can infections becomes
easily fight off difficult.
infection – With a low t-cell count
susceptible to many
How is HIV transmitted?
• To transmit HIV one • The risk factors for
has to come into contracting HIV are as
Contact with one of follows;
the following Body – Unprotected Sex
fluids; – Multiple Sexual
– Blood Partners
– Semen – Prostitution
– Vaginal fluid – IV drug Use
– Breast milk
Signs and Symptoms of HIV
• The symptoms for • As you can see the
HIV are: symptoms of HIV are
– Fever very similar to that of
– Fatigue a common cold. It is
– Rash for this reason that
– Headaches many people are
– Swollen Lymph Nodes unaware of the viruses
– Sore throat presence in their
Diagnosis For HIV/AIDS.
• You might have HIV and • Once HIV enters the body, the
still feel perfectly healthy. body starts to produce
• The only way to know for immune system creates after
sure if you are infected or infection. Most HIV tests look
not is to be tested. for these antibodies rather than
the virus itself. There are many
• Talk with a health care different kinds of HIV tests,
provider or counselor both including rapid tests and home
before and after you are test kits. All HIV tests approved
tested. by the US government are very
• You can go to your doctor good at finding HIV.
or health department for
How can I Protect Myself From
• Abstain from sex (do not have oral, • Talk about HIV and other STDs
anal, or vaginal sex) until you are with each partner before you have
in a relationship with only one sex.
person, are having sex with only • Learn as much as you can about
each other, and each of you knows each partner’s past behavior), and
the other’s sexual health status. consider the risks to your health.
• If you are a man who has had sex • Ask your partners if they have
with other men, get tested at least recently been tested for STD’s;
once a year. encourage those who have not been
• If you are a woman who is tested to do so.
planning to get pregnant or who is • Get Vaccinated
pregnant, get tested as soon as
possible, before you have your • USE A CONDOM !!!!
Use a condom.
• The easiest and most
effective way to
prevent contracting an
STD is Abstinence.
• The second easiest and
effective way to
protect yourself and
your partner is to use a
• Latex condoms are up
to 98% effective.
• Center for disease Control (CDC)