Published on

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. STD Education and Prevention Prepared by: Shaina Horton, Sherise Galoerito, & Chuck Heckman ICC Student Prepared For: Duke Walker ICC Professor
  2. 2. What is an STD? • A sexually transmitted disease (STD), also known as sexually transmitted infection (STI) or venereal disease (VD), is an illness that has a significant probability of transmission between humans or animals by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. While in the past, these illnesses have mostly been referred to as STDs or VD, in recent years the term sexually transmitted infection (STI) has been preferred, as it has a broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect others, without showing signs of disease. • Some STIs can also be transmitted via use of an IV drug needle after its use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breast feeding. Sexually transmitted infections have been well known for hundreds of years.
  3. 3. Male and Female Reproductive Tract.
  4. 4. Gonorrhea • Gonorrhea is caused by a bacteria called Neisseria Gonorrhoeae. • Gonorrhea is spread through contact with the penis, vagina, mouth or anus. Ejaculation does not have to be present to spread infection. It is also passed through child birth. • Can get infection in the eyes or throat. • Bacteria can grow in warm moist areas in the reproductive tract, including: – Cervix, opening to the womb, in women. – Fallopian Tubes, egg canals, in women. – Urethra, Urine canal, in men or women.
  5. 5. Symptoms of Gonorrhea. • Some men and women • Complications have no symptoms at all. include: • However some men have – Pelvic Inflammatory Disease signs or symptoms two to (PID) five days after infection. – Epididymitis Can take as long as 30 – Infertility days for symptoms to • Women: appear. – Painful or burning when urinating. • Most women mistake – Increased vaginal discharge. gonorrhea for a bladder – Bleeding between periods. infection.
  6. 6. Symptoms of Gonorrhea • Men: – Burning sensation when urinating. – White, yellow, or green discharge from penis. – Swollen or painful testicles • Rectal: – Anal Discharge – Anal itching – Soreness – Bleeding – Painful bowel Movements
  7. 7. Gonorrhea (continued) • Gonorrhea can be passed • Gonorrhea is diagnosed by onto a baby during child a sample being taken from birth. the infected area or a urine • This can cause blindness, sample. joint infection, or blood • Several antibiotics have infection. been successful in curing gonorrhea. • However many drug resistant strains have developed around the world including the U.S.
  8. 8. Hepatitis • The word hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Heavy alcohol use, toxins, certain drugs, bacterial, and viral infections all can cause hepatitis. • The Hepatitis that generally affects the U.S. population is A,B, and C.
  9. 9. Hepatitis A • Hepatitis A is an acute liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), lasting from a few weeks to several months. It does not lead to chronic infection. • Transmission: Ingestion of fecal matter, even in microscopic amounts, from close person-to-person contact or ingestion of contaminated food or drinks. • Vaccination: Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for all children starting at age 1 year, travelers to certain countries, and others at risk.
  10. 10. Hepatitis B • Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It ranges in severity from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks (acute), to a serious long-term (chronic) illness that can lead to liver disease or liver cancer. • Transmission: Contact with infectious blood, semen, and other body fluids from having sex with an infected person, sharing contaminated needles to inject drugs, or from an infected mother to her newborn. • Vaccination: Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all infants, older children and adolescents who were not vaccinated previously, and adults at risk for HBV infection.
  11. 11. Hepatitis C • Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV infection sometimes results in an acute illness, but most often becomes a chronic condition that can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. • Transmission: Contact with the blood of an infected person, primarily through sharing contaminated needles to inject drugs. • Vaccination: There is no vaccine for hepatitis C
  12. 12. Genital Herpes • Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). • Most genital herpes is caused by HSV-2. Most individuals have no or only minimal signs or symptoms from HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection.
  13. 13. HSV-1 and HSV-2 • HSV-1 • HSV-2 – The characteristics of primary – Most cases of cold sores are genital herpes infection range from caused by HSV-1. In fact, no noticeable symptoms to tingling more than 95 percent of and numbness in the legs (lower recurrent cold sore outbreaks extremities) and lower part of the are caused by HSV-1. Most body between the genitals and anus people infected with the (perineum), painful genital ulcers, HSV-1 virus usually become painful urination, and tender lymph infected before they are 10 nodes in the groin. Primary genital herpes can also include fever, years old. malaise, and headache. Symptoms may last for several weeks before healing.
  14. 14. How Common is Genital Herpes? • Nationwide at least 45 million people ages 12 and older, • One out of five adolescents and adults. • HSV-2 infection is more common in women. • It is estimated that each year 500,000 to 1,000,000 new infections occur. • HSV-2 is more common than HSV-1.
  15. 15. Signs and Symptoms of Genital Herpes • Most people infected are unaware. Though outbreak usually occurs within two weeks after transmission. • Sores can take up to two to four weeks to heal. • Along with the second outbreak flu-like symptoms may arise. • Most people with the HSV-2 infections may never have sores.
  16. 16. Medical Complications Associated with Herpes • Recurrent painful Genital sores. • Herpes frequently causes psychological distress in people who know they are infected. • Herpes Can lead to potentially fatal infections in babies. • Herpes can leave those who are infected more susceptible to HIV. • Herpes can make those with HIV more infectious.
  17. 17. How is Herpes Diagnosed and Treated? – Diagnosis – Treatment • Health care professionals • There is no treatment that can diagnose Herpes by can cure herpes. visually examining the • Antiviral medications can infected area. shorten and prevent • They also take a specimen outbreaks. from area and send it out • Daily suppressive therapy to a lab test. for symptomatic herpes • A blood test is also can reduce transmission to available. Though blood sexual partners. tests are not always clear • No medication is 100% cut. effective in preventing transmission.
  18. 18. Chlamydia • Chlamydia is a common • Even though symptoms of sexually transmitted chlamydia are usually disease (STD) caused by mild or absent, serious the bacterium, Chlamydia complications that cause trachomatis, which can irreversible damage, damage a woman's including infertility, can reproductive organs. occur “silently.”
  19. 19. Chlamydia Transmission • Chlamydia is called the • Symptoms occur within “silent” disease because 1 to 3 weeks after three quarters of women exposure. do not know they are infected. • Chlamydia Can be transmitted during, anal, vaginal, or oral sex. • Chlamydia can also be passed to a child during vaginal childbirth.
  20. 20. Symptoms of Chlamydia • Women: The bacteria initially • Men: signs or symptoms might infect the cervix and the urethra have a discharge from their penis (urine canal). Women who have or a burning sensation when symptoms might have an abnormal urinating. Men might also have vaginal discharge or a burning burning and itching around the sensation when urinating. When opening of the penis. Pain and the infection spreads from the swelling in the testicles are cervix to the fallopian tubes (tubes uncommon. that carry fertilized eggs from the • Anal: Men or women who receive ovaries to the uterus), some women anal intercourse may acquire still have no signs or symptoms; chlamydial infection in the rectum, others have lower abdominal pain, which can cause rectal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain discharge, or bleeding. during intercourse, or bleeding • Throat: Chlamydia can also be between menstrual periods. found in the throats of women and men having oral sex with an infected partner.
  21. 21. • Anal Chlamydia • Chlamydia of the Eye
  22. 22. Diagnosis and Treatment Of Chlamydia. – Diagnosis – Treatment • There are laboratory tests to • Chlamydia can be easily diagnose chlamydia. Some treated and cured with can be performed on urine, antibiotics. A single dose of other tests require that a azithromycin or a week of specimen be collected from a doxycycline (twice daily) are site such as the penis or the most commonly used cervix. treatments. HIV-positive persons with chlamydia should receive the same treatment as those who are HIV negative.
  23. 23. Syphilis • Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It has often been called “the great imitator” because so many of the signs and symptoms are indistinguishable from those of other diseases.
  24. 24. Syphilis Transmission • Syphilis is passed from person to person through direct contact with a syphilis sore. Sores occur mainly on the external genitals, vagina, anus, or in the rectum. Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth. Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Pregnant women with the disease can pass it to the babies they are carrying. • Many people carry it for years without knowing.
  25. 25. Primary Stage of Syphilis • The primary stage of • The chancre is usually syphilis is usually marked firm, round, small, and by the appearance of a painless. It appears at the single sore (called a spot where syphilis chancre), but there may be entered the body. multiple sores. • The chancre lasts 3 to 6 • The time between weeks, and it heals infection with syphilis and without treatment. the start of the first • If not taken care of the symptom can range from syphilis will move on to 10 to 90 days (average 21 the secondary stage. days).
  26. 26. Secondary Stage of Syphilis. • This stage typically starts • In addition to rashes, with the development of a symptoms of secondary rash on one or more areas syphilis may include of the body. The rash fever, swollen lymph usually does not cause glands, sore throat, patchy itching. hair loss, headaches, • The characteristic rash of weight loss, muscle aches, secondary syphilis may and fatigue. appear as rough, red, or • Without treatment the reddish brown spots both infection will progress to on the palms of the hands the latent and possibly late and the bottoms of the stages of disease. feet.
  27. 27. Late and Latent Syphilis • The latent (hidden) stage • The disease may subsequently of syphilis begins when damage the internal organs, including the brain, nerves, primary and secondary eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, symptoms disappear. bones, and joints. • The late stages of syphilis • Signs and symptoms of the late can develop in about 15% stage of syphilis include difficulty coordinating muscle of people who have not movements, paralysis, been treated for syphilis, numbness, gradual blindness, and can appear 10 – 20 and dementia. years after infection was • These symptoms can be fatal. first acquired.
  28. 28. • Primary Syphilis Late Syphilis • Secondary Syphilis Late and the brain
  29. 29. Diagnosis and Treatment Of Syphilis • Some health care • Syphilis is easy to cure in providers can diagnose its early stages. A single syphilis by examining intramuscular injection of material from a chancre penicillin, an antibiotic, (infectious sore) using a will cure a person who has special microscope called had syphilis for less than a a dark-field microscope year. Additional doses are • a blood test is another way needed to treat someone to diagnose it. who has had syphilis for longer than a year
  30. 30. What is HIV / AIDS? • HIV - The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a virus that kills your body’s "CD4 cells." CD4 cells (T-helper cells) help your body fight off infection and disease. • AIDS - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is when a person who has HIV’s T-cells fall below 200.
  31. 31. T-Cells • A normal CD4 or • A person with HIV T-cell count is has a T-cell count anywhere from 600 between 201 to 599. too 1200. – With an abnormal – With a normal t- cell t-cell count fighting off count a person can infections becomes easily fight off difficult. infection – With a low t-cell count one becomes susceptible to many diseases otherwise fought off.
  32. 32. How is HIV transmitted? • To transmit HIV one • The risk factors for has to come into contracting HIV are as Contact with one of follows; the following Body – Unprotected Sex fluids; – Multiple Sexual – Blood Partners – Semen – Prostitution – Vaginal fluid – IV drug Use – Breast milk
  33. 33. Signs and Symptoms of HIV • The symptoms for • As you can see the HIV are: symptoms of HIV are – Fever very similar to that of – Fatigue a common cold. It is – Rash for this reason that – Headaches many people are – Swollen Lymph Nodes unaware of the viruses – Sore throat presence in their bodies.
  34. 34. Diagnosis For HIV/AIDS. • You might have HIV and • Once HIV enters the body, the still feel perfectly healthy. body starts to produce antibodies—substances the • The only way to know for immune system creates after sure if you are infected or infection. Most HIV tests look not is to be tested. for these antibodies rather than the virus itself. There are many • Talk with a health care different kinds of HIV tests, provider or counselor both including rapid tests and home before and after you are test kits. All HIV tests approved tested. by the US government are very • You can go to your doctor good at finding HIV. or health department for testing.
  35. 35. How can I Protect Myself From STD’s? • Abstain from sex (do not have oral, • Talk about HIV and other STDs anal, or vaginal sex) until you are with each partner before you have in a relationship with only one sex. person, are having sex with only • Learn as much as you can about each other, and each of you knows each partner’s past behavior), and the other’s sexual health status. consider the risks to your health. • If you are a man who has had sex • Ask your partners if they have with other men, get tested at least recently been tested for STD’s; once a year. encourage those who have not been • If you are a woman who is tested to do so. planning to get pregnant or who is • Get Vaccinated pregnant, get tested as soon as possible, before you have your • USE A CONDOM !!!! baby.
  36. 36. Use a condom. • The easiest and most effective way to prevent contracting an STD is Abstinence. • The second easiest and effective way to protect yourself and your partner is to use a condom. • Latex condoms are up to 98% effective.
  37. 37. Refrences • Center for disease Control (CDC) •