Prepared by: Shaina Horton
Prepared for: Duke Walker
What is MDMA?
• MDMA is 3,4-
• It is also known as Ecstasy.
• MDMA is derived from the
oils of plants such as nutmeg,
sassafras, saffron, dill, parsley
seed, crocus, vanilla beans,
• MDMA is an amphetamine
derivative that is related chemically
to both amphetamines and
The Synthesis Process
• The synthesis of MDMA has four
– 1. extraction of safrole from sassafras oil,
or other sources (piperonal),
– 2. Isomerization of safrole into isosafrole
by heating with NaOH or KOH,
– 3. Oxidizing isosafrole into MDP-2-P
– 4. Using the Leukart Reaction add N-
methyl-N-forumyl-MDA to MDP-2-P
resulting in MDMA
Different Types Of Ecstasy
There are over 900 different types of ecstasy pills.
What are the Physical
Effects of MDMA use?
• The physiological effects
that (MDMA) produce
can vary immensely for
• The physiological effects
of MDMA can begin to
occur within 30 to 45
minutes after ingestion.
• MDMA effects every
inch of the human body.
MDMA’s Mechanism of Action.
– a release of
– a blockage of
The short term effects of MDMA are:
– High blood pressure
– rapid heart beat
– Trisma (clenching of the jaw)
– Blurred vision
– muscle spasms
– tongue and cheek chewing
– bruxia (teeth grinding)
– dryness of mouth
– profound physical relaxation
– nystagmus (eye wiggles)
More Physical Effects
• MDMA can be quite • The blockage of
damaging to the Dopamine reuptake
circulatory system, due transporters can also lead
to elevated blood to a total loss of the
pressure and heart rate reuptake sites.
for long periods of time.
• MDMA acts as a
• Kidney failure can occur Serotonin agonist and
as well as the death of these agonist effects
large amounts of muscle cause the damage to
tissue which can stop Serotonin nerve
circulation, known as terminals and the loss of
effects from MDMA
• Heart/Circulatory Disease:
– MDMA use puts stress on the heart, which in
the future can bring on heart attacks or stroke.
• Liver Disease:
– For some people, usually those with pre-
existing liver problems, MDMA can prove to
MDMA and Heat Stroke
• This is the result of a • The greatest risk to have
physiological responses heat stroke is within a
going unnoticed. person who has a fairly
• Heat stroke is very low level of the enzyme
common while under in the liver that breaks
the influence of down MDMA. People
MDMA. with a high level of
• The body's temperature enzyme on the other
is regulated by the hand suffer a greater risk
serotonine system. of brain damage.
MDMA and the Serotonin System
• The disturbances of the serotonin system that MDMA
causes may lead to the regulation going haywire.
• This may lead to a traumatic effect on the body's muscle
– The muscle is dissolved and floats into the blood stream.
– Patients being hit with this response find it for example, hard to
walk, because the muscles no longer are whole and strong enough.
– Via the blood stream muscle fibers enter the kidneys and thus
there is also a risk that those will be Damaged as well.
MDMA and Water.
• Another cause of possible death is a result from an exaggerated
consumption of water.
• A common place of recreational MDMA use is at 'raves'. Or
underground all night dance parties.
– A person experiencing the effects of MDMA will dance for lengthy
periods of time at which point they will no longer pay attention to
there body's need of replenishing itself.
– The person will then drink extraordinary amounts of water to "make
up" for dancing for so long and being so hot. This is extremely
– An excess of water can lead to water intoxication. This is a case in
which water floods the body's cells causing cells to swell and then
burst. This can end in death.
MDMA, Pain, and
the Immune System.
• MDMA's lessens • MDMA users may
the awareness of experience a decreased
resistance to disease.
pain. Scientists do not know
– The person will not whether this is from the
notice the pain their pharmacological "body
body is in if they load" of MDMA, or the
are sustaining heightened activities
blisters, bruises, that are involved with
cuts, etc. MDMA such as dancing
and close contact with
Behavioral Effects of MDMA
• When MDMA was first developed it was
used in marriage counseling.
• MDMA is nicknamed the love drug.
– This is because of the need for intimacy many
users feel while under the influence of this
– Out of a group of twenty MDMA users 80%
reported a decrease in defensiveness.
Short Term Behavioral Effects
• Many people have – Happy
reported being more – Playful
“open” with people – Energetic
when using this drug. – Excited
• Assuming one doesn’t – Cuddly
feel the negative effect
of this drug, people
under the influence of
this drug will appear:
Adverse Behavioral Effects.
• The behavioral effect
which is perhaps most
common among users of
MDMA is a severe mood
depression following use
• Persistent insomnia
MDMA and Time
• Many users describe
feeling an altered
perception of time.
• Time was:
– “slowed down”
– “sped up”
MDMA and Vision
• A little over half of
MDMA users reported
any change in visual
• They report to be as if
they are being absorbed
by color and light.
– That is why many raves
contain bright colors,
strobe lights, or black
• Raves are huge • Despite the size of the
underground dance party, and the
parties. number of people
• These types of parties involved in them,
are usually large, raves rarely end in
loud, and full of any violence.
people under the • This is because of the
influence of illegal effect that MDMA
drugs. has on mood and
• Those who attend raves
generally are scantily dressed
or wear bright colors with
• They often have pacifiers or
something else to suck on.
• Light shows are also very
common. Light shows are a
dance using glow sticks or
micro lights usually
performed at a rave or dance
• Gary Van Horn
• Jaime Stewart
• Urban Dictionary