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Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

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  • 1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Prepared by: Shaina Horton ICC Student Prepared For: Duke Walker ICC Professor
  • 2. What is Fetal Alcohol Spectral Disorder or FASD? s Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term (not a diagnosis) describing the range of effects that can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects may include physical, mental, behavioral, and/or learning disabilities with possible lifelong implications. – Pennsylvania Department of Mental Health s FASD is the leading known preventable cause of mental retardation and birth defects and it is estimated that in the United States, 1 in 100 live births have a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder each year. – Pennsylvania Department of Mental Health
  • 3. What Causes FASD? s FASD is caused when women drink during pregnancy. s According to the Surgeon General, there is no safe amount of alcohol at any time during pregnancy. s Unfortunately, with 50 % of pregnancies in the U.S. being unplanned, many women consume alcohol early on before they even realize they are pregnant. s FASD is completely preventable all one has to do is not consume alcohol during pregnancy.
  • 4. How Does FASD Occur?
  • 5. Growth Deficiency s Growth deficiency is ranked as follows by the "4-Digit Diagnostic Code:"[1] s * Severe - Height and weight at or below the 3rd percentile. s * Moderate - Either height or weight at or below the 3rd percentile, but not both. s * Mild - Either height or weight or both between the 3rd and 10th percentiles. s * None - Height and weight both above the 10th percentile.
  • 6. Facial Characteristics
  • 7. Facial Characteristics (continued)
  • 8. Neurological Damage s Documented evidence exists of CNS neurologic damage. s Neurologic problems can include seizures s As with head circumference, abnormal neurologic findings among younger children can be most predictive of underlying CNS abnormality resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure rather than later environmental factors. – CDC
  • 9. Structural/Skelatal Damage s Documented evidence exists of small or diminished overall head circumference adjusted for age and sex (including head circumference at birth. For children who have overall growth deficiency (i.e., height and weight <10th percentile) to meet this criteria for CNS abnormality, the child's head circumference should be disproportionately small to the child's overall size – CDC s Clinically significant brain abnormalities are observable through imaging techniques (e.g. reduction in size or change in shape of the corpus callosum, cerebellum, or basal ganglia), as assessed by an appropriately trained professional (1,3--10). A child could have a structural abnormality that would be consistent with a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) but not demonstrate detectable functional deficits. – CDC
  • 10. ADHD and FASD s Attention and hyperactivity problems. Attention problems are often noted for children with FAS, with children frequently receiving a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). s Although such a diagnosis can be applied, attention problems for children with FAS do not appear to be consistent with the classic pattern of ADHD. Persons with FAS tend to have difficulty with the encoding of information and flexibility (shifting) aspects of attention, whereas children with ADHD typically display problems with focus and sustaining attention. s Persons with FAS also can appear to display hyperactivity because their impulsivity might lead to increased activity levels.
  • 11. FASD Effects on Motor Skills s Motor functioning delays or deficits. Both gross and fine motor skills can be impaired for persons with FAS. s Visual-motor/visual-spatial coordination is a particularly vulnerable area of functioning. s Behaviors that can be observed or reported in the clinical setting that indicate motor problems that should be assessed by standardized testing include but are not limited to delayed motor milestones, difficulty with writing or drawing, clumsiness, balance problems, tremors, and poor dexterity. For infants, a poor suck is often observed
  • 12. Significant Developmental Discrepancies s Global deficits or delays can leave the child scoring in the normal range of development but below what would be expected for the child's environment and background s In addition to formal testing (either through records or current testing), behaviors that might be observed or reported in the clinical setting that suggest cognitive deficits or developmental delays that should be assessed by standardized testing. s These include but are not limited to specific learning disabilities (especially mathematic or visual-spatial deficits), uneven profile of cognitive skills, low academic achievement, discrepancy between verbal and nonverbal skills, and slowed movements or reaction to persons and stimuli (e.g., difficulty in processing information)
  • 13. The Brain and FASD.
  • 14. Growing Up With FASD
  • 15. The Bottom Line is Do Not Drink While you Pregnant. Your child’s life is way too important to throw away on something as meaningless as getting buzzed. Show your baby some love, take care of yourself and that precious thing inside you!
  • 16. References s Center for Disease Control s Pennsylvania Department of Mental Health s Surgeon General