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  • 1. Selected Sites of Jordan Military Life in East & West Summer Semester 2013/14 Professor Dr. Thomas M. Weber
  • 2. Germany Walls of Separation
  • 3. Jordan/Palestine Wall of Separation
  • 4. Natural Zones of Separation Rivers
  • 5. Natural Zones of Separation Mountains
  • 6. Natural Zones of Separation Desert
  • 7. Roman Separation Wall: The Limes
  • 8. Roman Separation Wall: The Limes
  • 9. Roman Separation Wall: The Limes
  • 10. Moguntiacum / Mainz / Mayence THEThe Roman Empire ROMAN EMPIRE Philadelphia / Amman Limes Germanicus Limes Orientalis (Arabicus) Limes Britannicus Limes Africanus
  • 11. The Limes Germanicus
  • 12. The Limes Germanicus
  • 13. The Limes Germanicus Colonia Ulpia Traiana / Xanten
  • 14. The Limes Germanicus Mogontiacum – Mainz / Mayence
  • 15. The Limes Germanicus Jagsthausen UNESCO Word-Heritage Site
  • 16. The Limes Germanicus Aalen
  • 17. The Limes Germanicus Regensburg
  • 18. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section The Strata Diocletiana
  • 19. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Dura Europos
  • 20. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Zenobia
  • 21. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Sergioupolis / Rusafa
  • 22. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Palmyra / Tadmor
  • 23. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Khan al-Hallabat
  • 24. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Khan Aneiybeh
  • 25. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Khan Manqoura
  • 26. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Djebel Seis
  • 27. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Dmeir
  • 28. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section The Via Nova Traiana and The Strata Diocletiana
  • 29. Limes Orientalis The Syrian Section Ed-Dhyatheh
  • 30. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Khirbet al-Beidha
  • 31. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Nemara
  • 32. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Bostra / Bosra Sham Capital of Provincia Arabia from AD 106
  • 33. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Speluncae ?/ Dair al Kahf
  • 34. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Ba’jikh
  • 35. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Ba’ijkh
  • 36. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Ba’ijkh
  • 37. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Umm id-Djimal
  • 38. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Umm id-Djimal
  • 39. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Dair al Qinn
  • 40. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  • 41. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  • 42. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  • 43. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  • 44. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  • 45. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  • 46. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Burqu’
  • 47. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Azraq
  • 48. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Asheikheen
  • 49. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Asheikheen
  • 50. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Asheikheen
  • 51. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Asheikheen
  • 52. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Aseikheen
  • 53. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Aseikheen
  • 54. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Aseikheen
  • 55. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr al-’Uweinid
  • 56. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr al-’Uweinid
  • 57. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Khirbet as-Samra
  • 58. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Khirbet Khaw
  • 59. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Azeima
  • 60. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qastal: Ummayad Qasr, no traces of Roman fort
  • 61. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Zozion/Zizia Auxiliary Unit: Equites Dalmat[ae] Illyriciani = The Dalmatian Illyrian Cavalry Year?????
  • 62. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Umm al-Waleed
  • 63. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Kastron Mefaa/Umm ar-Rsas
  • 64. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Kastron Mefaa/Umm ar-Rsas
  • 65. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr al-Al
  • 66. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Abu Kharaq
  • 67. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Abu Rukhba
  • 68. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Bscheer
  • 69. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Bscheer
  • 70. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Qasr Bscheer
  • 71. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun
  • 72. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun
  • 73. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun Plan before 263 AD (Phase I) Plan after 263 AD (Phase II)
  • 74. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun
  • 75. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun The Western Gate
  • 76. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun The Northern Gate Porta Principalis dextra
  • 77. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun The Southern Gate Porta Principalis sinistra
  • 78. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Betthorus (Betthorum) Legio / Lejjun Constructional details of two-storeyed three-quarter circular corner towers
  • 79. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Djurf al-Darweesh
  • 80. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section ‘Udruh
  • 81. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section ‘Udruh
  • 82. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Humayma
  • 83. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Khirbet Khalde / Praesidium
  • 84. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Khirbet Khalidi
  • 85. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Aila / Aqaba
  • 86. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Hegra / Mada’in Salih
  • 87. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section Hegra / Mada’in Salih
  • 88. Auf das Wohlergehen des Kaisers Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus Armeniacus Parthicus Medicus Germanicus Sarmaticus Maximus restaurierte die Gemeinschaft der Hegrener die Mauer (?), die durch Alter zerstört worden ist auf eigene Kosten unter Iulius Firmanus, legatus Augusti pro pretore. Die Arbeit wurde ausgeführt (?) unter Pomponius Victor, Centurio der legio III Cyrenaica und Numisius Clemens, seinem Kollegen, und die Ausführung wurde beaufsichtigt von Amrus, dem Sohn des Haian, des Ersten der Gemeinde. Präsenz der Römer in Hegra (Summer 175 – [177?] 17. March 180 AD
  • 89. Limes Orientalis The Arabian Section “To the Welfare of Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus Armeniacus Medicus Germanicus Sarmaticus Maximus the community (civitas) of the People of Hegra rebuilt the wall (? vallum???) which was collapsed by its age, on their own expenses under the rule of Iulius Firmanus, the governor representing the emperor (“legatus Augusti pro praetore”). This work was executed (?) under Pomponius Victor, Centurio of the Legio III Cyrenaica, and his colleague Numisius Clemens, and the construction was supervised by ‘Amr (Amrus), the son of Hayyan, the first of the community.”
  • 90. The Roman Army Units: The Types of Legions
  • 91. Roman Army Command Structure
  • 92. The Roman Army General Army Units 1. Land Army 2. Sea Army - navy 3. Aviation Army – Air Force 1a. Combat Units -Infantry – heavy -- light -cavalry – heavy -- light -artillery – heavy -- light 1c. General Staff - Generals and Ordonances - Corps of Officers - Signals 1b. Supply Units - pioneers - scouts - ambulance - suppliers
  • 93. The Roman Navy General Army Units 2. Sea Army - Roman navy
  • 94. The Roman Army Legionary Army Units Important terms Legio (Imperial) - A legion was composed of nine cohorts and one first cohort. The legion's overall commander was the legatus legionis, assisted by the praefectus castrorum and other senior officers. Cohors (Cohortes) - A cohort consisted of 480 men. The most senior ranking centurion of the six centuria commanded the entire cohort. First Cohort (Cohors Prima) - The first cohort was a double strength cohort (consisting of five double-strength centuria) with a size of 800 men (excluding officers). The centurion of its first centuria, the Primus Pilus, commanded the first cohort and was also the most senior Centurion in the legion. Centuria - A centuria consisted of 80 men under the command of a Centurion and his Optio. Six centuria formed a cohort. Contubernium - The smallest organized unit of soldiers in the Roman Army. It was composed of eight legionaries led by a non-commissioned officer called a decanus. Ten contubernia formed a centuria. Vexillatio - These were temporary task forces composed of one or multiple centuria deta- ched from the legion for a specific purpose. Vexillations were under the command of an officer appointed by the Legatus.
  • 95. The Roman Army Army Units The Centuria
  • 96. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units Ala : The ala was composed entirely of cavalry. The name is Latin for wing and derives from the use of horsemen on the flanks of an army, where they gave protection to the infantry centre. The alae were normally of a strength of roughly five hundred (quingenaria), but there were a few of the strength of roughly a thousand (millaria) Turma : By the second century the ala quingenaria were arranged into section of sixteen turmae, whereas the ala millaria were partitioned into twenty four turmae. So a turma was not necessarily always of the same size. Commander: praefectus alae
  • 97. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Cavalry Ala Parthorum et Araborum (Mainz)
  • 98. Arabs from Amman serving in the Roman army
  • 99. The Roman Army General Army Units Arabian Auxiliary Troops in Service of the Roman Army
  • 100. The Roman Army General Army Units Auxiliary Cavalry Troops in Service in exerise
  • 101. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Cavalry Ala Hamiorum (Syria)
  • 102. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Cavalry Ala Augusta
  • 103. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Cavalry Ala Ituraeorum Sagittariorum
  • 104. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Cavalry Ala Ituraeorum Assyriae
  • 105. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Infantry Cohors Ituraeorum Assyriae
  • 106. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Infantry Cohors Dalmatorum
  • 107. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Dromedarii Palmyra, Museum
  • 108. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Dromedarii Palmyra, Museum
  • 109. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Dromedarii Palmyra, Museum
  • 110. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Dromedarii Palmyra, Museum
  • 111. The Roman Army Auxilary Army Units: Dromedarii Palmyra, Museum
  • 112. The Roman Army Army Units: Early Arab Dromedar Archers
  • 113. The Roman Army Auxiliary Units The Nabataeans D. Graf: The Nabataean Army and the Cohortes Ulpiae Petraeorum, in: Rome from the Nabataeans to the Saracenes, Aldershot 1997: X-XI. Chapter V.
  • 114. The Roman Allies in Bilad al-Sham The Nabataeans Fancy Nabataean Military Costumes worn in actual “Petra-Show”
  • 115. The Ghassanid Kings Allies of Byzantium in Syria and Arabia Jafnah I ibn `Amr (220-265) `Amr I ibn Jafnah (265-270) Tha'labah ibn Amr (270-287) al-Harith I ibn Th`alabah (287-307) Jabalah I ibn al-Harith I (307-317) al-Harith II ibn Jabalah "ibn Maria" (317-327) al-Mundhir I Senior ibn al-Harith II (327-330) with... al-Aiham ibn al-Harith II (327-330) and... al-Mundhir II Junior ibn al-Harith II (327-340) and... al-Nu'man I ibn al-Harith II (327-342) and... `Amr II ibn al-Harith II (330-356) and... Jabalah II ibn al-Harith II (327-361) Jafnah II ibn al-Mundhir I (361-391) with... al-Nu'man II ibn al-Mundhir I (361-362) al-Nu'man III ibn 'Amr ibn al-Mundhir I (391-418) Jabalah III ibn al-Nu'man (418-434) al-Nu'man IV ibn al-Aiham (434-455) with... al-Harith III ibn al-Aiham (434-456) and... al-Nu'man V ibn al-Harith (434-453) al-Mundhir II ibn al-Nu'man (453-472) with... `Amr III ibn al-Nu'man (453-486) and... Hijr ibn al-Nu'man (453-465) al-Harith IV ibn Hijr (486-512) Jabalah IV ibn al-Harith (512-529) al- Amr IV ibn Machi (Mah’shee) (529) al-Harith V ibn Jabalah (529-569) al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith (569-581) with... Abu Kirab al-Nu'man ibn al-Harith (570-582) al-Nu'man VI ibn al-Mundhir (581-583) al-Harith VI ibn al-Harith (583) al-Nu'man VII ibn al-Harith Abu Kirab (583- ?) al-Aiham ibn Jabalah (? -614) al-Mundhir IV ibn Jabalah (614- ?) Sharahil ibn Jabalah (61 -618) Amr IV ibn Jabalah (628) Jabalah V ibn al-Harith (628-632) Jabalah VI ibn al-Aiham (632-638) Ghassan Al-Hourani (638-712)
  • 116. The Ghassanid Kingdom Ghassanid King Al-Harith in his tent, speaking with Abu Zayd to the right in the 26th maqamat. Al-Harith was a popular character of Arab history, folktales, and sagas, book illustration about AD 1335, Vienna National Library
  • 117. The Roman Allies in Bilad al-Sham The Ghassanids (Beni Ghassan) http://www.twcenter.net/forums/showthread.php?185336-Lahkmid-Arabs- amp-Ghassanid-Auxiliaries Fancy Computer-Game Ghassanid Soldiers (without any historic and archaeological evidence)
  • 118. The Roman Army Command Structure
  • 119. The Roman Army Military Ranks
  • 120. The Roman Army Command Structure
  • 121. The Roman Army Military Ranks: The Generals Legatus Militum – Magister Militum per Orientem Emperor Traian in the Dacian wars with his Generals
  • 122. The Roman Army Military Ranks: The Generals Highest Commander Legatus Militum (or legionis) – Magister Militum per Orientem Possible Portrait (unsecure!!!) of the Magister Militum Flavius Belisarius (Belisarios , Βελισάριος * around 405 AD, † 565 AD
  • 123. The Roman Army Military Ranks: The Generals Legatus Militum – Magister Militum per Orientem ca. 347: Flavius Eusebius, magister utriusquae militiae[15] 349–359: Ursicinus, magister equitum under Constantius[13] 359–360: Sabinianus, magister equitum under Constantius[13] 363–367: Lupicinus, magister equitum under Jovian and Valens[9] 371–378: Iulius, magister equitum et Peditum under Valens[9] 383: Flavius Richomeres, magister equitum et peditum[1] 383–388: Ellebichus, magister equitum et peditum[1] 392: Eutherius, magister equitum et peditum[1] 393–396: Addaeus, magister equitum et peditum[1] 395/400: Fravitta 433–446: Anatolius 447–451: Zeno 460s: Flavius Ardabur Aspar -469: Iordanes
  • 124. The Roman Army Military Ranks: The Generals Legatus Militum – Magister Militum per Orientem 469–471: Zeno 483–498: Ioannes Scytha c.503–505: Areobindus Dagalaiphus Areobindus 505–506: Pharesmanes ?516-?518: Hypatius ?518–529: Diogenianus 520-525/526: Hypatius 527: Libelarius 527–529: Hypatius 529–531: Belisarius 531: Mundus 532–533: Belisarius 540: Buzes 542: Belisarius 543–544: Martinus 549–551: Belisarius 555: Amantius 556: Valerianus 569: Zemarchus 572–573: Marcian 573: Theodorus 574: Eusebius 574/574-577: Justinian 577–582: Maurice 582–583: John Mystacon 584-587/588: Philippicus 588: Priscus 588–589: Philippicus 589–591: Comentiolus 591–603: Narses 603-604 Germanus 604-605 Leontius 605-610 Domentziolus
  • 125. The Roman Army Army Units and military ranks Second highest commander Tribunus Militum High ranked officer on a temporary limited term of duty, coming from the Roman nobility. 6 Tribuni per legion with commanding power. Two ranks must be distinguished by the purple stripes of the underwear tunics:
  • 126. The Roman Army Army Units and military ranks Third highest commander Praefectus Castrorum Camp commander without combat command. He supervised the discipline in the camp. He was responsible for food and other material supply, especially on the Department of weaponry (armentaria), the field hospital, the Department of accounting and registration (tabulinarium), the Department of custody.
  • 127. The Roman Army Army Units and military ranks Primus Pilus, Centurio and Optio
  • 128. The Roman Army Army Units and military ranks Official Insignia: The Fasces and the Licores (Lictor)
  • 129. The Roman Army Army Units and military ranks Official Insignia: The Fasces and the Licores (Lictor)
  • 130. The Roman Army Army standards and tactical signs The Eagle (Aquila) and Roman Standard (vexillum)
  • 131. Vexillarius The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs Aquilifer Signifer
  • 132. The Roman Army Army standart and tactical signs Legionary standarts: The Vexilla
  • 133. The Roman Army The Vexillum Project Bibliography: M.I. Rostovtzeff, "Vexillum and Victory," Journal of Roman Studies Vol. 32 (1942) pp. 92-106. A. Croom, The reconstruction of a Roman vexillum, in: The Arbeia Journal 2, 1993: 40-45 E. Dąbrowa, Le vexillum sur les monnaies coloniales (IIe - IIIe siècle après J.-C., in: Latomus 63, 2004: 394-405 Contact: Mona Reich 079-6922682
  • 134. The Roman Army The Vexillum Project Bibliography: Contact: Mona Reich 079-6922682 Vexillarius in the company of the Military Tribune Terentius, Wall Painting from the Temple of Bel, Dura Europos, New Haven, Ct., Yale University
  • 135. Original Vexillum found in Egypt, Moscow, Museum of Fine Arts The Roman Army The Vexillum Project
  • 136. The Roman Army The Vexillum Project ATTENTION: The Symbol of the LEG III CYRENAICA was NOT the Victory, but the Ibex!!!!!
  • 137. The Roman Army The Vexillum Project Croom, A., The reconstruction of a Roman vexillum, in: The Arbeia Journal 2, 1993: 40-45
  • 138. The Roman Army The Vexillum Project
  • 139. The Roman Army The Vexillum Project
  • 140. The Roman Army The Aquila Project The ancient Sources Eagle Cameos, Vienna, Art Historian Museum
  • 141. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: The Ancient Sources The Lorica of the statue of Augustus from Prima Porta Denarius of Marcus Antonius (32 BC) Coin of Augustus showing the Signa Militaria retrieved from the Parthians: Bare head of Augustus on the left and on the reverse (right) is a circular shield with aquila on its left. "S" and "P" is written on both left and right at the top of the shield, and "Q" and "R" on both sides at the bottom of the shield.(29 BC)
  • 142. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: The Ancient Sources The Column of Trajan at Rome
  • 143. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: The Ancient Sources Tombstones of Aquiliferi
  • 144. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: The Modern Bronze Eagle Bought in Amman Downtown: Price 35 JD
  • 145. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: The SPQR-Tablet
  • 146. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: Modern Models of Aquila with SPQR Base
  • 147. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: Construction plan of Base
  • 148. The Roman Army The Aquila Project: Aqulia with wreath Standard for Aquila from wood and wreathed Aqula with SPQR table at Irbid
  • 149. The Roman Army The Aquila Project Working on the Aqulia at Beni Kinaneh, April 26th, 2014
  • 150. The Roman Army The Aquila Project Aquilifer Outfit
  • 151. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Cornicen
  • 152. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Cornicen
  • 153. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Cornicen
  • 154. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Cornicen: The Column of Traian, Rome
  • 155. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Imago of the Emperor
  • 156. The Roman Army • Modern Military Decorations
  • 157. The Roman Army The Dona Militaria The Phalerae
  • 158. The Roman Army The Dona Militaria: Distinctions The Phalerae M (arco) Caelio T (iti) f (ilio) Lem (onia tribV) Bon (onia) [ I ] o (rdini) leg (ionis) XIIX ann (orVm) LIII s (emissis) [ ce ] cidit bello Variano ossa [ lib (ertorVm) i ]nferre licebit P (VbliVs) CaeliVs T (iti) f (iliVs) Lem (onia tribV) frater fecit “For Marcus Caelius, son of Titus, from the Lemonia tribe at Bononia (Bologna), (Centurio) of the 1st order of the 18th Legion, who died in the war of Varus. The bones of his freedmen may be buried here. Publius Caelius, son of Titus, from the Lemonia tribe, his brother made it+Epitaph of Marcus Caelius (ca. 45 BC- 9 AD) Phalerae Torques Armllae
  • 159. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Phalerae: The Lauersfort Treasure
  • 160. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Signa Militaria
  • 161. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Signa Militaria Defeat of the Romans in the battle of Carrhai (Syria) in 53 BC Marcus Licinius Crassus
  • 162. The Roman Army Army standarts and tactical signs The Signa Militaria Augustus from Primaporta: The return of the Signa Militaria from the Parthians (Persians)
  • 163. Who were The Enemies of the Romans?
  • 164. The Persians: Parthians and Sasanids Naqsh ar-Rustam / Iran
  • 165. The Persians: Parthians and Sasanids Naqsh ar-Rustam / Iran
  • 166. The Arcasid Dynasty (ca. 247 b.C.- 224 AD) Arsakes I. (ca. 247/38 -217 v.Chr.) Arsakes II. (ca. 217-191 v.Chr.) Phriapatios (ca. 191-176 v.Chr.) Phraates I. (176-171 v.Chr.) Mithridates I. (171-139/8 v.Chr.) Phraates II. (138/9-128 v.Chr.) Artabanos I. (128-124/3 v.Chr.) Mithridates II. (123-88 v.Chr.) Gotzares I. (91/0-81/0 v.Chr.) Orodes I. (81/0-76/5 v.Chr.) Sinatrukes (ca. 78/7-71/0 v.Chr.) [Artabanos II. (88-77 v.Chr.)] Phraates III. (71/0-58/7 v.Chr.) Mithridates III. (58/7 v.Chr.) Orodes II. (58/7-38 v.Chr.) Phraates IV. (38 – 2 v.Chr.) Phraates V. (3/2 v.Chr. – 4 n.Chr.) Orodes III. (4-6 n.Chr.) Vonones I. (8./9 -10/12 n.Chr.) Artabanos II. (10/1-38 n.Chr.) Gotzares II. (43/4-51 n.Chr.) Vologaises I. (51-77/78 n.Chr.) Pakoros (77/8-114/5 n.Chr.) Artabanos III. (79-81 n.Chr.) Osroes (108/9 – 127/8 n.Chr.) Vologaises III. (111/2 – 147/8 n.Chr.) Vologaises IV. (147/8-191/2 n.Chr.) Vologaises V. (191/2-207/8 n.Chr.) Vologaises VI. (207/8-221/2 oder 227/8 n.Chr.) Artabanos IV (213-224n.Chr.) Mithridates I. Phraates III. Vologaises I.Vonones I. Vologaises III. Vologaises IV.
  • 167. The „new“-Persian Empire of the Sasanids (224-651 AD Shapur I. besiegt Valerian 260 n.Chr. Sardonyx-Cameo, 3.-4. Jh. n.Chr. Silberbüste Shapurs II. (?) Ardaxshir I. 224-239/40, Tod: 241/2 Shapur I. 240-270/72 Hormzid I. 270/2-273 Vahram I. 273-276 Vahram II. 276-293 Vahram III 293 Narseh 293-302 Hormzid II. 302-309 Shapur II. 309-379 Ardaxshir II. 379-383 Shapur III. 383-388 Vahram IV. 388-399 Yazgird I. 399-421 Vahram V. Gor 439-457 Yazgird II. 439-457 Hormzid III. 457-459 Peroz 459-484 Valaxsh 484-488 Kavad I. 488-496, 499-531 Zamasp 496-498 Chosraw I. 531-579 Hormizd IV. 579-590 Chosraw II. 590-628 Vahram VI. Chobin 590-591 Kavad II. 628 Ardaxshir III. 628-630 Shahrbaraz 630 Chosraw III. 630 Puran 630-631 Azarmigduxt 631 Hormizd V. 631-632 Chosraw IV. 631-633 Yazdgird III. 633-651 Klibanarier, Felsrelief, Firuzabad
  • 168. Sasanid Army: Cataphracts
  • 169. Sasanid Army: Archers
  • 170. The Lahmid allies of the Persians
  • 171. Who were The Enemies of the Romans? The Jewish Revolts: The Sicarii
  • 172. The Roman military camps Castrum – Castra Ancient Writer: Hyginius Gromaticus (ca. – century AD) On the Furnishment of Military Camps (Liber de Munitionibus Castrorum) https://archive.org/details/liberdemunitioni00hygiuoft
  • 173. The Roman military camps Mesurement quadrillation according to Hyginus Gromaticus The 60 feet “Stringa”
  • 174. Roman castellum: Saalburg, Germany Roman castellum: ‘Udruh, Jordan
  • 175. Encampment in tents
  • 176. Encampment in tents Tents of the Contubernia : 3 m x 3 m = “paliliones” Tents of the Centuriones : 6 m x 6” m Tents of Commander (legatus) = “augurale” side length 14 m and more
  • 177. Encampment in tents The contubernium: simple leather tent (“papilio”) 3 m 3 m Tent = “Papilio” = “butterfly”
  • 178. Encampment in tents The contubernium: leather tent (“papilio”)
  • 179. Encampment in tents Commander’s tent (augurale) with fanum
  • 180. Outposts and Camps
  • 181. The Planning of a castrum groma Agrimensores Centuriation of town and countryside into equal units= actus (710 meters) The Military Surveyors: “ Gromatici”
  • 182. The Religious Foundation of a Colony
  • 183. Survival of Roman Centuriation today Po-Valley in northern Italy
  • 184. Encampment in tents The Principle Elements of a Castrum (schematic) Praetorium Groma Via Principalia Sinstra Via Principalia Dextra ViaPraetoriaPrincipia Commanders Residence contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium Tribuni Praefecti Praefecti Centuriones Centuriones Centuriones Centuriones Centuriones Ala Ala Ala contubernium contubernium contubernium contubernium Horreumarmentarium Signiferi and vexillarius contubernium contubernium contubernium Hospital ViaDecumana
  • 185. The Organization of a castrum
  • 186. Stone castrum with defensive ditches (fossae)
  • 187. Stone castrum with defensive ditches (fossae)
  • 188. The praetorium
  • 189. The Commander’s place: The praetorium
  • 190. The Commander’s place: The praetorium
  • 191. The Commander’s place: The praetorium
  • 192. The praetorium and the principia
  • 193. The Sanctuary of Flags and Standards (Aedes)
  • 194. The Tabularium Roman Diptych: Two wooden tablets filled with wax and metal pen (stylus) Registration and messenger (postal) service
  • 195. The Tabularium: Written Record of a Legionary fabrica Hand-written Papyrus Berlin P. 6765, detailing the production in a legionary weapon workshop (fabrica) over two days (late 2nd to begin of 3rd century AD), found in Egypt. Items: Swords, shields, bows, parts of artillery Staff: Legionaries, auxiliaries, civilians, slaves of solderies
  • 196. The Tabularium: Military Administrators (selection) Cornicularius: Head of Military Office, chief of administrative paper work in the tabularium Act(u)arius: Keeper of records Librarius: Keeper of archives Exactus: Controller of payments Primiscrinius: Head of administrative office Scriniarius : An administrative official or clerk. Numeriarius: Accountant, clerk Erogator: Tax collector , also responsible for credit payments Adiutiva: Helper, secretary Subadiuva: Under-secretary Military Scribe Heliodoros, in the rank of an actuarius, painting from Dura Europos (Syria), New Haven, Ct., Yale University Art Museum
  • 197. The Roman Army Equipment
  • 198. The Roman Army Equipment Basic Bibliography
  • 199. Roman Legionary The Roman Army Equipment
  • 200. Roman Legionary The Roman Army Equipment
  • 201. Roman Auxiliary Infantry (“marines”) The Roman Army Equipment
  • 202. Roman Auxiliary Cavalrists The Roman Army Equipment
  • 203. Roman Army Equipment underwear
  • 204. Roman Army Equipment underwear: Tunica: cut-design and colors
  • 205. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Original Textile Finds at Ghor as-Safi
  • 206. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Original Textile Finds at Ghor as-Safi
  • 207. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Original Textile Finds at Ghor as-Safi
  • 208. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Handmade Cotton Tissue at ‘Iraq al-Emir
  • 209. The Purple Snail: MUREX Murex trunculus (Sidon) Murex brandaris (Tyros) Purpura haemostoma Porphyry Stone (Egypt) Plinius, Nat.Hist. IX 132; XXI 45: Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Purple Representation of a Byzantine couple dressed in purple official ornate. Chrysobullon of emperor Alexios I. Komnenos(1204-1222), Mone Dionysiou, Mount Athos.
  • 210. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Purple: Saida
  • 211. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Purple: Tyros
  • 212. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red The Kermes-Insect
  • 213. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red The Kermes-Insect
  • 214. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red The Kermes-Insect
  • 215. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: The Kermes-Insect
  • 216. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Blue Indigo
  • 217. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red The Kermes-Insect
  • 218. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Cochineal Red Cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus)
  • 219. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Cochineal Red
  • 220. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red Rubia Tinctorum, engl.: Rubia; arab.: fuwwa; seba
  • 221. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red Carthamus tinctorius, engl.:Safflower; arab.: kurtum; ‘usfur
  • 222. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Red Opuntia cochinillifera, engl.:Cochinea cactus; arab.: sabr
  • 223. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Blue Indigo
  • 224. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Blue Indigo
  • 225. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Blue Indigo
  • 226. Roman Army Equipment Tunica: Traditional Dye-Methods: Blue Indigo
  • 227. Roman Army Equipment Tunica and Paenula
  • 228. Roman Army Equipment overall: Paenula
  • 229. Roman Army Equipment overall: Paenula
  • 230. Roman Army Equipment overall: Paenula, military version
  • 231. Roman Army Equipment overall: Paenula, military version
  • 232. Roman Army Equipment Legionary Sandal: The Caliga(e) Original Caliga found at Mainz, 1st century AD. Mainz, Landesmuseum
  • 233. Roman Army Equipment Legionary Sandal: The Caliga(e) Food of a bronze statue of a horseman, Roman Kalkriese, Museum
  • 234. Roman Army Equipment Legionary Sandal: The Caliga(e)
  • 235. The Roman Army Equipment The body armor (lorica “musculata”) Marble Loricati Statues of Emperors and high-ranked Generals: from left Toledo (Ohio), Sabratha (Libya) and Munich (Germany).
  • 236. The Roman Army Equipment The body armor : Greek Tradition Greek “muscle armor”, 7th century BC Greek Panoply of am Hoplites;6h century BC
  • 237. The Roman Army Equipment The body armor : Greek Tradition Spartanian Phalanx and heavy armed Hoplite, 7th - 6th century BC
  • 238. The body armor (lorica segmentata): The Roman Army Equipment The Corbridge Hoard
  • 239. The body armor (lorica): The Roman Army Equipment The Corbridge Hook Type
  • 240. The body armor (lorica): The Roman Army Equipment The Locrica Segmentata
  • 241. Roman Army Equipment The body armor (lorica): 1st-2nd century AD: Type Corbridge The Amman Replica
  • 242. Roman Army Equipment The Body Armor (Lorica Hamata) Chain mail Armors Original chain mail shirt from Palestine, Jerusalem, Israel Museum
  • 243. Roman Army Equipment The Body Armor (Lorica Hamata) Chain mail Armors Reconstructed Lorica Hamata Original breast lock of a Lorica Hamata, Bronze, Mainz, Roman-Germanic Central Museum
  • 244. The Shield (scutum): Literary Source: Polybios: VI 23 “It (the shield) consists of two layers of wood fastened together with bull’s hide glue: The outer surface is then covered first with canvas and then with calf skin. The upper and lower edges are bound with iron to protect the shield from the cutting strokes of swords and from wear when resting on the ground. In the centre is fixed an iron boss, which turns aside the heavy impact of stones, pikes and weighty missiles in general.”
  • 245. The Shield (scutum)
  • 246. The Shield (scutum) Dura Europos (Syria)
  • 247. Roman Arms: The Shield (scutum) Dura Europos (Syria)
  • 248. Roman Arms: The Shield (scutum) Dura Europos (Syria)
  • 249. Roman Arms: The Shield (scutum) Shield Decorations according to the Notitia Dignitatum
  • 250. Roman Arms: The Shield (scutum) Shield Decorations according to the Notitia Dignitatum
  • 251. Roman Arms: The Shield (scutum0 Shield bosses Munich, Art Market
  • 252. Roman Arms: The short combat sword (gladius) Early swords: Type Mainz with “Spanish blade”
  • 253. Roman Arms: The short combat sword (gladius) Early Swords-Sections: Application of Iron with different grade of carbon
  • 254. Roman Army Weapons Roman Swords Early Roman gladius (spatha) worn with balteus and broad officers belt (cingulum)
  • 255. Roman Army Weapons Roman Swords Replica of Roman Cavalry Sword (Spatha) made in Jordan: Blade according to the “gladius Hispanensis” Type Mainz; Sheath out of wood covered by aluminium foil (olive oil containers). Note the oblique balteus fixed on four rings along the shed.
  • 256. Roman Army Weapons Roman Sword
  • 257. Roman Army Equipment The Sword Fatal injures caused by Roman swords on the skulls of killed enemies
  • 258. Roman Arms: The daggers (pugio)
  • 259. Roman Arms: Military Belt (cingulum militare) Bibliography: Stephanie Hoss, C I N G U L U M M I L I T A R E . Studien zum römischen Soldatengürtel des 1. bis 3. Jh. n. Chr, Diss. Leiden 2014; S. Hoss, The Roman Military Belt, in : Wearing the Cloak, Dressing the Soldier in Roman Times, ed. M.-L. Nock, Oxford – Oakville 2013, 29-44
  • 260. Roman Army Weapons Roman Military Belt (cingulum militare) Replica of Roman Cingulum made in Jordan, broad officer’s version, without hanger straps and pendants (aprons)
  • 261. Roman Army Weapons Roman Officer Belt: The cingulum militare
  • 262. Roman Army Weapons Roman Military Belt (Cingulum militare) Replica of Roman Cingulum made in Jordan, broad officer’s version, with hanger straps and pendants (aprons)
  • 263. Roman Army Weapons Roman Military Belts (Cingula) Replica of Roman Cingulum made in Jordan, broad officer’s version, with hanger straps and pendants (aprons)
  • 264. Roman Arms: The javelin (pilum)
  • 265. Roman Arms: The javelin (pilum)
  • 266. Roman Arms: The javelin (pilum)
  • 267. Roman Arms: The javelin (pilum)
  • 268. Roman Arms: The javelin (pilum)
  • 269. Roman Arms: The spears (pilum)
  • 270. Roman Arms: The spears (pilum) Fatal injures caused by Roman spears on the skulls of killed enemies
  • 271. Roman Arms: The Helmets 1st Century AD: Type Haguenau 1st – 2nd Century AD: Type Weisenau
  • 272. Roman Arms: The Helmets 2nd – 3rd Century AD: Type Niederbieber
  • 273. Roman Arms: The Helmets
  • 274. Roman Arms: The Helmets
  • 275. Roman Arms: The Helmets 3rd -1st Century BC: Type Montefortino Bologna, Museo Civico Monterenzio Vecchio, Bologna
  • 276. Roman Arms: The Helmets 1st Century AD: Type Haguenau
  • 277. Roman Arms: The Helmets 1st Century AD: Type Haguenau Roman Legionary Helmet from Haguenau/Drusenheim: Haguenau, Musee To the right: Modern replica (material wrongly restored).
  • 278. Roman Arms: The Helmets 1st - 2nd Century AD: Type Weisenau The Amman Replica
  • 279. The Nabataean Army
  • 280. The Nabataean Army
  • 281. The Arabian Army
  • 282. Nabataean Army Corinthian Helmet of the 66th century BC The Nabataean Show at Petra
  • 283. Nabataean Army: Helmets
  • 284. Nabataean Army: Helmets
  • 285. Nabataean Army: Helmets Relief representation of a Late-Hellenistic Helmet of Attic Type, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum
  • 286. Hellenistic Army: Pseudo-Attic Helmets Marble Portrait Head of a Hellenistic King (Seleucos I Nicator?) from Beirut, Paris, Louvre MA 3597
  • 287. Hellenistic Army: Helmets Hellenistic Mural Painting: The Tomb of Lysson and Kallikles at Vergina / Macedonia/ Greece
  • 288. Hellenistic Army: Helmets
  • 289. Hellenistic Army: Helmets
  • 290. Hellenistic Army: Helmets Hellenistic Helm from Melos, 2nd century BC: Berlin, Staatliche Museen
  • 291. Hellenistic Army: Helmets Hellenistic Helm from Melos, 2nd century BC: Berlin, Staatliche Museen
  • 292. Hellenistic Army: Helmets Late-Hellenistic Helm from Pergamon, late 1st century BC: Berlin, Staatliche Museen Relief representation of a Late-Hellenistic Helmet of Attic Type, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum
  • 293. Nabataean Army: Armor
  • 294. Nabataean Army: Armor
  • 295. Nabataean Army: Armor
  • 296. Nabataean Army: Armor Relief busts of the astral sign of the twins, both in Hellenistic armors with sholder straps and leater arm guards. On the head the typical conical felt caps (piloi), from Khiret ad-Dharih, Amman, Jordan Museum
  • 297. Nabataean Army: Armor Fragments of men in Hellenistic armors with shoulder straps and arm guards, from Khirbet at-Tannour, Amman Jordan Archaeologial Museum (Citadel)
  • 298. Nabataean Army: Armor Relief showing lower part of an Hellenistic armor with commander fillet and leather straps, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum
  • 299. Nabataean Army: Armor
  • 300. Royel Iron Armor with gold attachments, from Vergina, Royal Cemetery, Hellenistic Army: Iron-Armor
  • 301. Hellenistic Army: Linnen Armor Alexander-Mosaic, from Pompeii, casa del Fauno, Naples, National Museum
  • 302. Hellenistic Army: Linnen Armor (linothorax)
  • 303. Nabataean Army: Swords
  • 304. Reconstruction of a Nabataean Sword, Amman, University Nabataean Army: Swords Reconstruction of a Nabataean Sword, Amman, University
  • 305. Nabataean Army: Shields Fragmented block with representation of a sea monster (left) and an oval shield with central boss in the shape of a Medusa’s head (Gorgoneion), from Petra, Petra. Archaeological Museum
  • 306. Nabataean Army: Shields Fragment of Shield boss in the shape of an embossed frontal Lion head, from Petra, Petra. Archaeological Museum
  • 307. Early Roman Army: Shield-Boss Bronze Shield boss in the Shape of a frontal Lion Head, Munich, Art Market
  • 308. Nabataean Warrior-in Armor Bust Relief with two spears, Petra, near Nazal Camp
  • 309. Nabataean Army: Spears Nabataean Horseman Bust Relief, wearing a balteus, in the background left blade of a spear and background right head of the horse, Kerak, Castle
  • 310. Fragmented Bust of a Warrior God with two spears, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  • 311. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  • 312. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  • 313. Bust of a bearded Warrior with two spears, from Khirbet Braq, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  • 314. Relief block with representation of an ax with curved blade and hooked vftloral end, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Ax
  • 315. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  • 316. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  • 317. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  • 318. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears
  • 319. Bust of a Warrior God with spear, from Petra, Petra, Archaeological Museum Nabataean Army: Spears