Rfid 05


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  • NOTE: Bullet 5 - Tag is NOT actually generating and transmitting a signal. The Tag modifies the signal and sends it back to the reader. Intermec tags are “passive tags” because they are NOT generating and transmitting their own signal.
  • There are three major building blocks for framing and public policy , first of them is technical. To make a comprehensive framework the policy makers must try to understand what kind of technical expertise does industry have which would constrain or help in framing the policy satisfying both customers and marketers. The existing technical solutions offered with each pros and cons are : kill tag, faraday cage, active jamming, smart RFID and selective disclosure of information.
  • Technology which today is still more expensive than barcode. Lost of efforts made around the price of the tag which is the tip of the iceberg. What else need to be considered when one want to deploy a RFID system? Explain each line item
  • Rfid 05

    1. 1. RFID: Technology and Applications Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay sri@it.iitb.ac.in www.it.iitb.ac.in/~sri
    2. 2. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 2 Outline  Overview of RFID – Reader-Tag; Potential applications  RFID Technology Internals – RF communications; Reader/Tag protocols – Middleware architecture; EPC standards  RFID Business Aspects  Security and Privacy  Conclusion
    3. 3. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 3 Product Marketing – 75 years ago You can have any color, as long as its black !
    4. 4. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 4 Product Marketing - Today 5 Add consumer flexibility, courtesy of robotics, computers … Customer window into final stage of manufacturing
    5. 5. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 5 Effect on manufacturing  Need to ensure error-free, custom assembly  Need inventory of components for the various customization options  Critical Issues – Assembly process control – Inventory management – Supply chain integration – Customer insight  One solution: RFID
    6. 6. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 6 What is RFID?What is RFID?  RFID = Radio Frequency IDentification.  An ADC (Automated Data Collection) technology that: – uses radio-frequency waves to transfer data between a reader and a movable item to identify, categorize, track.. – Is fast and does not require physical sight or contact between reader/scanner and the tagged item. – Performs the operation using low cost components. – Attempts to provide unique identification and backend integration that allows for wide range of applications.  Other ADC technologies: Bar codes, OCR.
    7. 7. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 7 RFID system components Ethernet RFID Reader RFID Tag RF Antenna Network Workstation
    8. 8. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 8 RFID systems: logical view 32 4 5 6 7 8 Application Systems RF Write data to RF tags Trading Partner Systems Read Manager Transaction Data Store Items with RF Tags Reader Antenna Antenna EDI / XML 10 1 Tag/Item Relationship Database 9 Internet ONS Server Product Information (PML Format)Internet 11 12 Other SystemsRFID MiddlewareTag Interfaces
    9. 9. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 9 RFID tags: Smart labels … and a chip attached to it … on a substrate e.g. a plastic foil ... an antenna, printed, etched or stamped ... A paper label with RFID inside Source: www.rfidprivacy.org
    10. 10. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 10 Some RFID tags Source: www.rfidprivacy.org
    11. 11. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 11 Tags can be attached to almost anything: – Items, cases or pallets of products, high value goods – vehicles, assets, livestock or personnel Passive Tags – Do not require power – Draws from Interrogator Field – Lower storage capacities (few bits to 1 KB) – Shorter read ranges (4 inches to 15 feet) – Usually Write-Once-Read-Many/Read-Only tags – Cost around 25 cents to few dollars Active Tags – Battery powered – Higher storage capacities (512 KB) – Longer read range (300 feet) – Typically can be re-written by RF Interrogators – Cost around 50 to 250 dollars RFIDRFID tagstags
    12. 12. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 12 Tag block diagram Antenna Power Supply Tx Modulator Rx Demodulator Control Logic (Finite State machine) Memory Cells Tag Integrated Circuit (IC)
    13. 13. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 13 RFID tag memory  Read-only tags – Tag ID is assigned at the factory during manufacturing • Can never be changed • No additional data can be assigned to the tag  Write once, read many (WORM) tags – Data written once, e.g., during packing or manufacturing • Tag is locked once data is written • Similar to a compact disc or DVD  Read/Write – Tag data can be changed over time • Part or all of the data section can be locked
    14. 14. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 14 RFID readers  Reader functions: – Remotely power tags – Establish a bidirectional data link – Inventory tags, filter results – Communicate with networked server(s) – Can read 100-300 tags per second  Readers (interrogators) can be at a fixed point such as – Entrance/exit – Point of sale  Readers can also be mobile/hand-held
    15. 15. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 15 Some RFID readers Source: www.buyrfid.org
    16. 16. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 16 Reader anatomy 915MHz Radio Network Processor Digital Signal Processor (DSP) 13.56MHz Radio Power Supply
    17. 17. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 17 RFID application points  Assembly Line  Shipping Portals  Handheld Applications Bill of Lading Material Tracking Wireless
    18. 18. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 18 RFID applications  Manufacturing and Processing – Inventory and production process monitoring – Warehouse order fulfillment  Supply Chain Management – Inventory tracking systems – Logistics management  Retail – Inventory control and customer insight – Auto checkout with reverse logistics  Security – Access control – Counterfeiting and Theft control/prevention  Location Tracking – Traffic movement control and parking management – Wildlife/Livestock monitoring and tracking
    19. 19. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 19 Smart groceries  Add an RFID tag to all items in the grocery.  As the cart leaves the store, it passes through an RFID transceiver.  The cart is rung up in seconds.
    20. 20. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 20 1. Tagged item is removed from or placed in “Smart Cabinet” 3. Server/Database is updated to reflect item’s disposition 4. Designated individuals are notified regarding items that need attention (cabinet and shelf location, action required) 2. “Smart Cabinet” periodically interrogates to assess inventory Passive read/write tags affixed to caps of containers Reader antennas placed under each shelf Smart cabinet Source: How Stuff Works
    21. 21. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 21 Smart fridge  Recognizes what’s been put in it  Recognizes when things are removed  Creates automatic shopping lists  Notifies you when things are past their expiration  Shows you the recipes that most closely match what is available
    22. 22. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 22 Smart groceries enhanced  Track products through their entire lifetime. Source: How Stuff Works
    23. 23. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 23 Some more smart applications  “Smart” appliances: – Closets that advice on style depending on clothes available. – Ovens that know recipes to cook pre-packaged food.  “Smart” products: – Clothing, appliances, CDs, etc. tagged for store returns.  “Smart” paper: – Airline tickets that indicate your location in the airport.  “Smart” currency: – Anti-counterfeiting and tracking.  “Smart” people ??
    24. 24. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 24 RFID advantages over bar-codes  No line of sight required for reading  Multiple items can be read with a single scan  Each tag can carry a lot of data (read/write)  Individual items identified and not just the category  Passive tags have a virtually unlimited lifetime  Active tags can be read from great distances  Can be combined with barcode technology
    25. 25. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 25 Outline  Overview of RFID – Reader-Tag; Potential applications  RFID Technology Internals – RF communications; Reader/Tag protocols – Middleware architecture; EPC standards  RFID Business Aspects  Security and Privacy  Conclusion
    26. 26. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 26 RFID communications Tags Reader Power from RF field Reader Antenna Reader- Tag Commands> Tag- Reader Responses> RFID Communication Channel
    27. 27. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 27 RFID communicationRFID communication  Host manages Reader(s) and issues Commands  Reader and tag communicate via RF signal  Carrier signal generated by the reader  Carrier signal sent out through the antennas  Carrier signal hits tag(s)  Tag receives and modifies carrier signal – “sends back” modulated signal (Passive Backscatter – also referred to as “field disturbance device”)  Antennas receive the modulated signal and send them to the Reader  Reader decodes the data  Results returned to the host application
    28. 28. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 28 Antenna fields: Inductive coupling Transceiver Tag Reader antenna RFID Tag IC or microprocessor antenna
    29. 29. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 29 Antenna fields: Propagation coupling Transceiver Tag Reader antenna RFID Tag IC or microprocessor antenna
    30. 30. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 30 Operational frequencies Frequency Ranges LF 125 KHz HF 13.56 MHz UHF 868 - 915 MHz Microwave 2.45 GHz & 5.8 GHz Typical Max Read Range (Passive Tags) Shortest 1”-12” Short 2”-24” Medium 1’-10’ Longest 1’-15’ Tag Power Source Generally passive tags only, using inductive coupling Generally passive tags only, using inductive or capacitive coupling Active tags with integral battery or passive tags using capacitive storage, E-field coupling Active tags with integral battery or passive tags using capacitive storage, E-field coupling Data Rate Slower Moderate Fast Faster Ability to read near metal or wet surfaces Better Moderate Poor Worse Applications Access Control & Security Identifying widgets through manufacturing processes or in harsh environments Ranch animal identification Employee IDs Library books Laundry identification Access Control Employee IDs supply chain tracking Highway toll Tags Highway toll Tags Identification of private vehicle fleets in/out of a yard or facility Asset tracking
    31. 31. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 31 Reader->Tag power transfer Reader Reader Antenna Tag Q: If a reader transmits Pr watts, how much power Pt does the tag receive at a separation distance d? A: It depends- UHF (915MHz) : Far field propagation : Pt ∝ 1/d2 HF (13.56MHz) : Inductive coupling : Pt ∝1/d6 Separation distance d
    32. 32. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 32 Limiting factors for passive RFID 1. Reader transmitter power Pr (Gov’t. limited) 2. Reader receiver sensitivity Sr 3. Reader antenna gain Gr (Gov’t. limited) 4. Tag antenna gain Gt (Size limited) 5. Power required at tag Pt (Silicon process limited) 6. Tag modulator efficiency Et
    33. 33. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 33 Implications  Since Pt ∝ 1/d2 , doubling read range requires 4X the transmitter power.  Larger antennas can help, but at the expense of larger physical size because G{t,r} ∝ Area.  More advanced CMOS process technology will help by reducing Pt.  At large distances, reader sensitivity limitations dominate.
    34. 34. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 34 RF effects of common materials Material Effect(s) on RF signal Cardboard Absorption (moisture) Detuning (dielectric) Conductive liquids (shampoo) Absorption Plastics Detuning (dielectric) Metals Reflection Groups of cans Complex effects (lenses, filters) Reflection Human body / animals Absorption, Detuning, Reflection
    35. 35. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 35 Communication protocols 865MHz 867MHz200KHz Transmission from other Readers Max 4 sec TX then re-listen for 100 msec  Listen before talk  Mandatory listen time of >5 msec before each transmission
    36. 36. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 36 ETSI EN 302 208 standard  Shared operation in band 865.0 – 868.0 MHz at transmit powers upto 2 W ERP. – Operation in 10 sub-bands of 200 kHz. – Power levels of 100 mW, 500 mW and 2 W ERP.  Mandatory “listen before talk” and “look before leap”. 865.7MHz 867.5MHz FT 865.1MHz 867.9MHz 100mW 867.7MHz865.5MHz LT FT LT LT FT 600kHz 600kHz600kHz 2W FT LT 500mW 865.0MHz 865.6MHz 867.6MHz 868.0MHz Source: www.etsi.org
    37. 37. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 37 Reader Collision Problem  Reader-Reader Interference  Reader-Tag Interference
    38. 38. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 38 Reader Collision and Hidden Terminal  The passive tags are not able to take part in the collision resolution or avoidance, as in other wireless systems  Consider: RTS-CTS for hidden terminal problem in 802.11 – rfid: T is not able to send a CTS in response to an RTS from R  In case multiple readers try to read the same tag, the tag cannot respond selectively to a particular reader
    39. 39. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 39 TDMA based solution  Assign different time slots and/or frequencies to nearby readers – Reduces to graph coloring problem (readers form vertices)  Only reader to reader interference – Assign different operating frequencies  Only multiple reader to tag interference – Assign different time slots for operation  Both types of interference – First allot different time slots, then frequencies
    40. 40. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 40 Beacon based solution  A reader while reading tag, periodically sends a beacon on the control channel  Assumptions – Separate control channel between readers – The range in the control channel is sufficient for a reader to communicate with all the possible readers that might interfere in the data channel
    41. 41. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 41 Beacon based solution (contd.)
    42. 42. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 42 Multiple Tags When multiple tags are in range of the reader: – All the tags will be excited at the same time. – Makes it very difficult to distinguish between the tags. Collision avoidance mechanisms:  Probabilistic: – Tags return at random times.  Deterministic: – Reader searches for specific tags.
    43. 43. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 43 Tag Collision Problem  Multiple tags simultaneously respond to query – Results in collision at the reader  Several approaches – Tree algorithm – Memoryless protocol – Contactless protocol – I-code protocol
    44. 44. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 44 Tree Algorithm – Reader queries for tags – Reader informs in case of collision and tags generates 0 or 1 randomly – If 0 then tag retransmits on next query – If 1 then tag becomes silent and starts incrementing its counter (which is initially zero) – Counter incremented every time collision reported and decremented every time identification reported – Tag remains silent till its counter becomes zero
    45. 45. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 45 Tree Algorithm – Example Reader informs tags in case of collision and tags generate 0 or 1 •If 0 then tag retransmits on next query, else tag becomes silent and starts a counter. Counter incremented every time collision reported and decremented otherwise.
    46. 46. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 46 Tree Algorithm - Complexity  Time Complexity – O(n) where n is number of tags to be identified  Message Complexity – n is unknown – θ(nlogn) – n is known - θ(n)  Overheads – Requires random number generator – Requires counter
    47. 47. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 47 Memoryless Protocol  Assumption: tagID stored in k bit binary string  Algorithm – Reader queries for prefix p – In case of collision queries for p0 or p1  Time complexity – Running time – O(n) – Worst Case – n*(k + 2 – logn)  Message Complexity – k*(2.21logn + 4.19)
    48. 48. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 48 Memoryless Protocol – Example  Reader queries for prefix p  In case of collision, reader queries for p0 or p1  Example: consider tags with prefixes: 00111, 01010, 01100, 10101, 10110 and 10111
    49. 49. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 49 Contactless Protocol  Assumption: tagID stored in k bit binary string  Algorithm – Reader queries for (i)th bit – Reader informs in case of collision • Tags with (i)th bit 0 become silent and maintain counter • Tags with (i)th bit 1 respond to next query for (i+1)th bit  Time complexity – O(2k )  Message complexity – O(m(k+1)), where m is number of tags
    50. 50. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 50 Contactless Protocol – Example  Reader queries for (i)th bit  Reader informs in case of collision – Tags with (i)th bit 0 become silent and maintain counter – Tags with (i)th bit 1 respond to next query for (i+1)th bit  Example: tags with prefixes: 01, 10 and 11
    51. 51. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 51 I-Code Protocol  Based on slotted ALOHA principle  Algorithm – Reader provides time frame with N slots, N calculated for estimate n of tags – Tags randomly choose a slot and transmit their information – Responses possible for each slot are • Empty, no tag transmitted in this slot – c0 • Single response, identifying the tag – c1 • Multiple responses, collision – ck
    52. 52. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 52 I-Code Protocol – New estimate for n : lower bound εlb(N, c0, c1,ck) = c1 + 2ck – Using estimate n, N calculated – N becomes constant after some time – Using this N calculate number of read cycles s to identify tags with a given level of accuracy α  Time complexity – t0*(s+p) – t0 is time for one read cycle – p number of read cycles for estimating N  Message complexity – n*(s+p)
    53. 53. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 53 Outline  Overview of RFID – Reader-Tag; Potential applications  RFID Technology Internals – RF communications; Reader/Tag protocols – Middleware architecture; EPC standards  RFID Business Aspects  Security and Privacy  Conclusion
    54. 54. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 54 How much data? Consider a supermarket chain implementing RFID: 12 bytes EPC + Reader ID + Time = 18 bytes per tag Average number of tags in a neighborhood store = 700,000 Data generated per second = 12.6 GB Data generated per day = 544 TB Assuming 50 stores in the chain, data generated per day = 2720 TB Stanford Linear Accelerator Center generates 500 TB
    55. 55. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 55 RFID middleware Source: Forrester Research: RFID Middleware
    56. 56. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 56 Middleware framework: PINES™ Data Collection & Device Management EngineData Collection & Device Management Engine Layout Management EngineLayout Management Engine PML Server PML Server Automated Actuation Engine Automated Actuation Engine Decision Support Engine Decision Support Engine Real-time Query Engine and UI Event Store Product Information Store Notification Engine and UI Device Management Engine and UI Automatic Actionable Rules Action Rule Graphical Dashboard EIS Data Connectr Movement and Device Emulator Engine Layout Store Layout Management UI Source: Persistent Systems
    57. 57. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 57 Retail case study: Enabling real-time decisions 4. Off-take data on X product 6. Notifications for approval of promotional offer on product X 12. Last three hour promotional offer alert on product X 1. Raw event data 9. Promotional offer update 5. Four hours to close of retails stores and product X sales target for the day not met! 10. Promotional offer update 2. Log data 3. Query o/p data 11. Promotional offer alert 7. Approval 8. Approval alert Source: Persistent Systems
    58. 58. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 58 Source: Persistent Systems
    59. 59. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 59 Layout Management Framework Site Layout Configuration and Location Management Source: Persistent Systems
    60. 60. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 60  Specify the layout for a reader and antenna setup by means of locations and junctions  Ability to continuously modify/update the layout  Provide access to reader and antenna configuration from visual layout Click to modify parameters Source: Persistent Systems
    61. 61. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 61 Site Definition Source: Persistent Systems One site = Many floors
    62. 62. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 62 Zone Definition One site = Many zones Source: Persistent Systems Floor Definition
    63. 63. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 63 Location Definition One zone = Many locations Source: Persistent Systems
    64. 64. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 64 Device Management Framework Remote monitoring and configuration of RF Sensor network elements – Readers and Antennas Source: Persistent Systems
    65. 65. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 65 Status view for all readers at a glance Click to view reader and antenna properties Source: Persistent Systems Click to administer reader and antenna
    66. 66. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 66  Reader and Antenna configuration and status view for specific reader  Ability to remotely monitor and configure Reader and Antenna parameters One reader = Multiple antennas Source: Persistent Systems Reader definition
    67. 67. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 67 Sophisticated Query Processing Stream based event store for incessant, high performance querying Source: Persistent Systems
    68. 68. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 68  Ability to configure queries for continuous execution on event store  Incorporates querying on PML information  Programmable querying interfaces  Provides data filtering abilities Source: Persistent Systems Application Query Builder
    69. 69. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 69  Access configuration panels of specific queries  View tabular and graphical outputs for all queries Source: Persistent Systems Snapshot of all Queries
    70. 70. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 70 Dashboards Corporate dashboards for enhanced decision making Source: Persistent Systems
    71. 71. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 71 Source: Persistent Systems Query definition Query result snapshot
    72. 72. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 72 Source: Persistent Systems Query definition Query result snapshot
    73. 73. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 73 Acceptable Inventory Threshold Monitored Daily Daily Monitor Indicates Need for Action Daily Monitor Reflects Result of Action  Flash promotions application as reflected in a corporate dashboard Source: Persistent Systems
    74. 74. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 74  Choose from multiple types of graphs  Configuration panels for visualization effects  Configuration panels for drilled down views Source: Persistent Systems Graphical dashboard builder to provide visual view over query
    75. 75. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 75 Source: Persistent Systems Drill-down view of Query result
    76. 76. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 76  Access configuration panels of specific dashboard  View tabular and graphical outputs for all dashboards Source: Persistent Systems Snapshot of all application dashboards
    77. 77. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 77 Notifications Notifications for enhanced decision making Source: Persistent Systems
    78. 78. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 78 a  Specify alerts via email and SMS Source: Persistent Systems Configuration panel for notification
    79. 79. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 79 Notifications on Desktop Email message in outlook Source: Persistent Systems Notification Event Subscriber Notification Message instance
    80. 80. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 80 Virtual Test Bed Scenario emulation prior to deployment Source: Persistent Systems
    81. 81. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 81  Ability to configure event generation for an emulated reader setup  Specify movement and time intervals across various functional units Source: Persistent Systems
    82. 82. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 82 The EPC model: Internet of Things Source: www.epcglobalinc.org
    83. 83. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 83 EPC and PML  EPC – Electronic Product Code – Header – handles version and upgrades – EPC Manager – Product Manufacturer Code – Object Class – Class/Type of Product – Serial Number – Unique Object Identity  PML – Physical Markup Language – Extension of XML – Representation of Tagged Object Information – Interaction of Tagged Object Information
    84. 84. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 84 Savant and ONS  Savants – Manage the flow of EPC data from RFID readers • Data smoothing • Reader coordination • Data forwarding • Data storage – Interact with the ONS network  ONS Servers – Directory for EPC information, similar to Internet DNS – Uses the object manager number of the EPC to find out how to get more information about the product
    85. 85. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 85 EPC process flow EPC compliant RFID tags are placed on products, cases or pallets during distribution or manufacturing Supplier’sInternalSupplyChain The product enters the supply chain with the EPC information attached The EPC-enabled product is received at the customer site Customer’s RFID system reads the EPC information and requests additional data from the EPC Network Customer’s
    86. 86. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 86 EPC Tags 64 and 96 bit EPC tags have been defined Serial Number 60 – 95 bits Object Class 39 – 56 bits EPC Manager 8 – 35 bits Header 8 Bits 01 0000A21 00015E 000189DF0 • Allows for unique IDs for 268 million companies • Each company can then have 16 million object classes • Each object or SKU can have 68 billion serial numbers assigned to it
    87. 87. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 87 The EPC Network EPC Network RetailerManufacturer 1 1. EPC lifecycle begins when a Manufacturer tags the product Source: Verisign Inc
    88. 88. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 88 1. EPC lifecycle begins when a Manufacturer tags the product EPC Network The EPC Network Manufacturer Retailer comonsepc4740018559 EPC comverisignvndsds Domain Name Top level2nd level3rd level4th levelSynta x Manufacturer ID identifies supplier as Gillette Object (product) Class identifies as Mach 3 razor (12 pk) . . . . . . Electronic Product Code urn:epc:sgtin:47400.18559.1234 1 Identification on Bar Codes Identification for Serialized Information
    89. 89. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 89 2. Manufacturer records product information (e.g., manufacture date, expiration date, location) into EPC Information Service 3. EPC Information Service registers EPC “knowledge” with EPC Discovery Service The EPC Network 1. EPC lifecycle begins when a Manufacturer tags the product EPC Network 1 2 3 RetailerManufacturer
    90. 90. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 90 The EPC Network EPC Network 5. Retailer records “receipt” of product into EPC-IS 6. Retailer’s EPC-IS then registers product “knowledge” with EPC Discovery Service 4 5 6 4. Manufacturer sends product to Retailer RetailerManufacturer
    91. 91. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 91 EPC Network RetailerManufacturer 8 7 The EPC Network 8. Manufacturer’s Local ONS is queried for location of EPC-IS 7. If Retailer requires product information, Root ONS is queried for location of Manufacturer’s Local ONS Retailer Application
    92. 92. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 92 The EPC Network EPC Network RetailerManufacturer 9 Retailer Application 9. Retailer queries Manufacturer EPC-IS for desired product information (e.g., manufacture date, expiration date, etc.) <10 milliseconds Total Transaction Time:
    93. 93. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 93 Outline  Overview of RFID – Reader-Tag; Potential applications  RFID Technology Internals – RF communications; Reader/Tag protocols – Middleware architecture; EPC standards  RFID Business Aspects  Security and Privacy  Conclusion
    94. 94. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 94 Business implications of RFID tagging Non Resaleable Management Consumer Supply Chain Management Level of Tagging / Time CumulativeValue  Customer insight  Shelf availability  Self checkout  New payment mechanisms  Return management  Maintenance  Track & Trace  Inventory management  Asset management  Quality Control  Distribution Productivity  Track & Trace  Inventory management  Asset management  Shelf maintenance  High value goods mgmt Truck/Asset Tote/PackagePallet/Case Source: www.accenture.org
    95. 95. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 95 RFID deployment challenges  Manage System costs – Choose the right hardware – Choose the right integration path – Choose the right data infrastructure  Handle Material matters – RF Tagging of produced objects – Designing layouts for RF Interrogators  Tag Identification Scheme Incompatibilities – Which standard to follow?  Operating Frequency Variances – Low Frequency or High Frequency or Ultra High Frequency  Business Process Redesign – New processes will be introduced – Existing processes will be re-defined – Training of HR  Cost-ROI sharing
    96. 96. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 96 Using tags with metal  Tags placed directly against metal will negatively affect readability Offset tag from surfaceSpace tag from surface Couple one end of the antenna to the metal Angle Tag
    97. 97. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 97 Getting ready for RFID  Identify business process impacts – Inventory control (across the supply chain) – Manufacturing assembly  Determine optimal RFID configuration – Where am I going to tag my components/products? • Surfaces, metal environment and handling issues – Where am I going to place the readers? • Moving from the lab environment to the manufacturing or distribution center can be tricky – When am I going to assemble the RFID data?  Integrate with ERP and other systems
    98. 98. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 98 RFID services value chain Hardware Middleware/ Device Mgmt EPC Network Services Data & Information Management Strategy/ Consulting Business Applications Enterprise Application Integration • Business Process Integration • Solution Framework • Network Setup • RF aspects • Tags • Readers • Label Printers • Event Monitoring • Data filtering • Reader coordination • Policy Management • Directory Services • Discovery Services • Authorization / Authenticatn Framework • Product Catalog and Attribute Managemnt • Data Synchro- nization • ETL Services • Legacy Application Integration • Supply Chain Execution • ERP • Warehouse Management • Store Management • Distribution Management System Integration and Solution Delivery Source: AMR Research
    99. 99. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 99 Privacy: The flip side of RFID • Hidden placement of tags • Unique identifiers for all objects worldwide • Massive data aggregation • Unauthorized development of detailed profiles • Unauthorized third party access to profile data • Hidden readers “Just in case you want to know, she’s carrying 700 Euro…” Source: www.rfidprivacy.org
    100. 100. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 100 The “Blocker” Tag approach  “Tree-walking” protocol for identifying tags recursively asks question: – “What is your next bit?”  Blocker tag always says both ‘0’ and ‘1’! – Makes it seem like all possible tags are present – Reader cannot figure out which tags are actually present – Number of possible tags is huge, so reader stalls
    101. 101. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 101 More on blocker tags  Blocker tag can be selective: – Privacy zones: Only block certain ranges of RFID-tag serial numbers – Zone mobility: Allow shops to move items into privacy zone upon purchase  Example: – Blocker blocks all identifiers with leading ‘1’ bit – Items in supermarket carry leading ‘0’ bit – On checkout, leading bit is flipped from ‘0’ to ‘1’ • PIN required, as for “kill” operation
    102. 102. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 102 The Challenge-Response approach  Tag does not give all its information to reader. – The closer the reader, the more the processing. – Tag reveals highest level of authenticated information. 1. Reader specifies which level it wants. 2. Tag specifies level of security, and/or amount of energy needed. 3. Reader proceeds at that level of security. 4. Tag responds if and only if it gets energy and security required.
    103. 103. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 103 Some more approaches  The Faraday Cage approach. – Place RFID tags in a protective mesh. – Would make locomotion difficult.  The Kill Tag approach. – Kill the tag while leaving the store. – RFID tags are too useful for reverse logistics.  The Tag Encryption approach. – Tag cycles through several pseudonyms. – Getting a good model is difficult.  No ‘one-size-fits-all’ solution.  Security hinges on the fact that in the real world, an adversary must have physical proximity to tags to interact with them.
    104. 104. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 104 Outline  Overview of RFID – Reader-Tag; Potential applications  RFID Technology Internals – RF communications; Reader/Tag protocols – Middleware architecture; EPC standards  RFID Business Aspects  Security and Privacy  Conclusion
    105. 105. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 105 RFID: The complete picture Tags and Readers Identifying Read Points Installation & RF Tuning RFID Middleware Connectors & Integration Process Changes Cross Supply-Chain View
    106. 106. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 106 Points to note about RFID  RFID benefits are due to automation and optimization.  RFID is not a plug & play technology.  “One frequency fits all” is a myth.  Technology is evolving but physics has limitations.  RFID does not solve data inconsistency within and across enterprises.  Management of RFID infrastructure and data has been underestimated.
    107. 107. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 107 RFID Summary Strengths  Advanced technology  Easy to use  High memory capacity  Small size Weaknesses  Lack of industry and application standards  High cost per unit and high RFID system integration costs  Weak market understanding of the benefits of RFID technology Opportunities  Could replace the bar code  End-user demand for RFID systems is increasing  Huge market potential in many businesses Threats  Ethical threats concerning privacy life  Highly fragmented competitive environment
    108. 108. RFID 2005 IIT Bombay 108 Some Links  http://www.epcglobalinc.com/  http://www.rfidjournal.com/  http://rfidprivacy.com/  http://www.rfidinc.com/  http://www.buyrfid.com/ Thank You
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