ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND
INFORMATION SCIENCE
Based on PhD from University of
Delhi
Supervisor: Dr.Shailendra Kumar
Scholar...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
• E-Learning
• The term E-Learning is the short for...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• eMentor
• The term ‘eMentor’ refers to the teacher available in an e-learni...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
• The study is significant in the presen...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
• The following objectives will be kept in mind whi...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
 RESEARCH DESIGN
 The present research study is an exploratory in nature.
I...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• POPULATION AND SAMPLE OF THE STUDY
• The population of the study consists o...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• UNDERSATNDING LITERATURE IN ELEARNING
• Higher Education and Learning Techn...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• Recent E-Learning Movement
• The term e-learning is used in a variety of wa...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• E-LEARNING ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
• Spender (2001) in his study E-lea...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• It allows instructors to package essential information for all students to
...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• E-learning systems are not without any disadvantages, major
disadvantages a...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• E-LEARNING CONTENT
• Learning content is having a paramount importance in e...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• Authoring tools
• Authoring tools could be regarded as a subset of content ...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• Learning Management System (LMS)
• A learning platform (LP) is the entirety...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• Learning Management System is a broad term that is used for a wide range
of...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• LMS is a program used to spread communication between teachers
and students...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• Regarding the first group of tasks, the tutor can load different course
mat...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• For the third group, the administrators or teachers can define any numbers
...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• Popular Learning Management System
• LMSCategory Company Homepage
• Blackbo...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• LEARNING OBJECT STANDARDS
• The adoption of standards enables computer to p...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• Learner Profile: - Learner profile information can include personal
data, l...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• Similar efforts to develop a common conceptual
definition of LOs have yet t...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• Learning object development is a collective enterprise among the
programmer...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• E-LEARNING COMMUNICATION MEDIA
• In an e-learning environment different typ...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• Asynchronous
• In a traditional classroom learners can pose questions or co...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• Synchronous vs. Asynchronous media used in e-learning
• Distinctive Feature...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• Asynchronous
• Intermittent access or interaction
• Self-paced
• Individual...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• THE PRESENT STATE OF LIS TEACHING
• There are various methods and technique...
Responses Frequency Percent
More than
adequate
1 10.0
Adequate 6 60.0
To some extent 3 30.0
Total 10 100.0
HEAD OF DEPARTM...
Frequency Percent
Yes 8 80.0
No 2 20.0
Total 10 100.0
Separate computer and net in the faculty room
Syllabus Infrastructure
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
Every three
year
2 20.0 2 20.0
Every five
year
6 60.0 6 60.0
E...
Present Teaching Method and Utilization of the Infrastructure
90% percentage of the departments facilitates information an...
50 percent of the head of the departments are
affirmatively opined that their faculty members are quite
efficient especial...
Facility to access e-journals in the department
Frequency Percent
Yes 9 90.0
No 1 10.0
Total 10 100.0
University is a system to support and promote research work.
Majority of the departments are offering research programme a...
. Frequency Percent
Extremely
important
6 60.0
Very important 3 30.0
Important 1 10.0
Total 10 100.0
Importance of the app...
Majority of the department heads strongly believe that their department is not having
sufficient infrastructure to impleme...
. Frequency Percent
Classroom based teaching
and learning combined with
asynchronous e-learning
9 90.0
Live synchronous e-...
. Frequency Percent
Adequate 14 66.7
To some extent 7 33.3
Total 21 100.0
ICT Knowledge of Faculty members
. Frequency Percent
Yes 19 90.5
No 2 9.5
Total 21 100.0
Computer facility at home
. Frequency Percent
Yes 7 33.3
No 14 66.7
Total 21 100.0
Faculty members having Personal Weblogs
.
Respons
es
Docume
nt Files
Slide
Shows
Graphics
and
Images
Audio and
Video files
Other
Fre
que
ncy
Per
cen
t
Fre
qu
enc
...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• E-LEARNING EXPERIENCE
• E-learning is a new way of learning the things, man...
. Frequency Percent
Excellent 2 3.8
Good 31 59.6
Fair 18 34.6
Poor 1 1.9
Total 52 100.0
STUDENTS RESPONSE
Respondents’ kno...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• eCLIS: PROTOTYPE MODEL OF ELEARNING IN LIS
• Features of eClis
• The major ...
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
• eClis facilitates an integrated multimedia courseware in the subject it can...
eClis courseware reference and attachment view
ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
Shailendra Kumar
Anas K.
Special Thanks to Asker A.
E L E A R N I N G  I N  L I B R A R Y  A N D  I N F O R M A T I O N  S C I E N C E
E L E A R N I N G  I N  L I B R A R Y  A N D  I N F O R M A T I O N  S C I E N C E
E L E A R N I N G  I N  L I B R A R Y  A N D  I N F O R M A T I O N  S C I E N C E
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E L E A R N I N G I N L I B R A R Y A N D I N F O R M A T I O N S C I E N C E

  1. 1. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Based on PhD from University of Delhi Supervisor: Dr.Shailendra Kumar Scholar: Anas K.
  2. 2. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS • E-Learning • The term E-Learning is the short form of ‘Electronic Learning’. E-learning describes any form of education involving the use of electronic media for instruction and learning. In this research, it refers to all those activities of utilizing ICTs, Internet tools and the web components to design, administer, deliver, interact, and enhance the LIS teaching and learning process in India. • E-learning Resource • The term ‘e-learning resource’ used in this study means all the e-learning components, technologies and tools used in the e-learning process for example e-learning software, courseware, communication tools, evaluation tools, lecture notes, learner support services etc. The terms ‘e-learning components’ and ‘e-learning tools’ are also used in the same meaning as that of ‘e-learning resource’.
  3. 3. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • eMentor • The term ‘eMentor’ refers to the teacher available in an e-learning environment. • Users Study • The users in this study include the head of the departments, teaching faculties, research scholars and post graduate students. ‘Users Study’ refers to the study or survey conducted among the users to examine their perspectives about e-learning and the extent and effectiveness of their use of e-learning in teaching and learning exercises.
  4. 4. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY • The study is significant in the present context of information and communication technology revolution especially after the innovation of Internet and World Wide Web. There are different e-learning components and other educational technologies available for the teaching and learning aid and very few of them are used in the LIS teaching and learning process. There is a strong need to identify and propose these possible technologies for LIS department in India. It is the need of the hour to develop such an e-based learning system to improve the quality of LIS education. The proposed study will explore both material and human interface of e-learning resources and design a prototype e-learning resource model for the LIS schools in India. • LIS schools and departments in other developed countries have already adopted e-learning technologies in their academic exercises. It is necessary to explore the reasons why the LIS departments in India are isolated from the mainstream of technology use in their teaching and learning process. • No major studies have been done so far in India to find out the possibilities and the implication of e-learning in library and information science education.
  5. 5. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY • The following objectives will be kept in mind while conducting the proposed study: • To study the impact and effectiveness of the use of e-learning adopted in some of the library and information science departments in India. • To explore the possibilities of modification and replication of e-learning in library and information science departments in India. • To find out the availability of infrastructure to meet the requirements of faculty members to create and implement e-learning in the teaching exercise. • To examine the anticipated obstacles while implementing e-learning resources in library and information science education in India and possible solutions to address the hindrance. • To find out how e-learning resources can supplement the traditional class room based teaching and learning system and how to expand the scope of LIS education beyond the campus through e-learning. • To conduct a user opinion survey to ascertain the need and possibilities of the application of e-learning in library and information science education in India. • To design and propose a feasible e-learning prototype model for library and information science education in India. • To provide possible suggestions and recommendations to optimize the use of e-learning resource in library and information science teaching and learning process.
  6. 6. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE  RESEARCH DESIGN  The present research study is an exploratory in nature. In the present study the attempt was made to explore the multitude of dimensions in the implementation of e-learning in library and information science education in India. It focuses on the particulars of e-learning implementation in LIS education such as infrastructure requirements and availability, respondents’ e-learning knowledge level, respondents’ e-learning perspectives and experiences, and the possibilities to accelerate the same. The attempt to study students’ interest to learn through e-learning and their reflections about the existing classroom based system is an important addition in the study. The study covers ten LIS departments in all the central universities in India.  The study developed and proposed an e-learning model namely asynchronous learner centered e-learning resource model (ALCERM) for library and information science education in India on the basis of the survey conducted among the users. It also made a further attempt to design a prototype e-learning classroom resource in library and information science (eClis) on the basis of the model.
  7. 7. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • POPULATION AND SAMPLE OF THE STUDY • The population of the study consists of head of the departments (total -10), faculty members (total - 38) and post graduate students and research scholars (total -100) in the ten central universities in India. The detailed lists of these departments were taken from the Handbook of Indian Universities (AIU, 2004). The primary respondents from these departments were categorized into three groups: the head of the departments, the teaching faculty members and students comprising research scholars and masters students
  8. 8. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • UNDERSATNDING LITERATURE IN ELEARNING • Higher Education and Learning Technologies • Learning Theories • Blended Learning • Elearning Communication Tools and Media • Institutional Repository • Learning Object • Interoperability • Learning Object Reusability • Learning Management System (LMS) • Elearning Resource Models • Content Plus Support Model • Wrap Around Model • Integrated Model • User Centered Design Model
  9. 9. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • Recent E-Learning Movement • The term e-learning is used in a variety of ways by different authors and the literature shows that it is often used interchangeably with terms such as ‘online learning’, ‘virtual learning’, ‘telematic learning’, 'computer-based learning (CBL)’, ‘computer-based training (CBT)’, ‘distributed learning’, ‘online resource based learning (ORBL)’, ‘networked collaborative learning (NCL)’, ‘computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL)’ and others. E- learning can be defined as teaching and learning enabled by electronic media • E-LEARNING TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS • The term e-learning is used in a variety of ways by different authors and the literature shows that it is often used interchangeably with terms such as ‘online learning’, ‘virtual learning’, ‘telematic learning’, 'computer-based learning (CBL)’, ‘computer-based training (CBT)’, ‘distributed learning’, ‘online resource based learning (ORBL)’, ‘networked collaborative learning (NCL)’, ‘computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL)’ and others. E- learning can be defined as teaching and learning enabled by electronic media.
  10. 10. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • E-LEARNING ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES • Spender (2001) in his study E-learning: are universities prepared in online learning in a borderless market, identified and illustrated the major advantages and disadvantages of e-learning as follow, advantages: • E-leaning helps to center learning around the student instead of the classroom. It also can focus on the strengths and needs of individual learners, which is sometime not possible in a crowded class room within the stipulated time period • E-learning accommodates automated, continuous assessment of student progress. • E-learning permits to develop materials using the web resources and it offers links to useful learning materials • E-learning allows instructors to communicate information in a more engaging fashion than in text-based distance education programmes, e- learning offers a wide-range of text, diagrams and images with video and sound, including virtual reality technology that in the future will improve the effectiveness of the approach even further. • Convenient for instructors to access any time, any place. • It allows instructors to package essential information for all students to access. Instructors can then concentrate on high level activities. • It generates more personal gratification for instructors through quality
  11. 11. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • It allows instructors to package essential information for all students to access. Instructors can then concentrate on high level activities. • It generates more personal gratification for instructors through quality student participation. • It accommodates multiple learning style using a variety of delivery methods geared to different learners; more effective for certain learners. • E-learning provides immediate feedback and positive reinforcement. • It enhances computer and Internet skills of faculty members as well as students and also they become more competent with keyboard and other ICT components. • The e-learning discussions are documented and can be used as learning material. • It facilitates cooperation between participants. • Increased access to information and other resources not available in traditional environments.
  12. 12. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • E-learning systems are not without any disadvantages, major disadvantages are listed below: – The success of e-learning environment is greatly depend on the active participation of all the participants and faculty members; – Technical frustration due to the total reliance on technology and outside support systems; – Increased time-on-task due to the slowness of the medium and the higher volume of messages, which can also contribute to feelings of information overload; – Possible miscommunication due to the loss of visual cues and confusion in the sequence of events; and, – Disjointed flow of communication because of the asynchronous time frame.
  13. 13. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • E-LEARNING CONTENT • Learning content is having a paramount importance in e-learning environment. E-learning content is more than a textbook. It not only contains knowledge, but is also a learning facilitator. The content developer can utilize many tools to develop different learning content other than plain text such as slides, graphics, still pictures, animations, audio, and video. In this respect, it seems it should be more similar to a dialogue than to a book. There are different tools available to develop an e-learning content, which would be selected as per the institutes’ requirements. Every tool is having different functions, the following are some of the content development tools:- • Content Creation Tools (CCT) • Content creation tools are the tools that course designers and teachers use to create the content in e-learning environment. The content creation tools are used to develop learning materials. There are many types of content such as plain text, slides, graphics, pictures, animations, simulations, assessments, audio, video etc. Typical examples of these systems are Dream Weaver, FrontPage, Word, PowerPoint, and Director. These are generic tools with few features developed specially for e-learning education. In addition to the much used generic CCT tools, there are a number of CCT tools that are specially made for development of educational content. The most important of these CCT tools are termed authoring tools and assessment tools.
  14. 14. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • Authoring tools • Authoring tools could be regarded as a subset of content creation tools. It is a software application, used by non-programmers, that utilizes a metaphor (book, or flow chart) to create on- line courses. One may say that authoring tools are content creation tools that are especially developed for creation of educational content. • Assessment tools • Content related to assignments and assessment is especially important for educators. It has therefore been developed various tools for development of different types of assignments such as for example quizzes, multiple choice assignments, etc.
  15. 15. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • Learning Management System (LMS) • A learning platform (LP) is the entirety of tools and software to organize and facilitate web-supported learning. Most web-enabled learning platforms are designed as client/server applications. Almost all of the top selling and most widely deployed learning platforms today are web-based systems using the web standards HTTP and HTML, where just a web-browser and internet connection are needed for access on the user side. Essentially used synonymously with the concept of web-based learning platforms is the term learning management system (LMS): LMS are specialized learning technology systems based on Internet and web-technologies to provide education and training. They usually provide tools for: • Information distribution • Learning material management (e.g. authoring, content packaging) • Multiple communication facilities (e.g. chat, discussion, conferencing, etc.) • Course management (e.g. online assessment, learner activity tracking)
  16. 16. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • Learning Management System is a broad term that is used for a wide range of systems that organize and provide access to e-learning services for students, teachers, and administrators. These services usually include access control, provision of learning content, communication tools, and organizations of user groups. Examples of well-known LMS systems are WebCT, Blackboard, Moodle, ATutor, etc. are the systems stands for proprietary and open source LMS. There are however large number of other commercial and open LMS systems that educational institution have developed themselves. Kaplan-Leiserson (2005) provides the following definition of LMS: software that automates the administration of training events. The LMS registers users, tracks courses in a catalog, and records data from learners; it also provides reports to management. LMS is typically designed to handle courses by multiple publishers and providers. It usually doesn't include its own authoring capabilities; instead, it focuses on managing courses created by a variety of other sources. Hall & Snider (2000) presents this alternative definition: LMS is software that automates the administration of training events. All learning management systems manage the log-in of registered users, manage course catalogs, record data from learners, and provide reports to management.
  17. 17. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • LMS is a program used to spread communication between teachers and students and between students in the same class or those participating in the same course. The LMS provides tools like e-mail, chat, discussion groups, simultaneous writing to the same document and statistical tools to be used by the teacher to track student activities like logon, participation in discussion groups and handing in of papers. Further, LMS can be used to create multiple-choice tests, manage online examinations by closing the folder where the student is handing in the examination paper within the timeout for the exam. LMS can also be used for portfolio assessment. LMS is a program intended to carry through three groups of tasks: • Publication of educational content, • Collaboration between students, tutors, and staff, • Administration of users, courses, and classes.
  18. 18. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • Regarding the first group of tasks, the tutor can load different course materials into the LMS. These may constitute of in-line questions, multiple-choice tests, active images, and presentations of lectures. • For the second group, collaboration between students, tutors, and staff, the LMS is used to spread communication between teachers and students and between students in the same class or those participating in the same course. LMS can provide synchronous communication as well as asynchronous communications. Chat is an example for synchronous or real time communication and discussion group is an example for asynchronous communication. These communication tools uses in e-learning environment for interaction between students and teachers. Administrators and teachers can broadcast messages to a class or group of users. The students can use it to ask for administrative or technical help.
  19. 19. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • For the third group, the administrators or teachers can define any numbers of discussion groups. These groups can be either private in which only invited people can participate, or they can be public. Management is the central element of a learning management system. Examples of administrative tasks are: • Create or delete new users • Create or delete new classes • Enroll students in classes • Authorize users to access courses for specific periods of time. • Assign different roles to control access to system. Offer multiple levels of authority along with controlled access to your courses with user ID and password • Keep track of students individually or entire classes, and track student progress, and statistical tools to be used by the teacher to track student activities like logon, participation in discussion groups and handing in of papers. • Manage online examinations by closing the folder where the student is handing in the examination paper within the timeout for the exam. • Conduct portfolio assessment.
  20. 20. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • Popular Learning Management System • LMSCategory Company Homepage • Blackboard Proprietary Blackboard, Inc.www.blackboard.com • WebCT ProprietaryWebCT, Inc.www.webct.com • TopClass ProprietaryWBT Systemswww.wbtsystems.com • Moodle Open Source Moodle Inc. www.moodle.org • ATutor Open SourceATRCwww.atutor.ca • Brihaspati Open SourceIIT, Kanpur h ttp://brihaspati.sourceforge.net • ILIAS (Open Source)Universität Kölnhttp://www.ilias.uni- koeln.de/ios/index-e.html • FirstClass Proprietary Open Text Corporationhttp://www.firstclass.com • LearningSpace Proprietary IBM (Lotus) http://www.lotus.com/products/learnspace.nsf/wdocs/homepage? opendocument
  21. 21. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • LEARNING OBJECT STANDARDS • The adoption of standards enables computer to process routine tasks without any hindrance and not even slowing down the machine. Learning standards create learning objects interoperable, reusable and interchangeable of the learning object from one system to another. • Liu, (2003) organized the learning standards and specifications in to five categories • Metadata: - Learning content and catalogues must be labelled in a consistent way to support the indexing, storage, discovery (search) and retrieval of learning objects by this multiple tools across multiple repositories. Data used for this purpose are referred to as learning object metadata (LOM). Several initiatives are creating metadata standards: the Learning Object Metadata (LOM) of IEEE Learning Technology Standards and the Dublin Core Metadata. • Content Packaging: - Content packaging specifications and standards allow courses to be transported from one learning system to another. The initiatives dealing with content packaging include: the IMS content packaging specification, the IMS simple sequencing specification, the ADL Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM).
  22. 22. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • Learner Profile: - Learner profile information can include personal data, learning plans, learning history, accessibility requirements, certifications and degrees, assessments of knowledge and the status of participation in current learning. The most important effort to standardize learner profile information is the IMS Learner Information Package (LIP) specification. • Learner Registration: - Learner registration information allows learning delivery and administration components to know what offerings should be made available to a learner, and provides information about learning participants to the delivery environment. • Content Communication: - When content is launched, there is the need to communicate learner data and previous activity information in to the content. Work going on is the ADL’s Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) project based on the CMI specification of the Aviation Industry CBT Committee.
  23. 23. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • Similar efforts to develop a common conceptual definition of LOs have yet to emerge. Polsani explains the broad understanding among the members of the LO community about the functional requirements of LOs: • Accessibility: the LO should be tagged with metadata so that it can be stored and referenced in a database • Reusability: once created, a LO should function in different instructional contexts • Interoperability: the LO should be independent of both the delivery media and knowledge management systems
  24. 24. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • Learning object development is a collective enterprise among the programmers, graphic designers and subject experts, a standardized approach can accelerate and establish efficiency in the LO strategy. The organization benefits by using learning objects because it is able to: • develop and deploy learning content quickly and efficiently • port content easily between multiple learning management systems and learning content management systems • reduce content development and delivery costs • reduce maintenance time and costs • Likewise, the learner benefits because he or she can access individualized learning paths and competency-based rather than course-based learning events. It is important that the developers agree to a set of specifications for development of LOs covering such areas as technology, editorial requirements, stylistic considerations, etc. There are several arguments for designing and developing material to be reused as learning objects, including the following standards and criteria:
  25. 25. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • E-LEARNING COMMUNICATION MEDIA • In an e-learning environment different types of media of communication can be used. Communication between teacher and students through the use of a discussion forum was an important aspect of this course; the discussion forum contained links to learning event information, announcements, and questions. • Synchronous • Communication in an e-learning environment can be through synchronous or asynchronous learning media. Synchronous requires simultaneous participation of all learners and instructors at different locations. It indicates any learning event delivered in real-time to remote learners, which includes immediate, two-way communication among participants. It can also be considered as scheduled delivery of learning. • Synchronous media commonly use virtual classroom, web conferencing, Webcasting, Webinars, eConferece, software to support live and interactive learning events delivered on the World Wide Web. The learning would be taken place live and real time.
  26. 26. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • Asynchronous • In a traditional classroom learners can pose questions or comments to the instructor, interact in verbal discussions, or collaborate with small groups. Similar forms of interaction and collaboration exist in e-learning environment, with a few substantial differences. The major difference is that written communication is much more prevalent in e-learning classrooms. • Asynchronous does not require simultaneous participation of learners and instructors. It refers to a learning situation where the learning event does not take place in real-time. Therefore, asynchronous e-learning is “on-demand delivery” of learning, which gives learners more control over the learning process and content. It usually takes forms such as: (1) electronic mail and listserv, (2) public electronic bulletin boards/newsgroups or collaborative systems for discussion, etc • Asynchronous technologies involve having the learner control the time, place, and even the content that they view. Asynchronous technologies include web-based training courses and searchable databases, such as learning or knowledge portals, testing tools, and help systems
  27. 27. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • Synchronous vs. Asynchronous media used in e-learning • Distinctive Features Examples Synchronous • Real time • Live • Usually Scheduled and time specific • Collective and often collaborative • Simultaneous virtual presence with other learners and facilitators or eMentors • Concurrent learning with others • Instant messaging • Online Chat • Live Webcasting • Audio-conferencing • Video-conferencing • Web-conferencing
  28. 28. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • Asynchronous • Intermittent access or interaction • Self-paced • Individual or intermittently collaborative • Independent learning • Usually available any time • Recorded or pre-produced • E-mail • Threaded discussion • Boards • Web-based training • Pod-casting • DVD • Computer based training
  29. 29. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • THE PRESENT STATE OF LIS TEACHING • There are various methods and techniques used in the teaching and learning exercises in library and information science departments in India. The classroom based teaching is one of the most known and effective teaching methods. The advent of information and communication technologies changed the way we teach and learn in a face-to-face system. The fact is that majority of the faculty members are making use of the available technologies in their department like computer and LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) projector, document files, slideshows, graphics and images, audio and video files, etc. The following session explains the facilities available in the department, the skill of faculty members in using these components, the support and encouragement proffered by the department, etc.
  30. 30. Responses Frequency Percent More than adequate 1 10.0 Adequate 6 60.0 To some extent 3 30.0 Total 10 100.0 HEAD OF DEPARTMENTS RESPONSE IN LIS Availability of ICT infrastructure in the Department
  31. 31. Frequency Percent Yes 8 80.0 No 2 20.0 Total 10 100.0 Separate computer and net in the faculty room
  32. 32. Syllabus Infrastructure Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Every three year 2 20.0 2 20.0 Every five year 6 60.0 6 60.0 Every ten year 1 10.0 1 10.0 Other 1 10.0 1 10.0 Total 10 100.0 10 100.0 Frequency of updating the syllabus and infrastructure
  33. 33. Present Teaching Method and Utilization of the Infrastructure 90% percentage of the departments facilitates information and communication facilities to utilize them in the teaching and learning exercise. It is very interesting that all the departments (90%) provide all possible encouragements and support to the faculty members to utilize these technologies in their regular teaching practice. It is observed that majority of the head of the departments are ready to provide all possible supports if the faculty members are ready to implement any new system in their teaching practice.
  34. 34. 50 percent of the head of the departments are affirmatively opined that their faculty members are quite efficient especially regarding the application of information and communication technologies in their academic exercises. It is very important to have good team of faculty members to explore and implement new technologies in their regular teaching practice. 20% of them believe that the faculty members are required to undergo a thorough training programme to enhance their ICT know-how and how to utilize e-learning in teaching process. It is observed that they are mainly using the basic components of ICTs in their academic exercises.
  35. 35. Facility to access e-journals in the department Frequency Percent Yes 9 90.0 No 1 10.0 Total 10 100.0
  36. 36. University is a system to support and promote research work. Majority of the departments are offering research programme and contributing valuable output to the existing knowledge. 70% of the selected departments are offering research degree such as M. Phil. or Ph. D. 60 percentage of these departments keep their research output i.e. thesis and dissertation in simple printed format. It is observed that few departments are there started converting thesis and dissertation in to the digital format . The benefit of the electronic version available online is that the other departments can browse their research work and perceive the trend and the gap of the research, which in turn would help to avoid the replication of the work.
  37. 37. . Frequency Percent Extremely important 6 60.0 Very important 3 30.0 Important 1 10.0 Total 10 100.0 Importance of the application of e-learning in LIS teaching
  38. 38. Majority of the department heads strongly believe that their department is not having sufficient infrastructure to implement e-learning in their teaching exercises. It is clear from the data that the infrastructure in 90% of the departments has to be improved. . Frequency Percent Plan within the six month 1 10.0 Plan within one year 6 60.0 Interested but no definite plan 3 30.0 Total 10 100.0 Future plan to accelerate e-learning in the teaching process
  39. 39. . Frequency Percent Classroom based teaching and learning combined with asynchronous e-learning 9 90.0 Live synchronous e-learning (via web conferencing system) 1 10.0 Total 10 100.0 Suggested teaching and learning model for LIS in India
  40. 40. . Frequency Percent Adequate 14 66.7 To some extent 7 33.3 Total 21 100.0 ICT Knowledge of Faculty members
  41. 41. . Frequency Percent Yes 19 90.5 No 2 9.5 Total 21 100.0 Computer facility at home
  42. 42. . Frequency Percent Yes 7 33.3 No 14 66.7 Total 21 100.0 Faculty members having Personal Weblogs
  43. 43. . Respons es Docume nt Files Slide Shows Graphics and Images Audio and Video files Other Fre que ncy Per cen t Fre qu enc y Per cen t Freq uenc y Perc ent Freq uenc y Perc ent Freq uenc y Per cen t Yes 11 52. 4 18 85. 7 10 47.6 4 19.0 1 4.8 No 10 47. 6 3 14. 3 11 52.4 17 81.0 20 95. 2 Total 21 100 .0 21 100 .0 21 100. 0 21 100. 0 21 100 .0 Use of different ICT components in teaching process
  44. 44. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • E-LEARNING EXPERIENCE • E-learning is a new way of learning the things, many of the LIS departments in Europe and other developed countries are already implemented e-learning in their regular face-to-face teaching practice for example Indiana State University, Southern Connecticut State University, Drexel University, University of Illinois, etc. In India e-learning is still in its infancy particularly library and information science education. Some initiations are taking place but still have a long way to go. There are educational institutions and organizations engaged in this endeavour like IGNOU, Delhi University, Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), (CEC- UGC), SALIS in collaboration with UNESCO, etc. E-learning can be supplemented to the existing system as an add-on programme and it is not at all a replacement or substitute of the face-to-face system
  45. 45. . Frequency Percent Excellent 2 3.8 Good 31 59.6 Fair 18 34.6 Poor 1 1.9 Total 52 100.0 STUDENTS RESPONSE Respondents’ knowledge about e-learning
  46. 46. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • eCLIS: PROTOTYPE MODEL OF ELEARNING IN LIS • Features of eClis • The major features of e-learning Classroom-resource for library and information science (eClis) are listed below. • eClis makes it mandatory that all users have to log in to the system by using their unique user name and password. • eClis makes it easy to create new users such as admin or teacher or learner and can edit or delete the profile of these users. • eClis makes it easy to create new courses and papers. It enables to update and edit the course and papers as per the requirements of the department. • eClis facilitates attendance register to mark the presence or absence of students in the class. • eClis provides lecture note option where the faculty members can upload their lecture notes on different topics and also provides a space for learners’ comments where the learner can post their comments on that lectures.
  47. 47. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE • eClis facilitates an integrated multimedia courseware in the subject it can be used and re-used by different learners from various geographical boundaries. There is a facility to edit the courseware as per the requirements of the department. The faculty members can attach any type of files like doc., PPT, audio and video, etc with the courseware and this can be listed at the bottom of the each courseware. • eClis provides the details of the eMentor and the learner can contact them as and when the learner wish. • eClis provides academic corner where the learner and eMentor can utilize all the learning activities such as lectures, assignments and forums. • eClis organizes all the students registered for each course under the course category and also can show all the learners in the department randomly. • eClis lists the topics and concerned eMentors with their contact links. • eClis is integrated by different course support activities such as assignment, courseware, news and events, etc. • eClis provides an academic calendar, which is very important for both learners as well as the eMentors. • eClis provides administration control option, administrator can manage all the major activities of the entire system like add and delete of eMentor, learner and courses. • Learners can login anytime, anywhere to interact with eMentor and exercises their course work as per their convenient.
  48. 48. eClis courseware reference and attachment view
  49. 49. ELEARNING IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Shailendra Kumar Anas K. Special Thanks to Asker A.
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