Street lighting


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Street lighting

  1. 1. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATION Manual All about “STREET LIGHTING“ The Sun Is Gone, but I Have A LIGHT – Kurt Cobain Prepared by Mohammed Mohasin Shaik| STREET LIGHTING | | 1 of 47
  2. 2. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATION Contents Page Executive summary 3 Street Lighting History 4 Street Lighting Project Implementation 5 Lighting Requirements for Various Areas 6 Type of Lighting System Configurations 7 Definition of Terms 9 Lamp Technology 11 Type of Lamps 12 Transformers 14 Lighting Equipements 21 Various Poles 22 Various Base 29 Luminaire Types 30 Effective Lighting System 33 Type of Street Lighting Problems 34 Installations 39 Maitenance 40 Records 41 Questions & Answers 42 Additional Photographs 43 References 45| STREET LIGHTING | | 2 of 47
  3. 3. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONExecutive summary Purpose This document is the Project Report as output of the analysis and research that has been undertaken. It addresses the practices, technical aspects and process of Street Lighting. Back Ground Lighting is a major end use of electricity & 19% global electricity generation is taken for lighting. Providing Street Light is one of the most important and expensive – responsibility of a city. Street Lighting is a particularly critical concern for public authorities in developing countries because of its strategic importance for economic and social stability. Objectives The objectives of this project and thus this report are to:  Lighting has always been an effective tool to promote a city  Promotes and support safe operation of vehicles at night  Deters unlawful activity  To provide night time safety of road users  To reduce crime and the fear of crime during the hours of darkness  That good street lighting design minimizes the effect on the environment whilst enhancing the night – time ambience  Enhancement of commercial (especially retail sales) properties by attracting evening shoppers, audiences and other users.  Improvement of traffic flow at night by providing street lighting  Raising quality of living by providing good street lighting  Reducing number of night time road accidents| STREET LIGHTING | | 3 of 47
  4. 4. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONStreet Lighting History Street Light or Street Lamp or Lamp Post or Light Standard A Street Light is a raised source of light on the edge of road or walkway, which is turned or lit at certain time every night. The earliest lamps were used by Greek and Roman civilizations , where light primarily served the purpose of security, both to protect wanderer from tripping over something on the path as well as keeping the potential robbers at bay. At that time oil lamps were used. The first modern street lamps, which used kerosene, were introduced in Lviv in what was then the Australian Empire in 1853. The first electric street lighting employed arc lamps. Today, Street Lighting commonly uses high – intensity discharge lamps, often HPS High Pressure Sodium Lamps. Such lamps provide the greatest amount of illumination for the least consumption of electricity. Modern Lamps may also have light sensitive photocells to turn them on dusk, off at a dawn, or activate automatically in dark weather.| STREET LIGHTING | | 4 of 47
  5. 5. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONStreet Lighting Project Implementation Street Lighting Project Have Several Stages:  Lighting Requirements and Needs (Identifying the needs and lighting requirements of the roads)  Best Available Technology (Identify best available technology and design to meet the lighting requirement)  Procurement and Tender Evaluation (Evaluate tenders based on life cycle cost instead of lowest price)  Operation and Maintenance (Incorporated good operation and maintenance to avoid energy waste)  Measurement and Evaluation (Evaluate the project and look for improvement) The Most Common Reasons for Inefficient Street Lighting Systems:  Selection of inefficient luminaries  Poor design and installation  Poor power quality  Poor operation and maintenance practices| STREET LIGHTING | | 5 of 47
  6. 6. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONLighting Requirements for Various Areas Central Business Districts Lighting here should not only be sufficient for people to see at night, but also to enhance the general atmosphere. Housing Estates The lighting recommendations should be achieved over the whole of the area between property boundary lines. Industrial Estates The lighting in these areas is normally restricted to the road network, the lighting being for the benefit of those travelling to and from the estate. Individual premises would normally provide their own additional lighting for any outdoor loading/working areas. Main Roads The lighting requirements should be achieved over the whole surface of the road on which vehicles travel. If there is significant pedestrian movement then pedestrian areas should also be included in the design considerations. Minor Roads These will have less traffic usage than the roads described above. Vehicles will be using their own lights for guidance so the fixed lighting will be primarily for the use of pedestrians| STREET LIGHTING | | 6 of 47
  7. 7. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONType of Lighting System Configurations  Bridge Lighting  Highways Lighting  Intersection Lighting| STREET LIGHTING | | 7 of 47
  8. 8. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATION  Roundabout Lighting  Street Lighting  Underpass Lighting| STREET LIGHTING | | 8 of 47
  9. 9. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONDefinition of Terms Definitions Table Term Explanation Ammeter An Electric Meter used to measure current, calibrated in amperes. Ampere The Basic SI unit measuring the quantity of current. Ballast Usually a copper winding around a steel core, this is act as an inductor and limits the current through the lamp. It is connected in series with lamp. Cable An assembly of insulated conductors, ether buried or carried on poles . Cable Tray A specialization form of raceway used to hold insulated electrical power cables. Candela The unit of luminous intensity. Continuous Load A Load where the maximum current is expected to continue for three hours or more. Conductor Material suitable for carrying electrical current. CRI Color Rendering Index scale is used to compare the effect of a light source on the color appearance of its surroundings. Current Rate of transfer of electricity, measured in amps (I). Diagnostics One of a set of tests to run through a system that determines whether the system is functioning correctly. Duct Underground or overhead tube for carrying electrical conductors or cables. Earthing An Earth connected electrical conducting connection that may be designed or non-intentionally created. Energy Is capable of doing work. Failure Manifestation of an error at system level. It relates to execution of wrong actions, non execution of correct actions. Fault A physical defect Feeder Overhead lines or cables that are used to distribute the load. Feeder Circuit An Electrical Circuit designed to deliver power from the service equipment. Flicker Variation in light intensity due to 6oHz operation. Can cause eye strain. Glare The brightness of a light source which causes eye annoyance, discomfort. Ground A large conducting body (as the earth) used as a common return for an electrical circuit and as an arbitrary zero for potential. Grounded Conductor A System or Circuit Conductor that is intentionally grounded, usually white or gray in colour. HID High Intensity Discharge. Ignitor This is usually some form of external electronic device that is used to start some discharge lamps. Illuminance It is called light level and is measured in foot candles (fc). Insulation Lamp Lamp is the basic source of light and converts electrical energy into radiation. (visually evaluated radiant energy)| STREET LIGHTING | | 9 of 47
  10. 10. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATION Term Explanation Lighting System Any scheme used for illuminating a scene Luminaire A complete unit consisting of lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to distribute the light, protect the lamps and to connect the lamps to power supply. Luminance Luminance is referred to as brightness. Lumen The radiation which comes from the lamp is measured in lumens (lm). Luminous Intensity The force of luminous flux in a specified direction , measured in candela (cd) Mega ohm A unit of electrical resistance equal to one million ohm. Mega Ohm meter An instrument for measuring high resistance. Ohm The derived SI for electrical resistance. Ohm meter An instrument for measuring resistance in ohms. Over Current Any current in excess of the rated current of equipment. Over Load Load greater than the load for which the system. Panel Board A group of panel units designed for assembly in the form of single panel. Photocell Photocells can be used for individually switching street lights. Safety The probability that a system will either perform its function correctly . Service Conductor The supply conductors that extends from the street main or transformers to the service equipment. Service Equipment The necessary equipment, usually consisting of a circuit breaker or switch and fuses and their accessories. Short Circuit Electrical Loads which occur during fault conditions, and are usually high current flow. Starter A device used with ballast to start preheats fluorescent lamps. Switch A Switch intends use in general distribution and branch circuits. It is rated in amperes and capable of interrupting its rated voltage. Transistor A Semiconductor device with three or more electrodes commonly used to Transformer A Transformer is an electrical apparatus designed to convert alternating current from one voltage to another. It can be designed to step up or step down voltages. Vapor Pressure Pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with a solution. Visibility The quality or state of being perceivable by the eye. Volt (V) Unit of measurement of electromotive force or electrical potential. Voltage The difference in electrical potential between two points of an electric circuit. Voltage Drop The loss of voltage between the input to a device and the output from a device due to the internal impedance or resistance of the device. Voltage Stability A measure of power system stability which considers the system capacity to support given load. Voltmeter An instrument for measuring a potential difference between different points of electrical circuits. Wattmeter An instrument for measuring electrical power in watts.| STREET LIGHTING | | 10 of 47
  11. 11. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONLamp Technology Type Of Lamp Luminous Colour Lamp Life In Remarks Efficiency Rendering Hours (lm/W) Properties High Pressure 36-65 lm/W Fair 10,000 – 15,000 High Energy Use Mercury Vapour (MV) Poor Lamp Life High Pressure 50-150 lm/W Fair 15,000 - 24,000 Energy Efficient Sodium Vapour(HPSV) Poor Colour Rendering Metal Halide 70-130 lm/W Excellent 8,000 – 12,000 High Luminous (MH) Efficiency Poor Lamp Life Low Pressure 30 – 90 lm/W Good 5,000 – 10,000 Poor Lamp Life Mercury Vapour Medium Energy Use Low Pressure 100 – 190 lm/W Very Poor 18,000 – 24,000 Energy Efficient Sodium Vapour Poor Colour Rendering Light Emitting 70 – 160 lm/W Good 50,000 High Energy Diode (LED) Savings, Low Maintenance, Long Life| STREET LIGHTING | | 11 of 47
  12. 12. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONType of Lamps High Pressure Mercury Vapor Lamps High pressure mercury vapor lamps are one of the most common types used in outdoor lightning, first used in the early 1960’s. This lamp is expensive and lasts around three years. It has a good voltage tolerance and burns universally.ti is extremely energy in-efficient and contains mercury. Mercury lamps provide white light. High Pressure Sodium Vapor Lamps High pressure sodium vapor lamps are very energy efficient and last up to four years. The lamp is optically efficient but shows a long run up time. High pressure sodium vapor lamps provide an orange/yellow colored light. Sodium vapor lamps cause less light pollution than mercury.| STREET LIGHTING | | 12 of 47
  13. 13. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONIn Deep: Type of Lamps Metal Halide Lamps A Metal Halide Lamp is an electric light that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides. They are similar like mercury vapor lamps but contain additional metal compounds in the arc tube, which improve the efficiency and color rendition (whiteness) of the light. Metal Halide Lamps used in commercial, industrial, public spaces & retail applications. LED ( Light Emitting Diode ) Lamps LED Systems are almost maintenance free and lifetime is considerably longer than other lamps. LED is not subjected to sudden failure and can also operate with low voltage. They produce less heat. LED Lamps are extremely energy efficient. LED Lamps are used for both general and special purpose applications.| STREET LIGHTING | | 13 of 47
  14. 14. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONTransformers A Transformer is an electrical apparatus designed to convert alternating current from one voltage to another. It can be designed to step up or step down voltages and works on the magnetic induction principle. A transformer has no moving parts and completely static solid state device. Two adjacent coils and coils not physically connected to each other. Transformer Oil act as Coolant and Insulator  Low Viscosity  High Flash Point  Chemically Inert  Good Insulator| STREET LIGHTING | | 14 of 47
  15. 15. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONType of Transformers Step Up Transformer - VS > VP Step Down Transformer - VS < VP| STREET LIGHTING | | 15 of 47
  16. 16. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONType of Transformers Air Core – Inside area of coils are empty Open Core – Ferromagnetic material inside coils| STREET LIGHTING | | 16 of 47
  17. 17. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONType of Transformers Closed Core – Ferromagnetic ends connected Shell – Overlap of coils on same ferromagnetic core| STREET LIGHTING | | 17 of 47
  18. 18. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONTransformer Photographs Oil Filler Power Transformer Pole Mounted Distribution Transformer| STREET LIGHTING | | 18 of 47
  19. 19. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONTransformer Photographs Three Phase Pole Mounted Step down Transformer Three Phase Large Network Transformer| STREET LIGHTING | | 19 of 47
  20. 20. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONTransformer Failures Cause of Failure  Insulation  Insufficient Oil Level  Design / Manufacturing Errors  Oil Contamination  Overloading  Fire / Explosion  Line Surge  Maintenance / Operation  Flood  Loose Connections  Lighting  Moisture  Unbalanced Loading| STREET LIGHTING | | 20 of 47
  21. 21. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONLighting Equipments Structural  Poles  Pole Bases ( Foundations ) Optical  Luminaries  Lamps Electrical  Ballasts  Circuit Breaker  Fuse Box  Ignitor  Transformer  Power Cables  Sodium Trans  Mercury Trans Transport  Electric Basket Crane  Hydraulic Crane  Supervisory Vehicle| STREET LIGHTING | | 21 of 47
  22. 22. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATION Various Poles Bent straw Pole| STREET LIGHTING | | 22 of 47
  24. 24. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONVarious Poles Standard Pole with 9 Foot Davit| STREET LIGHTING | | 24 of 47
  25. 25. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONVarious Poles Double Davit Arm Pole| STREET LIGHTING | | 25 of 47
  26. 26. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONVarious Poles Double Vertical Mount Pole| STREET LIGHTING | | 26 of 47
  27. 27. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONVarious Poles High Mast Tower Poles| STREET LIGHTING | | 27 of 47
  28. 28. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONVarious Poles Solar Street Light Pole| STREET LIGHTING | | 28 of 47
  29. 29. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONVarious Base Steel Base Concrete Base High Mast Tower Base| STREET LIGHTING | | 29 of 47
  30. 30. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONLuminarie Types Cobra Head Luminaire Vertical Mount Luminaire| STREET LIGHTING | | 30 of 47
  31. 31. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONLuminarie Types High Mast Luminaire Shoebox Luminaire| STREET LIGHTING | | 31 of 47
  32. 32. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONLuminarie Types Decorative Luminaire Bridge Underpass Luminaire| STREET LIGHTING | | 32 of 47
  33. 33. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONEffective Lighting System Features Benefits Proper pole height & spacing Provide uniform light distribution Proper Luminaire aesthetics Blends in with the surroundings Good maintenance Reduce problems in lightning High lamp efficiency Minimize energy cost Life of Luminaire Reduce lamp replacement cost Good colour rendering Helps object appear more natural Proper light distribution Provide required light on roads Cost effectiveness Lowers operating cost Minimizing light pollution & glare Reduce energy use| STREET LIGHTING | | 33 of 47
  34. 34. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONType of Street Lighting Problems  Broken glass  Ballast out  Damaged poles  Damaged fuse boxes  Earthing problems  Exposed power cables  Flickering  Graffiti on poles  Ignitor Out  Lantern hanging off  Leaning poles  Lights which are not operating  Lights which are going on and off  Lights on in daylight hours  Lights out all together  Loose columns in the ground  Low Transformer Oil  Manhole Problems  No Numbering On Poles & Substations  Trans Out  Open , broken or mixing light fixture  Power cable short problems  Un Equality In Load Balance| STREET LIGHTING | | 34 of 47
  35. 35. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONType of Street Lighting Problems| STREET LIGHTING | | 35 of 47
  36. 36. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONType of Street Lighting Problems| STREET LIGHTING | | 36 of 47
  37. 37. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONType of Street Lighting Problems| STREET LIGHTING | | 37 of 47
  38. 38. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONType of Street Lighting Problems| STREET LIGHTING | | 38 of 47
  39. 39. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONINSTALLATION Installation Work as Below:  Change of Damaged Fuse Boxes  Constructing Safety Poles for Substations  Constructing Concrete Foundations for Substations  Installing New Luminaire  Installing New Luminaire Cover  Installing New Decorative Luminaire  Installing Poles of Any Height  Installing High & Low Tension Transformers  Laying Cables In Underground or Walls  Making Asphalt or Paved Digging  Numbering Poles and Substations  Painting the Poles and Substations| STREET LIGHTING | | 39 of 47
  40. 40. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONMAINTENANCE Cleaning, Night Inspection, Repairs and Replacement of Lamps The objective of lighting maintenance is to ensure efficient, safe and reliable working process. This will be achieved by:  Regular night inspection for failed lamps.  The replacement or repair of defective equipment.  Cleaning of the optical components.  Cleaning of the fuse boxes.  Cleaning of the substations and manholes.  Cleaning Transformer / Panels.  Closing all manholes.  Increasing Transformer Oil  The programmed replacement of lamps at the end of their useful life.  The regular testing of the electrical equipment.  Testing Transformer Oil, Increase or Change Oil.  Testing Earth Resistance and Load Balance.  Repair Concrete Foundation  Repair Damaged Iron Poles  Fixing Lock for Substation & Transformer Chambers. Cleaning The cleaning cycle should take account of local levels of air pollution. Light from the lantern will reduce with time due to the buildup of dust and dirt on both the inside and outside faces of the optical components. To minimize this it is essential to clean at regular intervals. Plastic surfaces should not be polished. They should first be cleaned with water containing a small quantity of suitable detergent, then wiped over with a leather or cloth soaked in clean water (or a proprietary spray cleaner may be used) Repairs This includes such work as:  Replacement of random type failure.  Replacement or repair of faulty equipment-electrical or structural.  Supply fault rectification.  Replacement or repair of equipment damaged by accident or vandalism.  The repair team should carry sufficient replacement components for their days work. Replacement of Lamps Relamping is carried out in one of two ways. These are:  Random Change (Reactive Maintenance)  Replacing lamps individually on failure.  Bulk Change (Preventative Maintenance)  Replacing groups of lamps at a predetermined life.| STREET LIGHTING | | 40 of 47
  41. 41. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONRECORDS Accurate records are vital to the successful running of a lighting system:  To identify the equipment installed  To monitor its performance  To program the routine maintenance  To verify the energy charges (if not metered)  Identity No (As recorded on the pole or column)  Identity No (Pole / Feeder / Substation)  Location  Mounting height and bracket outreach  Type of mounting (column, pole or wall bracket)  Electricity supply  Lantern type  Light source (type) and wattage  Control gear  Switching apparatus(Photocell)  Routine maintenance dates  Bulk lamp change dates| STREET LIGHTING | | 41 of 47
  42. 42. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONQuestions and Answers LIGHTING SYSTEM Table Question Answer 1. GLS Stands for? General Lighting Service. 2. ANSI? American National Standards Institute 3. Most commonly used lamps  Incandescent  Fluorescent Lights  Gas Discharge Lamps 4. Down light A type of ceiling Luminaire 5. The average rated life of CFL is? 10,000 Hours 6. What is the typical frequency of 30 kHz operation of electronic ballast? 7. A device that distributes and Luminaire filters the light emitted from one or more lamp is 8. Luminaire consists of?  Lamp  Lamp Socket  Ballast  Reflective Materials 9. Colour rendering index is 1-100 measured in the scale of 10. One lux is equal to One lumen per m2 11. The average rated life of CFL is 10,000 hours 12. If voltage is reduced for gas Reduced power consumption discharge lamps, it will result in 13. What is luminous efficiency? Luminous efficiency is the ratio of luminous flux emitted by a lamp to the power consumed by the lamp 14. What are the merits of LED  Less Power Consumption Lamps over Filament Lamps?  Longer Operating Life 15. Describe the advantages of Most of the problems faced by the lightning equipment due to providing transformer exclusively supply voltage fluctuations. for lighting? By installing transformer, which regulate the voltage exclusively for lightning circuits and also reduce the voltage related problems.| STREET LIGHTING | | 42 of 47
  43. 43. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONAdditional Lighting Photographs| STREET LIGHTING | | 43 of 47
  44. 44. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONAdditional Lighting Photographs| STREET LIGHTING | | 44 of 47
  45. 45. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATIONReferences          Http://            | STREET LIGHTING | | 45 of 47
  46. 46. Manual |STREET LIGHTING OVERVIEW, TECHNOLOGY & IMPLEMENTATION Catch Up I’m Mohammed Mohasin Shaik Blogger | Cheerful | Highly Driven I’m a Professional Electrical Engineer I’m a Person who is enthusiastic & positive about every aspect of life Done a key research in Renewable Energy Sector (Solar & Wind) Key Focus: Business Development, Marketing Strategy & Techno Sales Specialties: Energy Efficient Lighting, Energy Conservation and Solar Energy Mail Me: Talk on Skype: shaik.mohasin Visit My Blog Life Mantra: “Success Comes In Can’s Not Cant’s “ Unique Application of LED Lighting| STREET LIGHTING | | 46 of 47