Git j club panc cysts.


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Git j club panc cysts.

  1. 1. LOGO Prepared by: Dr.Mohamed Shekhani
  2. 2. Summary:  Pancreatic cysts are challenging to the gastroenterologist.  Detection rate is increasing.  No criteria for a definitive diagnosis& no validated surveillance strategy.  Pancreatic endosonography with or without sampling is necessary in most of the cases, although this requires expertise & not widely available.  While some cysts have a malignant potential or already malign at the diagnosis, most are benign& remain so for decades.
  3. 3. The problem:  Prevalence is 1% in <40-10% in > 70 - 27.5-50% in autopsy.  Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) account for 10-15% of all cystic lesions& 1-5% of all primary pan neoplasms.  Increased prevalence is a reflection of increased diagnosis.  No gender difference, however cystic neoplasms are more common in women: 2-3:1.  MRI is more sensitive (incidental detection 20%) in detection than CT.  TAUS the least &EUS is most sensitive + easy sampling.
  4. 4. Etiology:  No solid data.  Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)& colloid carcinoma may develop in mucinous cystic neoplasm MCN & IPMN.  Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) is considered a precursor of ductal adenoca& there are some genetic alterations in IPMN & PanIN & some in PDAC.  ? Whether these genetic alterations are responsible for development or progression& transformation, but likely.  MCN is composed of papillary cells producing mucin with a supporting ovarian-like stroma which suggests development from heterotopic embryonic islets of ovary left in pancreas.
  5. 5. CLINICAL PRESENTATION:  >70% of the cystic lesions discovered incidentally.  In pseudocysts, even asymptomatic H/O pancreatitis is elicited in most of the time.  In incidental cysts at operation, 28% were mucinous cysts, 27 % IPMN, 17% SCN, 3.8% were pseudocysts&2.5% were ductal adenocarcinoma.  H/O pancreatitis does not validate pseudocyst, because IPMN causes acute recurrent pancreatitis.  Any type of pancreatic lesion including PDAC may first present with an acute attack of pancreatitis as the result of obstruction of MPD.  In cystic neoplasm >9 cm, it may cause pain due to the pressure to the adjacent organs.
  6. 6. CLINICAL PRESENTATION:  Pancreatic cystic neoplasms, usually, displace, not invade the adjacent organs, so CBD obst is rare in PCNs of the head of pancreas.  Asking for the presence of symptoms is an important, because symptoms mandate a surgical resection even in the benign lesions like SCN.  Some endocrine neoplasms like insulinoma may appear as cystic lesion &symptoms of this particular neoplasm like hypoglycemia may be present.
  7. 7. Lab exam:  Does not help much except direct exam of cyst fluid obtained with EUS-FNA.  Even EUS-FNAis not perfect, because fluid may not be obtained or the markers like CEA& amylase are either not enough sensitive or specific.
  8. 8. Imagings:  PCNs almost always referred to gastroenterologists, after being discovered in an imaging modality.  May be discovered by a careful EUS done for other reasons.  MRI is more sensitive.  MDCT may be better for characterization.  MRCP is used for the evaluation of duct connection.  PET-CT is controversial ? for the assessment of malignant transformation.
  9. 9. Imagings:EUS  Cross-sectional imaging changed the detection, while EUS changed the management.  Pancreas was difficult to approach before EUS.  EUS provides access to all parts of pancreas either trans- gastrically or duodenally.  Cysts can be detected, characterized, sampled; fluid is aspirated in case there is enough volume.  Pseudocyts are drained.  Some investigational treatments are delivered via EUS.  For pancreatic exam usually, if not always, use linear device.  For the exam of possible very small lesions, if failed to find a lesion with linear EUS, radial used.
  10. 10. Imagings:EUS  The rate of accurate diagnosis based on EUS morphology alone, is 40- 93% depending on the experience.  in Western, EUS-guided puncture of cysts is frequently performed, in Japan, if mucinous lesion suspected it is avoided .  The predictive value of EUS-FNA in deciding for surgery reported to be as high as 95%.  The cytologic yield of EUS-FNA is rather poor:50%  The rate of sufficient material is 49 % for fluid analysis, 31% for cytology,may be increased with some special techniques as puncturing the wall at the expense of increased risk of pancreatitis.
  11. 11. Imagings:EUS  If atypical cells is considered as the diagnostic criteria for malignancy the accuracy increases to 85%.  The differential diagnosis of EUS is challenging & effective use of EUS may prevent unnecessary surgery.  Even in a tertiary hospital, 20% of resected PCNs were found benign.  Without EUS, the imaging diagnosis of pancreatic cysts is not accurate enough because of the overlapping features.  Whether EUS-FNA carries a higher risk of infection is controversial ? Antibiotic use .  The risk of pancreatitis is overall 0-2% increased with pancreatic duct puncture,mostly, mild.  Severe bleeding is also very rare & mostly intracystic.
  12. 12. PSEUDOCYSTS  2/3 of all pancreatic cysts.  In incidentally discovered cysts, pseudocyts is second to cystic pancreatic neoplasms.  Pseudocyts are unilocular & usually >30 mm.  They contain floating debris &found in any part of panc.  Aspiration with 22 G &even 25 G needle yield fluid.  The aspirated fluid is, muddy-brown,but may be clear or white turbid& not contain mucus.  In some aspiration may not be possible, because of thick fluid, which requires the use of 19 G needle.  The amylase content is over 2000 U/L (usually tens of thousands) & CEA level is very low or undetectable.
  13. 13. PSEUDOCYSTS  A rare entity pseudopseudocyst characterized by inflammatory exudative fluid collection.  If > 60 mm&symptomatic, endoscopic drainage is required.  Drainage is postponed until 8 weeks after an acute pancreatitis to allow time for maturation of the wall.  If the cyst does not resolve until 24 weeks, it is unlikely that it would resolve later.  For drainage always an EUS-guided approach used, even if there is bulging to the stomach or duodenum.  For drainage form stomach, try to position the therapeutic linear endoscope tip in the below position: First we try to achieve a straight position to ease the insertion of needle, second we try to find a place from which the cyst is close to the stomach wall& try to achieve a vessel-free area.
  14. 14. PSEUDOCYSTS  We either prone position with deep sedation, or supine position with general anesthesia.  Usually insert a fully covered, or more recently, a specifically designed cysto-gastrostomy metallic stent .  Usually perform the procedure under x-ray guidance, however it is not an absolute necessity.
  15. 15.
  16. 16. SEROUS CYSTIC NEOPLASM(SCN)  1-2% of pancreatic neoplasms& 25% of all cystic tumours usually, diagnosed on imaging.  A microcystic thin walled septa which are vascular, a central scar (in 30% in CT), calcifications,a poorly developed capsule difficult to distinguish form the surrounding parenchyma, confirm the diagnosis in elderly.  The classical honeycomb pattern is present in 20%.  In some cases the lesion is oligocystic confused with IPMN  Most <15 cm are asymptomatic& if the radiologic findings are conclusive, there is no absolute need for EUS exam.  In 50%, it is possible to aspirate fluid for CEA that excludes a mucinous tumour.  In the remainder result with the aspiration of blood which is an indirect clue for SCN.
  17. 17. SEROUS CYSTIC NEOPLASM(SCN)  The aspirate stains negative for mucin.  The acquired cells have glycogen-rich clear neoplasm that stains positive with PAS.  Unilocular variant of SCN, usually, localized in the head.  In some cases of SCN the lesion may obstruct the MPD&it may be dilated, sometimes mimicking main duct-IPMN.  SCN is a benign neoplasm &malignant transformation risk is virtually non-existent.  It is slowly growing& most of the afflicted patients are elderlies with comorbidities.  The decision for resection should be cautious, unless there are clear-cut signs of compression symptoms which are not frequent.  The growth rate is usually 0.6 cm/year->2 cm/year if>4 cms.
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN)  2% of all pancreatic neoplasms ,1/3 of all cystic neoplasms.  Mostly a cystic neoplasm of women (female: male 20:1) usually at the perimenapousal age, average age 48.  MCN, is consisted of papillary mucin secreting cells supported by fibrous ovarian type of stroma.  Female hormones have a certain role in the progression.  Mostly, located either in body or tail &peripheric location.  In most of the MCNs,MR & MRCP makes correct diagnosis.  MRCP is very effective in demonstrating communication between cyst &pancreatic duct & its absence is a suggestive features of mucinous cyst & usually diagnostic.  Lack of communication with the main pancreatic duct is a controversial issue at the moment, because, amylase is, sometimes, elevated indicating small communications.
  21. 21. Mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN)  MCN is considered to have a malignant potential.  Malignant transformation happens, at the most 15% (8- 29- 36%) &the risk is very low in cysts with a diameter <30 mm without mural nodules.  Aspirated fluid, reveals high CEA (> 200 ng/mL),rarely may be low.  Malignant MCNs have peripheral calcification, a thickened wall, papillary proliferations & a hypervascular pattern &may show vascular involvem.  Pure colloid carcinoma as it is in IPMN is rare in MCN.  The decision for resection discussed with the patient.  Given to the fact that these patients are relatively young, &the tumor location generally allows distal pancreatectomy, the trend is for surgical resection.
  22. 22. Mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN)  If no malignancy in resected specimen, follow-up is not necessary.  if malignancy is present, there is a high risk of recurrence, & should be followed-up 6 monthly with CT or MRI.  While 5 survival rate for the resection of benign MCN is 95%, it is 50-60% for malign MCN.
  23. 23.
  24. 24. INTRADUCTAL PAPILLARY MUCINOUS NEOPLASM (IPMN)  Is a mysterious disease recently known (30 years only).  Increasingly diagnosis &high risk of malignant transform.  It is diagnosed mostly >60, but may be younger.  It does not show gender predilection.  Histologically, 5 types: 1- Gastric foveolar 2- Intestinal 3- Pancreato-biliary 4- Oncocytic 5- Tubular.  Gastric foveolar type is usually benign, cystadenocarcinoma may develop in intestinal&ductal adenocarcinoma & pancreato-biliary type.  IPMN is usually diagnosed with CT, MR, MRCP.  The final diagnosis,is with EUS.  Are unilocular or macrocystic& fluid is obtained with FNA in most of the cases.
  25. 25. INTRADUCTAL PAPILLARY MUCINOUS NEOPLASM (IPMN)  If fluid is highly viscous, aspiration may not be possible  If even a drop of fluid is obtained, tenacious nature points toward a mucinous cyst.  If a drop of fluid is hold between the thumb & index finger &stretched apart, a string is formed in mucinous cyts.  If CEA is >200 ng/mL, it is almost certainly a mucinous cyst, but lower levels do not exclude diagnosis.  Enough fluid, needs at least 15 mm cyst for CEA measure.  The cyst fluid amylase is elevated even if it is not as high as it is in pseudocysts.  The significance of cyst fluid amylase for DD was challenged, because it may be found to be elevated in cysts without any communication with the pancreatic duct.
  26. 26. INTRADUCTAL PAPILLARY MUCINOUS NEOPLASM (IPMN)  in < 1/3 of IPMN, the diagnosis may not be certain.  The decreasing amylase, rather than increasing CEA may point towards a malignant transformation, because proliferation of tissue obstructs the communication between the cyst & the duct.  In BD-IPMN, if the cyst size is < 30 mm, the MPD diameter is <6 mm& mural nodules are absent, the malignancy risk is very low.  Mural nodules are internal projections of papillary tissue.  While in the past mural nodules are, uniformly, considered as an ominous sign, in recent years, it appeared that in < 1/3, the mural nodules in EUS are not associated with malignancy&the height of the mural nodules come into consideration.
  27. 27. INTRADUCTAL PAPILLARY MUCINOUS NEOPLASM (IPMN)  The malignancy risk is high in type III or IV mural Nodules.  the mean diameter of mural nodules was 5.1 mm in benign lesions & 20.5 mm in malign lesions.  In EUS the rate of describing the mucus as an intracystic lesion reaches 65%.  While EUS is more sensitive (75% vs. 24%), CT is more specific (100% vs. 83%) in diagnosing mural nodules .  In BD-IPMN, the overall risk of malignancy is around 25% (8- 29-36%).  Cytological yield is poor with EUS-FNA: Cytology was positive in only 29% of malignant mucinous tumours. However the specificity is quite high, 83% .  The rate of sufficient material obtained by EUS-FNA was reported as 31% for cytology&49% for fluid analysis.
  28. 28. INTRADUCTAL PAPILLARY MUCINOUS NEOPLASM (IPMN)  In MD-IPMN, MPD appears, hugely dilated (usually >10 mm) filled with echogenic material (mucin).  In endoscopy, mucin protruding form papilla vateri is observed: “fishmouth” sign.  While malignancy is found in 58-92% of main duct tumours, the rate is 6-46% in branch duct IPMN.  As the age increases, the rate of malignancy increases  Many malign mucinous neoplasms have peripheral calcification, a thickened cyst wall, papillary proliferations& hypervascular pattern&sometimes, vascular involvement.
  29. 29. INTRADUCTAL PAPILLARY MUCINOUS NEOPLASM (IPMN)  Another variant of IPMN involves both BD/MPD called as Mixed-type-IPMN.  In mixed as well as MD IPMN, it is very difficult to discern up to which level the tumour extends&serial in-theatre, resection margin pathology is needed, to decide to stop or go on with further resection (creeping pancreatectomy).  In some cases of IPMN, some part of inner wall may be denuded&pathologically be confused with pseudocyst.  Very recently, non-neoplastic variant of IPMN was described (Mucinous non-neoplastic cyst, MNNC),usually unilocular & localizes in the head of the pancreas,has mucinous content,not neoplastic, the CEA level is low& the risk of malignant transformation, virtually, does not exist.
  30. 30. INTRADUCTAL PAPILLARY MUCINOUS NEOPLASM (IPMN)  In BD-IPMN, surgery is advised for symptomatic patients with cysts of any size, >30 mm., or with features suggesting malignancy.  After resection, 6 monthly follow- up is necessary.  For asymptomatic patients with <10 mm BD-IPMN yearly cross-sectional imaging suffices, for 10 -20 mm,6 monthly.  For cysts between 20-30 mm, 3-6 monthly follow-up preferably with EUS.  Patients with IPMN also necessitates a surveillance for other synchronous extra-pancreatic malignancies.  In a series including surgically resected BD-IPMN, the rate of malignancy was <10% in cysts <2 cm without mural nodules, 24% in cysts 2-3 cm in size regardless of nodularity& 44% for cysts >3 cm with mural nodules.
  31. 31. INTRADUCTAL PAPILLARY MUCINOUS NEOPLASM (IPMN)  Overall increase in size of the cyst 5 mm. or more may be considered an indication for surgery outside of consensus- guidelines indicated resection.  However the size alone is not a decision making variable, in case the size is 3 cm or below.  CT findings are helpful in the evaluation of complex cystic structures.  In asymptomatic patients with pancreatic cysts < 3 cm, the frequency of occult malignancy was found 3.3%, whereas 90% of patients with malignant lesions were symptomatic.  Recently IPMN was considered as a diffuse pancreatic pre- malign or malign condition, because the risk of concurrent PanIN &another IPMN are increased (21% to 41%)
  32. 32. INTRADUCTAL PAPILLARY MUCINOUS NEOPLASM (IPMN)  The same studies showed, in case there are multiple IPMNs in pancreas, the risk of malignancy is lower.  Another interesting observation is the increased risk of synchronous or metachronous primary extrapancreatic tumours, such as cancers of stomach, colon, rectum, lung, breast or liver in patients with IPMN.  In an analysis of 183 resected invasive IPMNs, 66% were classified as PDAC derived from IPMN & 17% as PDAC concomitant with IPMN (62).  The five year survival is 57% in colloid & 16% in tubular carcinoma.
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
  36. 36. LOGO Click to edit subtitle style