 NAFLD covers from relatively benign condition, simple steatosis,NAFLD to
nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
 NASH is ...
 Now the commonest cause of abnormal liver function
 1/3 of the population being affected.
 Using magnetic resonance sp...
 NAFLD a spectrum of histological abnormalities, from simple fatty liver to
nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), in a per...
 NAFLD is the presence of excessive fat in the liver, demonstrated by imaging
modalities, such as transabdominal ultrasou...
 The prevalence of NAFLD & NASH is 10- 40% & 2- 5% in the American
general adult population, respectively, 20% & 1.2%-4.8...
 NAFLD occurs equally in both genders
 It is generally found within the fourth or fifth decade of life, even in children...
 Serum hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, reduced insulin
sensitivity.
 Aminotransferases are increased mo...
 Biomarker to predict steatosis (Steatotest) fibrosis (fibrotest) among
patient – NAFD.
 Tthe diagnostic accuracy of all...
CT
MRI
Clinicopathological
correlation
PathologyCategory
Known to be non-
progressive
Simple steatosisType 1
Probably benign (not...
 Proposed mechanisms:
 The provision of additional energy by the conversion of dietary fiber to short-
chain fatty acids...
 Currently, there is no well-established approved therapy for NAFLD
 The basic principles for the management of NASH sho...
 Doing exercise 180 minutes/week
 physical exercise improves hepatic steatosis, measured by MRS &plasma ALT ,
waist circ...
 Dietary antioxidant supplementation, high dairy intake, daily egg intake& even
probiotics are recommended in patients wi...
 If no improvement despite these interventions.
 Pharmacotherapy options are insulin sensitizers (metformin, thiazolidin...
 TNF-α blocker, pentoxifylline improves both steatosis & inflammation in
 Antioxidants showed modest improvement in stea...
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
GIT J Club: NAFLD.
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GIT J Club: NAFLD.

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

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GIT J Club: NAFLD.

  1. 1.  NAFLD covers from relatively benign condition, simple steatosis,NAFLD to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).  NASH is characterized by a chronic progressive liver pathology that may progress to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, & liver transplantation.  Despite the growing body of evidence, one of the important & unresolved problems is the pathogenesis of NASH.  It might be a metabolic disturbance as a primary abnormality in NAFLD with Insulin resistance is at the center of these metabolic abnormalities.  The possibilities for the next hit are lipid peroxidation, reactive metabolites, adipose tissue products,transforming growth factor-β1, Fas ligand, mitochondrial dysfunction, respiratory chain deficiency& int microbiota.  The hepatocyte injury might be induced by oxidative stress.  There is no well-established approved therapy.  Recommendations are to improve existing co-morbidities, as obesity, hyperlipidemia, or T2DM& lifestyle modification with weight loss& exercise. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
  2. 2.  Now the commonest cause of abnormal liver function  1/3 of the population being affected.  Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy 30% of the general population have steatosis.  The majority have simple steatosis, but 10–30% develop NASH& the development of NASH cirrhosis is associated with a poor long-term prognosis.  Many patients with NAFLD remain undiagnosed& recognising those at risk is the first step.  Clinicians overly rely on abnormal liver enzymes to identify patients with NAFLD, so patients with significant liver disease can be overlooked, potentially missing opportunities for intervention.  Although liver biopsy is the gold standard method for diagnosing and staging NAFLD, the majority of patients can be effectively diagnosed noninvasively with tests that are routinely available in the clinic today. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
  3. 3.  NAFLD a spectrum of histological abnormalities, from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), in a person consuming no alcohol.  NAFLD is a part of the metabolic syndrome, particularly in obesity, hyperlipidemia&diabetes.  NAFLD is the liver component of metabolic syndrome  The prevalence of NAFLD continues to increase, which depends on the increasing obesity prevalence due to economic development.  NASH has the potential to progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), end-stage liver disease&liver transplantation.  One of the most important&unresolved problems is the pathogenesis& underlying mechanisms in the development of NASH.  The natural history of NAFLD is also not fully understood.  The progression of NAFLD might be slower. Introduction:
  4. 4.  NAFLD is the presence of excessive fat in the liver, demonstrated by imaging modalities, such as transabdominal ultrasound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging  It is also a diagnosis of exclusion,patients must not have any other liver disease, such as hepatitis B and C, drug toxicity, autoimmune diseases, alcoholic liver disease, metabolic liver diseases, and genetic liver abnormalities.  Patients must be abstinent from alcohol or drink infrequently. Definition:
  5. 5.  The prevalence of NAFLD & NASH is 10- 40% & 2- 5% in the American general adult population, respectively, 20% & 1.2%-4.8% in other developed countries.  Hispanics may progress to cirrhosis more frequently than either blacks or whites.  Autopsy prevalence of NASH: 18.5% in markedly obese& 2.7% in lean.  The prevalence of NASH is 3% in nonobese& 20% in obese.  Prevalence of NASH 0r related cirrhosis &HCC is also high in SM.  Hypertriglyceridemia is also associated with insulin resistance & NAFLD, even in patients without obesity.  The most probable death cause is CVD.  liver-related diseases; cirrhosis, end-stage liver diseases, HCC &liver transplantation, are being increased due to the obesity epidemic over time.  NAFLD is a risk factor for colorectal malignant neoplasm &in-stent restenosis after bare metal stenting in native coronary arteries. EPIDEMIOLOGY
  6. 6.  NAFLD occurs equally in both genders  It is generally found within the fourth or fifth decade of life, even in children.  Patients with NAFLD may have hypertension, besides obesity, type 2 diabetes& hypertriglyceridemia.  Many patients have no symptoms.  The most frequent symptoms are right upper quadrant pain & dullness in a small number.  Mild or moderate hepatomegaly is one of the most frequent findings during the examination. Clinical:
  7. 7.  Serum hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, reduced insulin sensitivity.  Aminotransferases are increased moderately, and AST/ALT ratio is <1.  Inversion of the AST/ALT ratio to >1 may suggest progression to cirrhosis in patients with NAFLD.  NAFLD patients with normal aminotransferases may exhibit the full spectrum of histopathological abnormalities, from benign steatosis to cirrhosis. Previously,  serum aminotransferase values may fluctuate during the course of the disease  No good correlation between serum liver tests &necroinflammatory activity or stage.  Abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography& magnetic resonance imaging can show NAFLD but can not separate benign steatosis from NASH  Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy can measure hepatic triglyceride content. Lab:
  8. 8.  Biomarker to predict steatosis (Steatotest) fibrosis (fibrotest) among patient – NAFD.  Tthe diagnostic accuracy of all biomarker used to identify liver fibrosis seldom exceed 75-80%.  These serum markers not available in all lab., may be expensive can't substitute liver biopsy. Lab:
  9. 9. CT
  10. 10. MRI
  11. 11. Clinicopathological correlation PathologyCategory Known to be non- progressive Simple steatosisType 1 Probably benign (not regarded as NASH Steatosis plus lobular inflammation type2 NASH without fibrosis may progress to cirrhosis Steatosis, lobular inflammation and ballooning degeneration Type3, NASH with fibrosis may progress to cirrhosis and liver failure Steatosis, ballooning degeneration and Mallory bodies, Type 4
  12. 12.  Proposed mechanisms:  The provision of additional energy by the conversion of dietary fiber to short- chain fatty acids  Effects on gut hormone production.  Increased intestinal permeability causing elevated systemic levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)  The innate immune system, as mice deficient in Toll-like receptor 5 develop hyperphagia and become obese and insulin-resistant  Gut microbiota influences whole-body glucose homeostasis& liver lipid metabolism in mice.  Obese mice have fewer bacteroidetes & more firmicutes.  Obese humans have also more firmicutes and fewer bacteroidetes.  Diet-induced weight loss decreases firmicutes in obese humans. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA: A KEY ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NAFLD:
  13. 13.  Currently, there is no well-established approved therapy for NAFLD  The basic principles for the management of NASH should be to decrease insulin resistance, to reduce visceral adiposity& fat mass, to decrease hyperlipidemia /hypertension& to reduce oxidative stress & lipid peroxidation products. Management:
  14. 14.  Doing exercise 180 minutes/week  physical exercise improves hepatic steatosis, measured by MRS &plasma ALT , waist circumference, insulin resistance&plasma fasting glucose, HbA1c, LDL cholesterol&triacylglycerol.  Stop smoking & drinking alcohol & sleeping on time.  Restricting the overconsumption of calories for weight loss  Decrease whole grain intake (increasing fiber& Mg intake in diet) & carbohydrate intake with a normal or high protein diet (0.8 g/kg or 1.4 g/kg).  Low carbohydrate intake reduces waist circumference &fasting plasma glycogen,  Low fat diet improves plasma LDL-cholesterol & HLD-cholesterol  MUFA& MUFA-rich foods protect against metabolic syndrome&its CV compon.  polyunsaturated fatty acids have no beneficial effect on liver histology, body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol,&C-reactive protein but improve serum ALT & simple steatosis. Lifestyle modification
  15. 15.  Dietary antioxidant supplementation, high dairy intake, daily egg intake& even probiotics are recommended in patients with NAFLD.  Both hepatic steatosis & inflammation are improved by weight loss in a short time,buut, the response of fibrosis is very slow. Lifestyle modification
  16. 16.  If no improvement despite these interventions.  Pharmacotherapy options are insulin sensitizers (metformin, thiazolidines), antioxidants (vit E and C), hepatocyte protective agents (UDCA), antiobesity drugs (orlistat), antidyslipidemia agents (statins, fibrates,NPC1L1 inhibitors (ezetimibe)), RAS blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors, antialdosterone, GLP-1 agonist (exenatide), and DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin).  The gut microbiota might be a new prevention or therapeutic approach for improving obesity&NAFLD.  TCM had a better effect on the normalization of ALT& disappearance of radiological steatosis & has modest benefit in the treatment of NAFLD. Pharmacotherapy
  17. 17.  TNF-α blocker, pentoxifylline improves both steatosis & inflammation in  Antioxidants showed modest improvement in steatosis& lobular inflammation, with no effect on body weight, waist circumference, LDL-cholesterol&fibrosis. Pharmacotherapy

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