Quantitative ResearchReport writingSyed Shahzad Ali
Quantitative Research“Any study using numerical data with anemphasis on statistics to answer theresearch question.” (Perry, Research inApplied Linguistics)
Researcher’s Responsibility• American Educational Research Association(AERA 2002) describes the researcher’sresponsibilities.• “To report their findings to all relevant stakeholdersand that their reports to the public should be writtenstraightforwardly to communicate the practicalsignificance for policy” (Guiding Standards)
Style Manual• The most prominent differences between the different stylemanuals include the way we cite references in the text (i.e.the format of the in-text citations) and to prepare the finallist of references in the bibliography (i.e. the format of theend of the text references)• Headings• Sub-headings• Figures and tables• Use of certain symbols• Abbreviations.
American PsychologicalAssociation (APA) Style• Different journals adopt different format according totheir needs but APA Style manual is the mostcommonly used style and it is published in a bookformat and its most recent Edition is the 6thEdition.• APA not only offers format prescriptions but alsoprovides elaborate guidelines on how to structureresearch reports and how to present and organize thecontent of the various parts.
Main Parts of Research ReportTITLE• It summarizes the main idea of the workdescribing the topic and the actualvariables/ issues under investigation.• It should be “Catchy” that it should attractthe reader attention.• It should be succinct and informative.
ABSTRACT• Important paragraph at the beginning ofresearch article.• It performs the “inform- and attract”function of the title.• Strict word limit for abstracts.
Five Essential Elements of Abstract• Purpose of the study.• Source of the data.• Method for collecting data.• General results.• General interpretations of the results.
3. Introduction of the Study• It is the brain of the study.• It provides historical context to the study.• It presents the specific topic/ problem and addresses the followingquestions.Why this topic is being investigated?The research question.Any theory being considered.Any hypothesis being proposed.Any predictions made.Constructs and Terminology is defined here.
4. Literature Review• It accomplishes at least four differentfunctions.• 1. Map of the terrain• Providing a comprehensive and historicaloverview of the books, articles anddocuments.
Literature Review• 2. Specific Theoretical background of the empiricalinvestigation reported• Trustworthiness that the author is knowledgeable• University knows that the author has done his “homework”• He has a wide range of relevant theoretical and researchapproaches.• Literature Review could be 20 percent or 50 percent oftotal length of the article. Constraints are set by theauditors of the journals.•
Conti……….• APA Guidelines states• “Discuss the literature but do not include anexhaustive historical review. Assume that thereader is knowledgeable about the field forwhich you are writing and does not require acomplete digest.”
5. Methodology• Skeleton of the study.• Provides the technical details how the investigationwas conducted.• Crucial in convincing the audience about thecredibility of the results.• Focus entirely on our own study. Don’t describedetails of other people’s work
Methodology• Methodology is divided into subsections.• 1. Participants• The appropriate description of the research sampleis critical to quantitative research because only inthe light of this, it can be decided whether thegeneralization of the findings is legitimate.
Methodology• 2. The Instruments• These are devices which are used to collect data.Instruments determine both the type and kind of thedata that can be collected• Surveys through interviews and questionnaires• Tests• The instruments should be described accurately. Theactual instrument is often included in an appendix.
Methodology• 3. Procedure• It is the procedure which is followed• During the data collection phase.• How the instruments were administered.• Summarizing the conditions under which themeasurements were taken ( for example, format,time, place, and personnel who collected the data)
Methodology• Data Analysis– Although APA Guidelines do not high light dataanalysis as an obligatory section, many studiesinclude it because it helps the reader to preparefor the next coming analytical techniques.– It discusses possible problem issues such asmissing data, attrition and non-response andhow these were handled.
6. Conclusion• Every research article does not have “Conclusion’because if results and discussion sections are thereseparately, the latter can conclude the whole paper.• Conclusion can include certain things.• Summary of the major findings.•
Conclusion Contd.• Call for further research.• Questions raised by the investigation.• An explanation of the pedagogical implication of the results.• Statement of the overall significance of the topic addressed bythe study.• Mckay(2006) suggests “The conclusion should end on astrong note with some general statement that leaves thereader a positive sense of the article”.
7. References or Bibliography• There are two basic rules.• All the citation in the report must appear in thereference list, and all references in the list mustbe cited in the text.• The format requirements of the presentationstyle of the particular publication must beadhered to rigorously.
8. Appendix• An appendix is helpful as detailed descriptions ofcertain relevant material are included in Appendixbecause that material is distracting or inappropriateto the main body of the work.• Copies of the instruments.• Transcripts.• Other supplementary material for readers to have abetter idea of what exactly went on.