Instructional leadership (chapter 2 student diversity)

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  • 2. WHAT IS STUDENT DIVERSITY? Students differences in -Gender -Ethnicity -Students ability
  • 3. Student Diversity Ethnicity/ Cultural Knowledge Skills Rules Traditions Belief Values Gender - Mental Abilities -Sexual Identity
  • 4. LEADERSHIP CHALLENGE  Dealing with a wealth of student differences.  Examines student differences in culture and gender.
  • 5. TODAY'S DIVERSE CLASSSROOM  Fostering resilience in students, in teachers and in classrooms to overcome the educational problems of poverty.  What is resilience? - Students who survive and thrive.
  • 6. Resilient Classrooms First strand : Self -Agency Academic self- efficacy Behavioral self- control Academic self- determination Second strand : Relationship Caring teacher- student relationships Effective peer relation Effective home- school relationships
  • 7. FIRST STRAND : SELF -AGENCY Academic self-efficacy  A belief in your own ability to learn.  It emerges when students tackle challenging and meaningful tasks with the support needed to be successful and they see other students do the same.  Encouraging feedback from teachers
  • 8. Academic self-determination  It’s about making choices, setting goals, and following through.  Students who are self-determined are more motivated and committed to learning. Behavioral self-control  It’s also called as student self- regulation.  It’s is essential for a safe and orderly learning environment
  • 9. SECOND STRAND : RELATIONSHIP Caring teacher-student relationships  It’s consistently associated with better school performance, especially for students who face serious challenges. Effective peer relations  It’s also critical in connecting students to school
  • 10. Effective home-school relationships  When parents stay involved, their children’s grade and test scores improved ( Corner, Haynes, & Joyner, 1996).
  • 11. Culture diversity Culture includes knowledge, skills, rules, traditions, beliefs and values that guide behaviour in particular group of people as well as the art and artifacts produced and passed down to the next generation (Betancourt & Lopez, 1993; Pai & Adler, 2001) Cultural group can be defined along regional, ethnic, religious, racial, gender, social class or other lines Each person is a unique product of many influences, a member of a variety groups.
  • 12. Language Differences in the Classroom Dialect It's a variety of language spoken by a particular group Differences in dialect are not errors because each dialect is logical, complex and rule-governed Bilingualis m Benefit s Correlated with increased in cognitive abilitiesAdvanced awareness about language; more likely to notice grammar errors. Speaking two languages is an asset for those graduate entering the business world (Mears, 1998).
  • 13. CREATING CULTURALLY INCLUSIVE CLASSROOM  Goal -"to eliminate racism, classism and prejudice while adapting the content and methods and instructions in order to meet students need".
  • 14. THREE DIMENSIONS OF CLASSROOM (ROLAND THARP,1998). Social organization Learning style Participation structures
  • 15. THREE DIMENSIONS OF CLASSROOM (ROLAND THARP,1998). Social organization Def: the ways people interact to accomplish a particular goal. It can be by cooperation and collaboration in which student play together in groups or it may be solitary in which students won't work together with the opposite sex.
  • 16. THREE DIMENSIONS OF CLASSROOM (ROLAND THARP,1998). Learning style Cultural practices and values E:g Hispanic American students are more oriented toward family and group loyalty. They prefer cooperative activities and dislike being made to compete with fellow students (Garcia,1992; Vasquez,1990) Cultural differences in learning style E:g Native Americans appear to have a more global/ visual style learning. For example Navajo students prefer hearing a story all the way through to the end before discussing parts of the story. Teachers who stop to ask questions seem odd to these students and interrupt the learning process (Tharp, 1989). However, some other group may prefer verbal/analytical approach.
  • 17. THREE DIMENSIONS OF CLASSROOM (ROLAND THARP,1998). Participation structures Def: Differing activity rules. As class activities change, rules change. A student may have different ways of asking Q's due to different cultural background.
  • 18. Should teachers focus on Students' learning style?
  • 19. Should teachers focus on Students' learning style? Cognitive ability High spatial ability High proficiency in creating, holding, and manipulating spatial representations . Low spatial ability Low proficiency in creating, holding, and manipulating spatial representations .
  • 20. Cognitive style Visualizer Uses visual modes of thinking Verbalizer Uses verbal modes of thinking
  • 21. Learning preference Visual learner Prefers instruction involving pictures Verbal learner Prefers instruction involving words
  • 22. CULTURALLY COMPATIBLE CLASSROOMS Creating culturally compatible classrooms requires the teachers know, respect and effectively teach all their students
  • 23. CULTURALLY RELEVANT PEDAGOGY Student Experience academic success Develop/maintain their cultural competence Develop a critical consciousness to challenge the status quo. Teacher must believe in children's inherent intellectual ability, humanity, spiritual character must fight foolishness test scores or scripted lesson make for good learning must learn who their children are and the legacies they bring.
  • 24. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE CLASSROOM Differences in mental abilities Femal e Females obtain higher grades in school, score much higher on tests of writing (Halpern,2000; Hyde,2005; Spelke,2005). Male More males with very high and very low scores on math tests (Berk,2005; Willingham & Cole, 1997). More males diagnosed with learning disabilities, (ADHD) and autism
  • 25. Gender discrimination in classrooms Active interaction between teacher and students usually happens more with the male students where as female students get less attention (Sadker & Klein, 1991).
  • 26. Eliminating Gender Bias It makes sense to balance both cooperative and competitive approaches so that the students who learn better each way have equal opportunities.
  • 27. Sexual Identity Gender identity A person's self- identification as male or female Gender- role behaviour Behaviours and characters that the culture associate with each gender. Sexual orientation Person's choice of a sexual partner.
  • 28. KEY POINTS 1. A key to overcome the educational problems of poverty is by fostering resilience in students, in teachers, and in classrooms. 2. Academic self-efficacy is a belief in your own ability to learn, and it is one of the consistent predictors of academic achievement. 3. A dialect is a variety of language spoken by a particular groups; it’s important that teachers remember that differences in dialect are not errors.
  • 29. 4. Bilingualism is an asset, not a liability, provided that there is balance-equal fluency in both languages. 5. Learning styles are preferred ways of learning and processing information; teachers need to be aware of cultural differences in learning style so that teaching approaches are consistent with the learning style. 6. Creating culturally compatible classrooms requires that teachers know, respect, and effectively teach their students.
  • 30. 7. There appear to be some gender differences in spatial and mathematical abilities, but these do not hold in all cultures and situation. 8. Teachers are in positions to reinforce or challenge gender stereotypes through their choice of materials and interactions with students.
  • 31. THANK YOU