Have you involve yourself?
In Signing on with someone else’s screen name to
In Sending an e-mail or online greeting card from
In Impersonating someone over Instant Message or
chat rooms or online?
In teasing or frightening someone over Instant
Message or chat or online?
In forwarding a Message or chat or online
conversation or e-mail without the permission of the
In posting pictures or information about someone on
a Web site without their consent?
In sending rude or scary things to someone, even if
you were just joking?
Is this Reality?
• Computers and internet changed our
lives so much that now if we don't have
access to e-mail for a day or two, we feel
• Computer and Information security has
become a crucial legal and a technical issue.
• Is the internet taking over our lives?
• We are on the Net 24x7, whether it’s our
PCs, Laptops or Mobiles.
• Have we started relating more to virtual
world than real world?
What we do Online?
Email: Love it for speed and hate it for
Chat: Instant Messaging and real time
Google Maharaja: GOD of Search
Social Networking: Facebook, Orkut and
Twitter have become our clone
Reading Blogs: Research, Education, etc..
You Tube: Free Videos
Downloading: Changed the definition of
Cyber Crime Challenges - Global
Easy to learn techniques and acquire tools
Small investments that cause massive economic damage
No need for physical contact with the victims
When done subtly it leaves few or no traces
Easy for players to hide – Anonymity
Many network operators are involved
Many countries may be involved – No boundary
Different policy of different companies
Inadequate cyberspace legislation
No common law for the entire world
No effective regulatory body for content
India – Growing Challenges
• Exponential growth of Internet use
• Interconnected business and government
• E-governance growth has implications for
Information Security, Privacy and Cyber
– Income Tax, Excise, Customs, Sales tax networks
– Smart cards, UID being issued
– Land records computerized
– Police networks
– Defense is no longer arms & ammunition but GPS
Cyber Incidents (Wireless)
• September 13, 2008: Indian Mujahideen militants used
unsecured WiFi system of a company in Chembur
• August 2008: A stray terror e-mail was traced to the
Khalsa College, Matunga, Mumbai.
• July 2008: E-mails were sent before and after the
Ahmedabad blasts. One was traced to Navi Mumbai and
the other to an IP address in Vadodara.
• May 2008: A terror e-mail was sent before the Jaipur
Incidents blasts from a cyber cafe in Ghaziabad.
• November 2007: Serial blasts in Lucknow, Varanasi,
and Faizabad courts in UP. The terror e-mail was sent by
Indian Mujahideen (IM) from a cyber café in Laxmi
(Newspapers and Internet)
Mumbai Terror Attack 26/11
• Use of technology by the
attackers Terrorists are using
– Global Positioning Satellite sophisticated
– Blackberry It is complicated and
difficult to develop
– CDs with high resolution and coordinate
satellite images necessary security
measures to counter
– Multiple cell phones with such threats
switchable SIM cards
– Satellite phones
Lack of Cyber Knowledge
Hampers a parent’s ability to raise
appropriate amount of teaching and ethical
Creates a greater differences in
Culture of Security and Respectability
Raises children with no cyber ethical
guidance: bad for business and society as a whole.
What is Cyber Security?
• Security deals with three primary issues,
called the CIA triad.
• Assurance that only authorized user may access a
• Assurance that resource has not been modified
• Assurance that authorized user may access a
resource when requested
• Cyber Security is concerned with the risk of
malpractices in the cyberspace which involves
the people, process and technology.
Cyber Crime/Computer Related Offense
Crimes performed or resorted to by abuse of
electronic media or otherwise, with the purpose
of influencing the functioning of computer or
In simple words,
Cyber/Computer Crime is any crime where:
Computer is a target
Computer is a tool of crime
Computer is incidental to crime.
Computer Related Offense
Common types of Crimes may be broadly
classified in the following groups:
Crime Against Individual
i. Harassment Through e-mails
iii. Dissemination of obscene material on the
vi. Indecent Exposure
Against property of an individual:
i. Computer vandalism (damage)
ii. Transmitting virus
iii. Internet Intrusion
iv. Unauthorized control over computer system
v. Hacking /Cracking
Crime Against Organization
Against Government, Private Firm,
Company, Group of Individuals:
i. Hacking & Cracking
ii. Possession of unauthorized
iii. Cyber terrorism against the
iv. Identity Theft/Impersonation
v. Distribution of pirated software,
Crime Against Society
i. Pornography (specially child
ii. Polluting the youth through Indecent
iv. Hate Speech, Anti Communities,
v. Discrimination and Derogatory
remarks on Religion/Caste on online
• Spamming and Unsolicited Mail
• Blackmailing/Defamatory Mail
• Extortion/Threatening/Obscene/Abusive Mail
• Transmission of Malwares (Virus/Worm/Trojan)
• Advance Fee Schemes – Lottery Schemes – Nigerian
Scams – Job Opportunities, Mule
• Phishing Scams, Identity Theft
Mobile Phone based
Forgery, illegal interception & ID Theft
Payment card fraud & e-funds transfer fraud
Theft of Internet & Telephone services
IP offences: illegal software; copyright
Misuse of Technology: Mobile and Wi-Fi
On-line Securities Fraud
Extortion & Criminal conspiracy
Hacking in simple terms means illegal intrusion into a
computer system without the permission of the computer
owner/user. Hacking is committed for
Improve technical skills
Denial of Service (DoS) is an act by the criminal, who floods
the bandwidth of the victim’s network depriving him of the
services he is entitled to access or provide.
It is surprising that Pornography is the first consistently
successful e-commerce product and the marketing tactics
and the curiosity encourage customers to access porn
Credit Card Fraud
Net Extortion This is where the information is stolen and then
threatening or black mailing is done for keeping the information
E.g.: Copying the company’s confidential data in order to extort
said company for huge amount.
Phishing It is technique of pulling out confidential information
from the bank or financial institutional account holders by
deceptive means. You get a genuine looking website similar to the
original and the data instead of going to the original server goes
to the person who phises the web page.
Spoofing: Getting one computer on a network to pretend to
have the identity of another computer, usually one with special
Access privileges , so as to obtain access to the other computers
on the network
Software Piracy: Theft of software through the illegal
copying of genuine programs or the counterfeiting and
distribution of products intended to pass for the original is
termed as termed as software piracy. Common ways in
which its done:
Click Wrap (Downloads)
Shrink Wrap (on CD’s)
Examples of software piracy:
End user copying - Friends loaning disks to each other, or
organizations underreporting the number of software
installations they have made.
Hard disk loading – Hard disk vendors loads pirated
Counterfeiting - large-scale duplication and distribution of
illegally copied software.
Illegal downloads from the Internet - By intrusion,
cracking serial numbers etc.
A consumer of pirated software has a lot to lose…
He gets untested software that may
have been copied thousands of times
over, potentially containing hard drive-
No technical support in case of
No warranty protection
No legal right to use the product
Resourse: Cybercrime Scenario, Investigation Lifecycle, Cybercrime Analysis Categories: North Virginia
Technology Council, aV. Lillard
Cyber Crime Investigation Lifecycle
Incident Expert Witness
Awareness / Testimony
Image New Security Policies
Acquisition/ Improved Configurations
Detailed Final Report
Resourse: Cybercrime Scenario, Investigation Lifecycle, Cybercrime Analysis Categories: North Virginia Technology Council,
Terrence V. Lillard
Cyber Crime Analysis Categories
Cybercrime Scene Cybercrime Investigation Lifecycle
Cyber Offender Characteristics Cybercrime Offender Signatures
Cybercrime Scene Characteristics
Cybercrime Modus Operandi Cyber-Geographical Mapping
Digital Evidence Analysis
Profile of People Involved
Insider - Disgruntled employees and ex-employees,
Crackers - Crack into networks with malicious intent,
Setting traps, etc…
Virus Writer - Pose serious threats to networks and
Foreign Intelligence - Use cyber tools as part of their
services, For espionage activities, Can pose
the biggest threat to the security of another
Terrorists - Use to formulate plans, to raise funds,
Script Kiddies - Use tools available on the net
Landmark Case - MMS
CEO of Bazee.com was arrested in December 2004
because a CD with objectionable material was being
sold on the website. The CD was also being sold in the
markets in Delhi.
The Mumbai city police and the Delhi Police got into
action. The CEO was later released on bail.
THIS OPENED UP THE QUESTION AS TO WHAT KIND
OF DISTINCTION DO WE DRAW BETWEEN INTERNET
SERVICE PROVIDER AND CONTENT PROVIDER.
RESULTED IN AMENDMENTS OF IT ACT 2000.
The burden rests on the accused that he was the
Service Provider and not the Content Provider. It also
raises a lot of issues regarding how the police should
handle the cyber crime cases and a lot of education is
Tips to Avoid Money Mule
Everyone needs to be Alert and take steps to protect
To help minimize your chances of being a victim follow
these common sense precautions:
Be cautious about any unsolicited offers or opportunities
offering you the chance to make some easy money.
Be especially wary of offers from people or companies
overseas as it will be harder for you to find out if they
really are who they say they are.
Take steps to verify any company which makes you a job
offer and check their contact details (address, phone
number, email address and website) are correct and
whether they are registered in the Country.
Never give your bank details to anyone unless you know
and trust them.
Other signs that could indicate you are being targeted by
a money mule scam:
Money mule fraudster can take a variety of different
forms and they may even copy a genuine company's
website and have a similar web address to add
authenticity to the scam.
These fraudster will normally state that they are an
overseas company seeking ‘UK representatives’ or
‘agents’ to act on their behalf for a period of time,
sometimes to avoid high charges for making payments,
or local taxes.
The nature of the work that the company will claim to be
involved in can vary, but the specifics of the job being
advertised invariably means using your bank account to
The fraudster may be having poor written
English with grammatical and spelling
mistakes and they may urge you not to
inform the bank or the police about the
reason for making the payments.
The fraudster may seek people with accounts
at certain banks.
If you have already disclosed your bank
account details or received funds into your
account – and you think it could be a money
mule scam - you should contact your bank
If a stranger came up to you on the street would
You give him/her your Name,
You give him/her your Date of Birth,
You give him/her your Likes/Dislikes,
You give him/her your Email Id,
You give him/her your Contact Number ?
You give him/her your Photograph?
NO ! NO ! NO ! NO! NO!
THEN WHY DO YOU PUBLISH THE SAME ON
SOCIAL NETWORKING WEBSITES?????
How you should handle and approach?
Call in your incident response team.
Contain the problem and avoid the “quick
Take good notes of the entire situation.
Have your backup facilities ready.
Get rid of the problem.
Use trusted, uncompromised
Know what to say, to whom and when.
Know when to involve Crime Investigator.
Home Computer Security
Your home computer is a popular target
They look for credit card numbers, bank account
Use your computer to attack other computers on
Why intruders attack home computers ?
Not very secure
Easy to break into
How do they attack your computer?
They send you E-mail with a virus
They take advantage of a flaw or weakness in
one of your computer’s programs – a
vulnerability to gain access.
They often install new programs that let
them continue to use your computer
Trojan Horse are such programs which are
used as the backdoor.
Such a program which lets the intruder
control everything that is on your machine
How can you minimize the risk?
Use an anti-virus program (NOD 32,
ESET, Kaspersky, etc…)
You can add a firewall (Zone Alarm,
Periodically download patches, and
Use File encryption - to improve the
level of security on your home
ESET – NOD 32
Trend Micro PC-Cillin Antivirus.
Use Anti-Virus programs
Viruses can reach your computer in many ways,
Check each of the above for viruses.
When you insert a floppy disk into the drive, check
it for viruses.
When you receive email, check it for viruses
When you download a file from the Internet, check
it for viruses before using it.
Handle E-mail attachments carefully
You probably receive lots of e-mails each day, much of it
Some of these e-mails tell you of a contest that you may
have won or the details of a product that you might like.
The sender is trying to encourage you to open the letter,
read its contents
Many of us open letters to learn what we’ve won or what
fantastic deal awaits us.
If such an e-mail is from a malicious virus writes, it may
come as an attachment and he will provoke you to open the
Once you open the attachment, the virus intrudes your
computer without your knowledge.
Make Backups of Important Files and Folders
What happens to your important files and
records on your computer if your computer
malfunctions or is destroyed by a successful
You should back up an important file and
data every time it changes.
Take back up on any reliable storage media
such as a CD-ROM.
Preserve it carefully.
• Awareness is important and any incident should be
reported at once
• Users must try and save any electronic information
trail on their computers
• Avoid giving out unnecessary information about
• Use the licensed, latest & updated anti-virus software,
operating systems, web browsers and email programs
• Check out the site you are doing business with
• Send credit card information only to secure sites
• Protect your Website and Maintain Backups
• 99% of the problem lies between the keyboard and
chair i.e. the user
• Every one a target; Every system a challenge
• Cyber Security is not just a technical problem –
everyone has a role to play in it
• You cannot “fix” security – you can only manage it
• AWARENESS OF THE THREAT IS ITSELF A KEY
Vicky Shah firstname.lastname@example.org
Discussion Forum: www.cybercrimes.in/SMF
“Human Behaviour is the Biggest Risk in Security – Vicky
“Cyber Space: Safe to Use; Unsafe to Misuse – NASSCOM”
This presentation is prepared for knowledge
sharing and awareness for end users on April 25,
2010. You can use the information provided here
with proper credits. I have tried not to hide original
credits as far as possible, nor am I using this
presentation for any personal financial gain.
Information available in this presentation is not
enforceable by law; however these are my view
about the topic which I feel should be shared. Any
errors, omissions, misstatements, and
misunderstandings set forth in the presentation are
sincerely apologized. Relying on the contents will be
sole responsibility of the users.
- Vicky Shah -