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    Perfect score module 2012 Perfect score module 2012 Document Transcript

    • SBP 2012 PHYSICSPERFECT SCORE MODULE SEKOLAHNAME :...................................................................CLASS/SCHOOL:................................................. BERASRAMA PENUH 2012 Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 1
    • SBP 2012 PHYSICS SCORE 2012 PANELS NOR SAIDAH BT CHE HASSAN (Ketua Penggubal) Kolej Tunku Kurshiah JENNYTA BT NOORBI SMS Tuanku Munawir JAMILAH YUSOF Sekolah Seri Puteri HASLINA BT ISMAIL SMS Hulu Selangor KAMARIAH BT MOHD ARSYAD The Malay College of Kuala Kangsar JAMALUDIN BIN ABD GHANI SBPI Batu Rakit HJH NOR SHIDAH HJ MANSOR SMS Tengku Mahmud SURIYATI YUSOFF SMS Muzaffar Shah TAN LEE FAH SMS Miri ZULAIFAH ZINUDDIN Sekolah Tuanku Abdul RahmanPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 2
    • SBP 2012 TABLE OF CONTENT SECTION CONSTRUCT/CONTENT Page Section I Physics Concept / Rules / Principles /Laws 4 Examples of Common Mistakes And Section II 14 Misconceptions Section III Construct: Understanding 19 Section IV Construct Decision Making 26 Section V C Construct onceptualisation 40 Section VI Construct (Qualitative) 53 Section VII Problem Solving (Quantitative) 58 Section VIII A Paper 3 Section A 63 Section VIII B Paper 3 Section B 71Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 3
    • SBP 2012 -PHYSICS CONCEPT AND DEFINITION Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics What is.. Definition Base quantities are quantities that cannot be defined in terms 1 Base Quantities of other base quantities Derived quantities are quantities that are obtained by 2. Derived Quantities combining base quantities by multiplication, derivition or both operations 3. Scalar Quantities Scalar quantities are quantities that have only magnitude Vector quantities are quantities that have both magnitude 4. Vector Quantities and direction The consistency of of a measuring instrument is its ability 5. Consistency register the same reading when a measurement is made repeatedly Accuracy is the degree of how close a measurement is to the 6. Accuracy actual vaue Sensitivity of an instrument is its ability to detect a small 7. Sensitivity change in the quantity to be measured Chapter 2: Force And Motion What is.. Definition 1. Speed Speed is the rate of change of distance 2. Velocity Velocity is the rate of change of displacement Acceleration is the rate of change of change/increase in 3. Acceleration velocity 4. Deceleration Deceleration is the rate of decrease in velocity The inertia of an object is the tendency of the object to remain 5. Inertia its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line Newton’s First Law of Motion states that every object continues 6. Newton’s First Law of in its state of rest or uniform speed in a straight line unless acted Motion / Law of Inertia upon by an external force 7. Linear momentum Linear momentum is the product of mass and velocity Principle of Conservation of Momentum states that the total 8. Principle of Conservation momentum of a system remains unchanged if no external of Momentum force acts on the system. Force is defined as anything that changes the state of rest or 9. Force motion of an object moving in a straight linePhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 4
    • SBP 2012 What is.. Definition The acceleration of a body ,a, is directly proportional to the 10. Newton’s Second Law net force acting on it, F , and inversely proportional to its mass, m 11. Impulse Impulse is defined as the change in momentum 12. Impulsive Force Impulsive force is defined as the rate of change of momentum 13. Weight / Force of Gravity / Gravitational Pulled force towards the centre of the earth Force A free-falling object is an object falling under the force of 14. Free-Fall gravity only 15. Gravitational The acceleration of objects due to gravity // falling free Acceleration The gravitational field is the region around the earth in which 16. Gravitational Field an object experience a force due to gravitational attraction 17. Resultant Force / Resultant force is a single force that represents the combined Net Force effect of two or more forces in magnitude and direction When the forces acting on an object is not balanced, there must be a net force/unbalanced/resultant force acting on it 18. Unbalanced Forces / Unbalanced forces produce an acceleration to the object The object is said to be in a state of equilibrium when the resulting force acting on the object is zero ( no net force acting upon it) 19. Forces in Equilibrium / When the equilibrium is reached, then the object is in two Balanced Forces states, that is (i) remains stationary (if the object is stationary) (ii) moves at a constant velocity ( if the object is moving) / zero acceleration 20. Newton’s Third Law of Newton’s third law of motion states that, To every action there Motion is an equal but opposite direction Work is defined as the product of the applied force ,F on the 21. Work object and its displacement, s in the direction of the applied force Energy is the ability to do work 22. Energy (Work done is equal to the amount of energy transferred 23. Gravitational Potential The Gravitational potential energy of an object is the energy Energy stored in the object due to its position in a force field Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its 24. Kinetic Energy motion 25. Principle of Conservation Principle of Conservation of Energy states that of EnergyPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 5
    • SBP 2012 What is.. Definition 26. Power Power is the amount of work done per second Efficiency of a device is the percentage of the energy input 27. Efficiency that is transferred into useful energy Elasticity is the property of a substance which enables it to 28. Elasticity return to original shape after an applied external force is removed Elastic limit of a spring is defined as the maximum force that 29. Elastic Limit can be applied to a spring such that the spring will be able to restored to its original length when the force is removed Hooke’s Law states that the extension of a spring is directly 30. Hooke’s Law proportional to the applied force provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded A spring constant of a spring is the force that is required to 31. Spring Constant / produce one unit of extension of the spring Force Constant (measure of the stiffness of the spring) Elastic Potential Energy is the energy stored in a spring when it is 32. Elastic Potential Energy extended or compressed Chapter 3: Force and Pressure What is.. Definition Pressure is defined as the force acting normally on a unit of 1. Pressure surface area The Atmospheric pressure is caused by the the weight of the air 2. Atmospheric Pressure on the Earth’s surface Gas pressure is the force per unit area exerted by the gas 3. Gas Pressure molecules as they collide with the walls of their container Pascal’s principle states that when pressure is applied to an 4. Pascal’s Principle enclosed fluid, the pressure will be transmitted equally throughout the whole enclosed fluid Bouyant Force is an upward force resulting from an object being 5. Bouyant Force wholly or partially immersed in a fluid Archimedes’ Principle states that, “ When an object is immersed 6. Archimedes’ Principle in a fluid, the buoyant force on the object is equal in size to the weight of fluid displaced by the object Bernoulli’s principlestatesthat the pressure of a moving liquid 7. Bernoulli’s Principle decreases as the speed of the fluid increases and vice versaPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 6
    • SBP 2012 Chapter 4: Heat What is.. Definition Temperature is the degree of hotness of an object / 1. Temperature Amount of kinetic energy in an object 2. Heat Heat is the energy tranferred from hot to cold object Two objects are said to be in thermal equilibrium when; i) The rates of heat tansfer between the objects are 3. Thermal Equilibrium equal (net flow of heat between the two objects is zero) ii) The objects have the same temperature Thermometric Property is the physical property of a substance 4. Thermometric Property which is sensitive and varies linearly with changes in temperature of the material 5. Ice Point (Lower fixed Ice point is the temperature of pure melting ice pont) 6. Steam Point (Upper Steam point is the temperature of steam from water that is fixed point) boiling under standard atmospheric pressure Heat capacity of a body is the amount of heat that must be 7. Heat Capacity supplied to increase its temperature by 1 oC Specific Heat Capacity of a substance is the amount of heat 8. Specific Heat that must be supplied to increase the temperature by 1 oC for a Capacity mass of 1 kg of the substance Latent heat is the heat absorbed or heat released at a constant 9. Latent Heat temperature during a change of phase Specific Latent Heat of a substance is the amount of heat 10. Specific Latent Heat required to change the phase of 1 kg of the substance at a constant temperature Spesific Latent Heat of Fusion is the amount of heat required to 11. Spesific Latent Heat of change the phase of 1 kg of the substance from solid to liquid Fusion phase at a constant temperature Spesific Latent Heat of Fusion is the amount of heat required to 12. Spesific Latent Heat of change the phase of 1 kg of the substance from liquid to Vaporisation gaseous phase at a constant temperature Boyle’s Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of 13. Boyle’s Law the gas is inversely proportional to its volume when the temperature is kept constant Charles’ Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the volume of 14. Charles’ Law the gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its pressure is kept constant Pressure Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, the pressure of 15. Pressure Law the gas is directly proportional to its absolutev temperature when the volume is kept constantPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 7
    • SBP 2012 Chapter 5: Light What is.. Definition 1. Law of Reflection i. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal all lie in the same plane ii. The anle of incidence i, is equal to the angle of reflection, r AO :Incident ray ON :Normal OB :Reflected ray i :Angle of incidence r :Angle of reflection Reflection by a concave mirror Parallel rays that strike the surface of a concave mirror will be reflected and converge at the focal point, F outside the mirror Centre of curvature, C of a curved mirror is the centre of the sphere of the mirror Radius of curvature. R is the distance between the the centre of curvature, C and the pole of the mirror Focal point is the point where parallel rays that strike the surface of a concave mirror will be reflected and converge at the focal point Refraction of light is a light phenomenon which occurs when 2. Refraction of light light passes through two materials of different optical densities, will change direction at the boundary between them. Refractive Index, n of the medium is defined as the ratio of the 3. Refractive Index speed of light in vacuum to the speed if light in the medium i. The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal all lie in 4. Law of Refraction and the same plane Snell’s Law ii. The value of sin i is a constant (Snell’s Law) sin r Critical angle is the angle of incidence in an optically more 5. Critical Angle dense medium which results in angle of refraction of 90 o in an optically less dense. The Internal Reflection of light is the phenomenon when the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle and the light not refracted anymore but internally reflected 6. Total Internal Reflection The conditions for the occurrence of total internal reflection. (1) The light ray must be travel from an optically denser medium to less dense medium. (2) The angle of incidence must be greater than the critical angle.Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 8
    • SBP 2012 Chapter 6: Waves What is.. Definition Waves are carriers of energy. They transfer energy from one 1. Waves location to another Longitudinal Wave is a wave in which the vibration of particles in 2. Longitudinal Wave the medium is parallel to the direction of the propagation of the wave Transverse Wave is a wave in which the vibration of particles in 3. Transverse Wave the medium is perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave 4. Wavefront In waves, lines joining all the points of the same phase Wavelength of a wave is the distance between two adjacent 5. Wavelength points of the same phase on a wave Amplitude is the maximum displacement from its equilibrium 6. Amplitude position Frequency of a wave is the number of waves produced by a 7. Frequency source in one second The speed of the wave is the measurement of how fast a crest is 8. Wave speed moving from its fixed point The period of a wave is the time taken for an oscillation to 9. Period complete one cycle Forced Oscillation is the external force supplies energy to the 10. Forced Oscillation system Natural Frequency is the frequency of a system which oscillate 11. Natural Frequency freely without the action of an external force Resonance occurs when a system is made to oscillate at a 12. Resonance frequency equivalent to its natural frequency by an external force Diffraction of waves is the spreading of waves around corners 13. Diffraction and edges as waves pass through an opening or around an obstacle along their paths Coherent Waves are waves that have same frequency and 14. Coherent Waves wavelength and in phase 15. Monochromatic Light Monochromatic Light is light with one colour/wavelength 16. Principle of Principle of Superposition states that when two waves interfered, Superposition of the resulting displacement of the medium at any point is the Waves algebraic sum of the displacements of the individual waves 17. Constructive Constructive interference occurs when a crest meets acrest and interference when a trough meets a troughPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 9
    • SBP 2012 What is.. Definition 18. Destructive Destructive interference occurs when crests suoerposed with interference troughs Antinodal lines are lines joining places of constructive 19. Antinodal lines interference 20. Nodal lines Nodal lines are line joining the places of destructive interference Chapter 7: Electricity What is.. Definition Electric field is a region around a charged object which any 1. Electric Field other charged body experience a force Potential Difference, V between two points in a circuit is defined 2. Potential Difference as the amount of work done when a coulomb of charge passes from one point to the other point Ohm’s Law states that the current that passes through an ohmic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference 3. Ohm’s Law applied accross it if the temperature and other physical conditions are constant Resistance, R of a conductor is the ratio of the potential 4. Resistance difference, V to the current, I 5. Electromotive Force Electromotive Force (e.m.f) is defined as the work done by the (e.m.f) source to move a coulomb of charge around a complete circuit The internal resistance ,r is the resistance within a cell due to its 6. Internal Resistance electrolyte and electrodes or source of electricity. Chapter 8: Electromagnetism What is.. Definition Ferromagnetic materials are the materials attracted to the 1. Ferromagnetic magnet. The examples of the ferromagnetic materials such as materials iron, nickel and cobalt An electromagnet is a device in which magnetism is produced 2. Electromagnet by an electric current. An electromagnet acts as a temporary magnet A magnetic field is a region in which a magnetic material 3. Magnetic field experiences a force as the result of the present of a magnet or a electromagnetPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 10
    • SBP 2012 What is.. Definition 4. The right -hand grip rule. If a solenoid carrying a current is gripped with the right hand and with the thumb pointing along the solenoid so that the fingers curling round the solenoid in the direction of the current and the thumb then points towards the north pole. Fleming’s Left-hand Rule. 5. Fleming’s Left-hand Rule. Fleming’s Left-hand Rule states” If the thumb, first finger (forefinger)and second finger of the left hand are held at right angles to each other, then if the first finger (forefinger)represents the direction of the magnetic field and the second represents the direction of the current, then the thumb will represents the direction of the motion” Catapult field are the combinations field between 6. Catapult Field (a) the magnetic field produced by the current and (Resultant field) magnetic field of the permanent magnet occurred. Or (b) the magnetic field produced by two current –carrying conductors are placed close to each other Electromagnetic induction is the production of induced current 7. Electromagnetic or induced e.m.f. without using the power supplies but using the induction relative motion between a conductor or a magnet Faraday’s law state that “ The magnitude of the induced current or induced e.m.f. is directly proportional to the rate of 8. Faraday’s law change of magnetic flux linkage with the solenoid or the rate at which a conductor cuts through the magnetic flux.” Lenz’s law state that” The direction of an induced current 9. Lenz’s law always flows in such as a direction so to oppose the change which is causing it.”Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 11
    • SBP 2012 What is.. Definition To determine the direction of the induced current in the dynamo – Fleming’s Right-hand rule 10. Fleming’s Right-hand rule Fleming’s Right-hand Rule states” If the thumb, first finger (forefinger)and second finger of the right hand are held at right angles to each other, then if the first finger (forefinger)represents the direction of the magnetic field and the thumb represents the direction of the motion of the conductor , then the second finger will represents the direction of the induced current ”Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 12
    • SBP 2012 Chapter 9: Electronics What is.. Definition The emission of electrons from the surface of a heated metal or heated metal cathode. 1. Thermionic Emission The thermionic emission is a bit like electrons being evaporated off from the hot wire Cathode ray is a narrow beam of a fast electrons moving in a 2. Cathode Ray vacuum 3. Semiconductor Semiconductors are materials which conduct electricity better Materials than insulator, but no so well as ordinary conductors Doping is a process of adding a small amount of impurities into 4. Doping the pure crystal of semiconductor (intrinsic semiconductor) A rectifier converts alternating current(a.c.) into direct current(d.c). 5. Rectifier The process of converting a.c. to d.c. is called rectification A transistor is a semiconductor device capable of amplification 6. Transistor in addition to rectification. An electronic circuit with a single output and one or more inputs 7. Logic Gate Chapter 10: Radioactivity What is.. Definition Radioisotopes are unstable isotopes which decay and give out 1. Radioisotope radioactive emissions Radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of an unstable 2. Radioactivity nucleus into a more stable nucleus accompanied by the emission of energetic particles (radioactive rays) or photons 4 3. - particles : Helium nucleus or 2 He 0 4. - particles : Fast moving electrons or 1 e 5. -rays Electromagnetic waves The half-life of a radioactive material is the time taken for the 6. The half-life activity of radioactive fall to half its original activity Nuclear fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter 7. Nuclear fission nuclei, which subsequently emit either two or three neutrons and release of large amounts of energy Nuclear fusion is the combining of two lighter nuclei to form a 8. Nuclear fusion heavier nucleus with the release of large amount of energy.Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 13
    • SBP 2012SECTION II - COMMON MISTAKES AND MISCONCEPTIONS A. Common Mistakes 1. Problem Solving (Quantitative) –the answer given: i. FRACTION FORM ii. without UNIT 2. Careless mistakes: Example: Convert minute into hour - 30 minutes = 30 x 60 = 1800 hours 3. Conceptual question: i. Giving the reason: E.g. : The horizontal distance of the water spurting out in Diagram (b) is greater because..... ii. Giving the value when comparing two situations: E.g. The boiling points of water is 100oC whereas the boiling point of methylated spirit is 80oC 4. Understanding Question - Not systematic in explanation 5. Explanation without diagram / symbol / formula / graph. 6. Use the reason given in the question 7. Light topic; Draw the ray diagram without “arrow” 8. Cannot distinguish between Physical Quantity, Physics Instrument and Physics Unit Examples: Physical Quantity Physical quantity measured Physics Unit and symbol Stop watch voltmeter thermometer Bourdon gauge Ammeter 9. Wrong Physics Term / Definition / Concept (Base on SBP Physics Trial Exams) Examples: Terms Common Mistake Correct Answer [The type of energy when the object is at P] ................................ Potential a Energy Potential energy Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 14
    • SBP 2012 Terms Common Mistake Correct Answer Force acting on surface area Force/area .................................. force acting b Pressure on ...................... of surface area A product of depth, density and gravitational acceleration Pascal’s principle In a close container, force is In a close container...................... c transmitted equally ......................................................... Heat absorbed to change Latent heat of d Heat absorbed to change .................... of liquid to gas vaporization by 1oC without ............................................ ......................................................... e Transfer from hot body to Temperature cold body [Physics phenomena in a prism] .................................................... f Reflection Critical angle is the ................ Critical angle is when the .............. in ............................r refracted angle is 90o medium which produces when g Critical angle Critical angle is the incident the ................................. angle in angle when the reflected ................................ medium is angle is 90o ......................... The image that formed The image that .............................. h Virtual image behind the lens ........................................................ The light that ................................. i Monochromatic light A colour of one light ......................................................... ………………………….. Maximum point of the ....................................... of any j Amplitude highest displacement particle/oscillating system from its …………………………………...Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 15
    • SBP 2012 Terms Common Mistake Correct Answer The …………………………. for k Period One complete oscillation any particle to make ……… ………………….oscillation ................................................... 1000 W of energy is supplied .................................................. Specification: l when the power supplied is when connected to a ............. 240 V, 1000 W 240 V. .......................... of ..................... .......................... When the current flow A .............................. which can through magnet produce ....................................... j electromagnet Is a combination of electric when .............................................. and magnetic field ......................................................... k Beta particles Negative charge ................................ electronPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 16
    • SBP 2012 B. Misconceptians Examples: Num Misconceptions Correction Oil is used in hydraulic jack because it has 1 higher boiling point Snell’s law state that: The sine of incident 2 angle Refractive = The sine of refracted index angle Container A Container B water 3 The force exerted at X > the force exerted at Y because smaller surface area (P = F /A) To increase the efficiency of ac/dc GENERATOR: - Use more number of turns to produce stronger magnetic field The ship can float in sea water because the buoyant force is bigger than the weight of the shipPhysics Perfect Score SBP 2012 17
    • SBP 2012 C. Paper 3 1. Data Tabulation Title - no unit Content- not consistent Example: Common Mistake Correct Answer Electric Current Voltage 0.1 0.5 0.12 1 0.14 1.5 2. Graph: Label - x-axis & y-axis : no unit Scale - Not uniform, odd Plotting (x @ )- too small or too big Line - not smooth, not balance Size - small [< (8 cm x 8 cm)] 3. Gradient of the graph Triangle - small [ < (8 cm x 8 cm)] Final answer - no unit, Written in fraction 4. Calculation Final answer - no unit written in fraction 5. Procedure Repeat the experiment three times Should state: What:……………………………………………………………………………………………..…….. How : ……………………………………………………………………………………………..……. 6. Precaution “Avoid parallax error” Should state: What: ………………………………………………………………………………… How : …………………………………………………………………………………Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 18
    • SBP 2012SECTION III– UNDERSTANDING - (Paper 2 Section B and C )Question 1 [ Introduction to Physics ]Explain the meaning of consistency and accuracy of a measuring instrument by using suitable examples [ 4 marks ]Question 2 [Forces and Motion]Using the principle of conservation of momentum, explain the working principle of the rocket. [4 marks]Question 3 [Forces and MotionSpring is widely used in suspension system of vehicles such as car and motorcycle. This is because of theelasticity of the spring. Diagram below shows how a spring is used in suspension system of a car. (i) What is meant by elasticity? (ii) Explain how the forces between the molecules caused the elasticity when the spring is compressed and stretched. [4 marks]Question 4 [Forces and Motion]Diagram 4 shows a hovercraft starts from rest and accelerates until it achieves constant velocity after afew seconds. Diagram 4 (i) Sketch a velocity-time graph to show the motion of hovercraft. (ii) Explain why the hovercraft moves with constant velocity in terms of the force acting on it [4 marks]Question 5 [Forces and Pressure]Explain why the atmospheric pressure at higher altitude is lower compared to places at lower altitude. [4 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 19
    • SBP 2012Question 6 [Forces and Pressure]Diagram shows a suction pump being used to lift a mirror that measured 1.5 m X 0.5 m X 0.01m . Thedensity of the mirror is 2.5 X 10 3 kg m-3 . The pump obeys atmospheric pressure principle to let the suctionpump stick onto surface of mirror. Diagram 6Explain how the suction pump can lift the mirror with the aid of atmospheric pressure. [4 marks]Question 7 [Forces and Pressure] Diagram (i) State Archimedes’ principle. . [1 mark] (ii) Explain why a weather balloon that is rising up in the air will stop at certain altitude [4 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 20
    • SBP 2012Question 8 [Forces and Pressure] (a) Diagram shows a hydrometer. DiagramA hydrometer is used to measure density of liquid. Explain how a hydrometer functions. [4 marks]Question 9 [Heat](i) What is the meaning of thermal equilibrium? [1mark](ii) Explain, in terms of thermal equilibrium, how a thermometer which is placed into the boiling water readsat the temperature of 100 ˚C. [4marks]Question 10 [Heat]Using kinetic theory of gaseous, explain how the pressure increase when the temperature increase. [4 marks]Question 11 [Heat]Diagram shows the phenomenon of sea breeze. DiagramUsing the concept of specific heat capacity, explain how the phenomenon of sea breeze occurs. [4 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 21
    • SBP 2012Question 12 [Light]Diagram shows the “superior mirage “ which occurs over cold water surface and snow. Warm air Image of ship Cool air shipUsing physics concepts, explain why the observer can only see the image of the ship. [4 marks]Question 13 [Light]Explain why a piece of paper burns when placed under a convex lens aimed towards hot sun rays. [4 marks]Question 14 [Waves]Sonar technique can be used to determine the distance between two positions. Ultrasonic wave is usedin this technique. (i) What is sonar?[ 1 mark ] (ii) Explain why using ultrasonic wave is better than just ordinary sound waves.[ 2 marks ] (iii) A marine researcher wants to use ultrasonic sound to determine the depth of the ocean bed. Explain how he can do so. [ 4 marks ]Question 15 [Waves]Explain why strong double-glazed glass is used as walls of the observation tower in an airport. [4 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 22
    • SBP 2012Question 17 [Electricity]Explain the advantages of parallel circuit in a house wiring system [4 marks]Question 18 [Electricity]Explain why the bulb connected to two dry cells lights up brighter than one bulb connected to one drycell. [4 marks]Question 19 [Electromagnetism]Explain what happens to magnet P and magnet Q when the switch is on. [4 marks]Question 20 [Electromagnetism]Diagram shows a simple direct current electric motor.Using the concept of the magnetic effect of an electric current, explain with the aid of diagrams howforces are produced on a wire in the coil, as shown in the diagram above.Question 21 [Electromagnetism]Diagram shows a circuit breaker. Explain how the circuit breaker works. [ 4marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 23
    • SBP 2012Question 22 [Electromagnetism] (i) What is meant by ideal transformer? [ 1 mark ] (ii) Explain the working principle of a transformer. [ 4 marks ]Question 23 [Electromagnetism]Diagram shows the model of an electricity transmission system. Transmission wire at 24 V a.c Power stationn Industry at 8 V a.c House at 6 V a.cMost of the electric energy that we are using come from hydroelectric and thermal power station. Thispower station is connected to each other using cable to transmit electric energy to industries, office,school and house. This system called National grid network.State the form of energy transfer at hydroelectric power station. Explain the importance of National grid network system in electricity transmission to consumers. Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 24
    • SBP 2012Question 24 [Electronic]Diagram shows a Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope.Explain how the Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope can be used to measure the potential difference of a dry cell. [ 4marks ]Question 25 [Radioactivity]Radioisotope Strontium-90 is used to measure the thickness of paper in a paper industry .Explain howStrontium-90 is used to measure the thickness piece of paper? [4 marks]Question 26 [Radioactivity]Radioisotopes can be used as tracers to detect leaks from pipes underground. Diagram 12.1 shows a leakthat occurred in an underground water pipe.(a) What is meant by radioisotopes? [ 1 mark ](b) With the aid of diagram, explain how radioisotopes can be used to detect the location of the leakage as shown in Diagram. [ 3 marks ]Question 27 [Radioactivity]The following equation shows a fission reaction of Uranium-235.Nuclear fission produces a chain reaction.Describe how the chain reaction occurs in a nuclear fission of an atom of Uranium- 235. [4 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 25
    • SBP 2012SECTION IV – DECISION MAKING (Paper 2 Section A – Question 8; Section C )Question 1 [Force and Pressure]Table 1 shows the characteristics of four structures of ship P, Q, R, and S. Volume of the air Structure of Strength Of the Ship Base Cross Shape space in the ship ships metal used section area U Streamlined High Wide High V Oval Low Wide High W Circle High Small Low X Streamlined Low Small Low Table 1As a researcher in a ship manufacturing company, you are assigned to study the structure used to makethe ship to support heavy cargoes.You are given four choices of the structures P, Q, R and S. The table above shows the structures of the ship.Explain the suitable characteristics of the structure to be used to make the ship.Determine the most suitable structure to be used to make the ship to support heavy cargoes.Give reasons for your choice. [10 marks]Question 2 [Force and Pressure]At National Water Rocket competition, the winner is supposed to design a water rocket which can belaunched to a higher altitude, further distance and take the longest time to land.You are asked to investigate the characteristics of the water rockets in thediagram 11.2 and determinethe best rocket to use in the competition. Give reasons for your choice. P Q Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 26
    • SBP 2012 R S T [10 marks]Question 3 [Force and Pressure]Diagram 3 shows four racing motorcycles, P, Q, R and S, with different specifications. You are requiredto determine the most suitable motorcycle to move fast and safe when racing.Study the specifications of all the four motorcycles from the following aspects:Explain the suitability of the aspects.Justify your choice. Racing bike A Type of brake : without ABS Mass : 205.0 kg Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 27
    • SBP 2012 Racing bike B Type of brake : without ABS Mass : 220.0 kg Racing bike C Type of brake : ABS (Antilock Brake System) Mass : 208.0 kg Racing bike D Type of brake : ABS (Antilock Brake System) Mass : 242.0 kg Diagram 3 [10 marks]Question 4 [Force and Pressure]Diagram 4 shows the parts of brake systems car. Brake pads Brake pedal Brake fluid Brake disc Diagram 4Table 4 shows the specifications of components that can be used in brake systems , P,Q,R, S and T.Based on Table 4;You are required to determine the most suitable brake system and explain thesuitability of the aspects in Table 4 Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 28
    • SBP 2012 Specifications of components in a car brake system Brake Specific heat capacity Melting point The material Compression of system of brake disc of brake disc use of brake brake fluid J kg-10 C-1 0C pads ceramics P 360 930 Difficult Q 2400 1220 Difficult steel R 890 580 Easy ceramics S 2210 1940 Difficult ceramics steel T 1460 2070 Easy Table 4 [10 marks] Question 5 [Force and Pressure]You are asked to investigate the characteristics of each backhoes in table 11 and choose a backhoethat can do heavy works, an example of a backhoe is shown in diagram 11.2. Explain the suitability ofthe characteristics each backhoes. Determine the most suitable backhoe. Give reason for your choice Characteristics of Backhoe Type of Backhoe Fluids used in Centre of Size of tyre Mass Base area hydraulic system gravity M Large Liquid Large Large Low N Large Liquid Small Large Low P Large Gas Large Small High Q Medium Liquid Large Medium Low R Large Liquid Large Medium High Table 11 Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 29
    • SBP 2012 [10 marks]Question 6 [Force and Pressure]You are requested to choose a suitable wing to be installed with the body of the aircraft. By referring tothe information given in Table 11.1, explain the suitability of each characteristic and suggest the mostsuitable wing to be installed with the body of the aircraft. Design Shape of cross section of wing Area of Density of Difference in wing/m2 wing material speed of air / kg m-3 above and below the wing / m s-1 P 40.0 2100 10.0 Q 41.5 2300 0.0 R 42.5 2000 0.0 S 38.2 2050 8.0 Table 11.1 shows the characteristic of four designs of the aircraft wings. [10 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 30
    • SBP 2012Question 7 [Force and Pressure]Diagram 11.5 shows a hot air balloon. Balloon Basket Diagram 11.5 Table 11.1 shows four hot air balloon with different specifications. Volume of the Material used for Material used for Temperature of air balloon Hot air balloon the balloon the basket inside the balloon (envelope) J 560 m3 Nylon Aluminium 500C Rattan K 2800 m3 Nylon 990C L 4 m3 Cotton Aluminium 500 C Rattan M 25 m3 Cotton 1200 C Table 11.1 You are required to determine the most suitable hot air balloon which can travel at higher altitude. Explain the suitability of each of the characteristic of the balloon. Choose the most suitable balloon and justify your choice. [10 marks] Question 8 [Force and Pressure] As a researcher you are assigned to investigate the characteristics of four types of liquid that are suitable to be used as a coolant for a car engine. Table 5 shows the characteristics of the liquids. character Boiling point Viscosity Specific heat Ability to react istics / oC Capacity / J with metals kg-1 C-1 . Liquid J 121 High 5500 High K 128 Low 4750 Low L 210 High 1195 Low M 101 Low 3588 medium Table 5Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 31
    • SBP 2012(i) Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the liquid to be used as a coolant for the car engine.(ii) Determine the most suitable liquid to be used and give a reason for your choice. [10 marks]Question 9 [Light]Diagram 6 shows an astronomical telescope consist of objective lens and eye piece. An astronomicaltelescope is used to view very large objects like moon. Diagram 6Table 7 shows the characteristics of four different simple astronomical telescopes. focal length of The distance Type of Objective Diameter of the Telescope objective of, f between two o lens objective lens /cm /cm lenses / D S Convex 40 D <fo+fe 5.0 T Concave 10 D >fo+fe 5.0 U Convex 10 D <fo+fe 2.5 V Concave 40 D >fo+fe 2.5 Table 6Explain the suitability of each characteristicof the telescope and determine the most suitable telescopeto be used to observe very far object. Give reason for your choice. [10 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 32
    • SBP 2012Question 10 [Electricity]]Table 12.1 shows four heating elements F, G, H and J with different specifications. Three identical eatingpanels are needed to be fixed on three sides of an electric dryer. Heating Diameter Type of heating panel Arrangement Melting element of wire of heating point panels Thick Parallel circuit Low F Straight wire Thin Parallel circuit High G Coil wire Thin Series circuit High H Straight wire High Thick Parallel circuit J coil wire Table 12.1 You are required to determine the most suitable heating element that can produce highest amount of heat faster. Study the specifications of all the four heating elements based on the following aspects: (i) Diameter of the wire. (ii) Type of heating panel (iii) Arrangement of three heating panels. (iv) Melting point of the wire. Explain the suitability of each aspects and then determine the most suitable heating element. Give a reason of your choice. [10 marks]Question 11 [Electromagnetism]Question [Electromagnet]Diagram 12.2 shows four types of moving coil ammeter, R, S, T and U to measure small direct current.You are required to determine the most suitable moving coil ammeter to measure the small directcurrent effectively. Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 33
    • SBP 2012Moving coilammeter RMoving coilammeter S Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 34
    • SBP 2012Moving coilammeter TMoving coilammeter U Diagram 12.2 You are required to determine the most suitable moving coil ammeter to measure small direct current effectively. Study the specification of all the four moving coil ammeters based on the following aspects: (i). The shape of the permanent magnet and core [2 marks] (ii). The material of the core [2 marks] (iii) The stiffness of the hair spring [ 2 marks] (iv) The type of scale of the ammeter [2 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 35
    • SBP 2012 Explain the suitability of each aspect and then determine the most suitable moving coil ammeter. Give a reason for your choice. [2 marks]Question 12 [Electromagnetism]The transmission of electricity over the National Grid Network uses high voltage cables. You are assignedto study the characteristics of cables which could be used as transmission cable. Table 7 shows thecharacteristics of four transmission cables. Rate of Cable Resistivity /Ωm-1 Density / kg m-3 oxidation Rate of thermal expansion High P 3.0 x l0-7 5 x l05 Low Low Q 1.8 x l0-8 2 x l03 Low Medium R 7.5 x l0-7 8 x l02 High High S 7.0 x l0-8 4 x l03 Medium Table 7Based on the table 7;(i) Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the cables to be used as transmission cable. (ii) Determine the most suitable transmission cable to be used and give reasons for your choice. [10 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 36
    • SBP 2012Question 13 [Electronic/electromagnetism]You are asked to investigate the design and the characteristics of four alternating current generatorsshown in Table 8. Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the alternating current generators anddetermine the alternating current generator which can supply a large direct current to an electricalcomponent X shown in Diagram 8. x Diagram 8 Density of Rectification circuit Frequency of Generator the coil / kg rotation m–3 G 9200 High 11600 H Medium High I 8960 J 10500 Medium [10 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 37
    • SBP 2012Question 14 [Electronic]As a research engineer in a factory, you are asked to investigate the characteristics of severalsubstances in order to produce p-type or n-type to produce semiconductor diode.Table 9 shows the characteristics of five semiconductors P, Q, R, S and T Size of the doping atom compared Electron Valens of Semiconductor Electron Valens of with the size of the atom relative to intrinsic doping substance intrinsic semiconductor atom semiconductor P 2 5 Big Q Small 4 5 Small R 3 4 Almost the same S 5 2 3 T 4 Almost the same Table 9Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the semiconductor P, Q, R, S and T to be used in theproduction of a semiconductor diode. Give reasons for your choiceWhich type of intrinsic semiconductor below is the most suitable to be used. Give your reason for youranswer. Type of intrinsic semiconductor Silicon Germanium [ 10 marks] Physics Perfect Score SBP 2012 38
    • Question 15 [Radioactivity]As a researcher, you are assigned to investigate the characteristics of radioactive substances with tobe used for the treatment of cancer.Table 10 shows radioactive rays directed towards the cancer cells in a patient’s brain. Ionizing power Radioactive Type of radiation Half-life State of matter J Beta 6 hours Liquid High K Gamma 1620 years Solid Low L Gamma 5 years Solid Low M Beta 15 days Liquid High Table 10(i) Based on Table 10, explain the suitable properties of the radioactive substances for use to kill cancer cells in patients brains.(ii) Determine which radioactive substance is the most suitable for the treatment of cancer cells in a patient and give your reasons. [10 marks] 39X A-Plus Physics Module 2012
    • X A-PLUS 2012SECTION V– CONCEPTUALIZATION (Paper 2 Section A – Question 5/6; Section B )Question 1 [Force and Pressure]Diagram 1(a) and Diagram 1(b) show two solid spheres A and B with different density placed in the water. Diagram 1(a) Diagram 1 (b)Based on Diagram 1(a) and Diagram 1(b), (i) compare the density of sphere A and sphere B. [ 1 mark ] (ii) compare the weight of sphere A and sphere B [ 1 mark ] (iii) compare the weight of water displaced by sphere A and sphere B [ 1 mark ] (iv) relate the weight of sphere and the weight of water displaced [ 1 mark ] (v) relate the weight of water displaced and upthrust [ 1 mark ]Question 2 [Force and Pressure]A fisherman finds that his boat is at different levels in the sea and in the river, although the boat carries thesame load. The density of sea water and river water is 1025 kg m-3 and 1000 kg m-3 respectively. In the sea In the river DIAGRAM 2(a) DIAGRAM 2(b)Diagram 2(a) and Diagram 2(b) illustrate the situation of the boat in the sea and in the river.(a) What is meant by density? [1 mark](b) Based on Diagram 2(a) and Diagram 2(b) (i) Compare the level of the boat in the sea water and in the river water. [1 mark] (ii) Compare the volume of water displaced by the boat in the sea and in the river. [1 mark] (iii) Compare the density of sea water and river w [1 mark](c) (i) Relate the volume of water displaced to the density of water. [1 mark] (ii) Deduce relationship between weight of the boat and the weight of the water displaced. [1 mark](d) Name the physics principle that explains the situation above. [1 mark] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 40
    • X A-PLUS 2012Question 3 [Heat]Diagram 3(a) shows a balloon filled with air attached to a test tube before and after the test tube isheated.Diagram 3(b) shows a pingpong ball before and after it is poured with boiled water. (i) (ii) Diagram 3(a) (i) (ii) Diagram 3(b)(a) (i) Observe Diagram 3(a) and Diagram 3(b).State two similarities about the air inside the balloon and ping pong ball. [2 marks] (ii) Compare the mass of air in Diagram 3(a)(i) with Diagram 3(a)(ii); and Diagram 3(b)(i) with Diagram 3(b)(ii). [1 mark](b) (i) Based on your observation in Diagram 3(a) and Diagram 3(b), state the relationship between the physical quantities in (a) (i). [1 mark] (ii) Name physics law involved in (b)(i). [1 mark] (iii) Using observation in Diagram 3(a) and Diagram 3(b), explain the physics law stated in b(ii) using kinetic theory of matter. [3 marks] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 41
    • X A-PLUS 2012Question 4 [Wave]Diagram 4.1 shows the pattern of the water wave after passing through a gap.The experiment was repeated with different wavelength of waterpassing through the same gap. The wavepattern is as shown in Diagram 4.2. Diagram 4.1 Diagram 4.2(a) What is wavelength? [1 mark ] (b) Based on Diagram 4.1 and Diagram 4.2, compare (i) the wavelength before passing through the gap (ii) the wavelength before and after passing through the gap [2 marks](c) Compare the wave pattern in Diagram 4.1 and Diagram 4.2 after the wave passed through the gap. [1 mark](d) Based on your answers in ( b) and (c), state the relationship between the wavelength and the wave pattern after passing through the gap. [1 mark](e) Name the wave phenomenon which occurs in Diagrams 4.1 and 4.2. [1 mark]Question 5 [Electromagnetism]Diagram 5.1 shows a bar magnet with northpole at point P and Diagram 5.2 shows a bar magnet withsouth pole at point Q which are moved towards the solenoid to produce current. DIAGRAM 5.1 DIAGRAM 5.2 X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 42
    • X A-PLUS 2012a) Observe the diagrams and state two differences between them. [2 marks]b) What is the polarity of the solenoid at point P and Q when the magnet is moved towards the solenoid? P : …………………………… Q : ………………………… [2 marks]c) What is the relationship between the number of turns and the magnitude of induced current? [1mark]d) Name the law involved in (c). [1mark]e) Suggest another method to increase the deflection of the pointer. [1mark]f) State an instrument that uses the application of induced current. [1mark]Question 6 [Force and Motion]Diagrams 6.1 and 6.2 show a load is being lift up. Ground Ground Diagram 6.1 Diagram 6.2(a) What is gravitational potential energy? [1mark](b) Based on Diagrams 6.1 and 6.2 , compare the position of the loadafter being lifted up, the gravitational potential energy and the work done. State the relationship between - the position of the load and the work done in lifting the load. - The gravitational potential energy and the work done [5marks] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 43
    • X A-PLUS 2012Question 7 [Force and Motion]Diagram 7shows a 50 sen coin and a leaf falling in a vacuum container. The coin is heavier than the leaf. Diagram 7Using the diagram shown and the information given about the weight of the two objects, compare themass of the coin and the leaf, the time taken to fall, the falling position of the coin and the leaf,thegravitational acceleration of the coins and the leaf. Deduce the relationship between the mass and thegravitational acceleration of falling object. [5 marks]Question 8 [Force and Pressure]Diagram 8(a), Diagram 8(b) and Diagram 8(c) show a rock being hung on a spring balance in the air,immersed in water and cooking oil respectively. The reading of the spring balance for each situation is asshown in Diagram 8. Diagram 8Using Diagram 8(a), Diagram 8(b) and Diagram 8(c), compare the spring balance reading, the weight lostof the rock and the density of the water and the cooking oil.Relate the weight lost and the density to deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 44
    • X A-PLUS 2012Question 9 [Force and Pressure]Diagram 9(a) shows a hot air balloon carry up the loads at a certain height in the morning and Diagram9(b) shows the same hot air balloon carry up the loads at a certain height in the afternoon. The hot airballoon used helium gas at the same temperature in both situations. Diagram 9Using Diagrams 9(a) and 9(b), compare the density of the air, the load that can be carried up by the hotair balloon and the height of the hot air balloon from the ground.Relate the buoyant force with the density of the air to make a deduction regarding the relationshipbetween the density of the air and the weight of the load carried by the hot air balloon. [5 marks]Question 10 [Force and Pressure]Diagram10.1, Diagram10.2and Diagram10.3 show a fisherman pulling the fishing net out of the river. InDiagram10.1, the fisherman finds it easy to pull up the fishing net while most of the fish is in the water.However as more and more of the net is out of the water it gets harder to pull up the net as shown inDiagrams10.2 and 10.3. Diagram 10.1 Diagram 10.2 Diagram 10.3 X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 45
    • X A-PLUS 2012 Using Diagrams10.1, 10.2 and 10.3, compare the mass of the fishand the volume of the fishing netimmersed in the water.Relate the weight of water displaced with the amount of force required to lift the net and the buoyantforce, and deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks]Question 11 [Light]Diagram 11(a) and Diagram 11(b) show two rectangular glass blocks with different optical density andrefractive index. Ray of light is directed toward the glass blocks with the same angle of incidence 30°. Density = 2600 kgm-3 Density = 2670 kgm-3 Diagram 11(a) Diagram 11(b)Based on Diagram 11(a) and Diagram 11(b), compare the density, the refractive index and the angle ofrefraction of the glass blocks. Relate - the angle of refraction, r and the density of the glass blocks. - relate the angle of refraction, r and the refractive index of the glass blocks [5 marks]Question 12 [Light]Diagram 12.1 and Diagram 12.2 show the parallel rays of light directed towards the convex lenses J and K.Both the lenses produce real images. F is the focal point for each lens. DIAGRAM 12.1 DIAGRAM 12.2 X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 46
    • X A-PLUS 2012With reference to Diagram 12.1 and Diagram 12.2, compare the thickness of the lenses, the effects it hason the refracted rays, and the focal length of the lens.Relate the thickness of the lens with the effect on therefracted ray, to deduce a relationship between the thickness of the lens and the focal length. [5 marks]Question 13 [Wave]Diagram 13.1 (a) and Diagram 13.2(a) show the apparatus set-up for a Young’s double-slit experiment, todetermine the wavelength of a monochromatic light. Diagram 13.1(b) and Diagram 13.2(b) show thefringes formed on the screen for each situation.Using the diagrams given, compare the distance between the double-slit and the screen, the distancebetween two successive bright fringes, the number of fringes and the width of fringes.Deduce the relationship between the distance between the double-slit and the screen, and the distancebetween two successive bright fringes. [5 marks]Question 14 [Waves]Diagram 14(a) and 14(b) show vibration of different thickness of guitar string. Diagram 14(a) X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 47
    • X A-PLUS 2012 Diagram 14(b)When microphone is used to detect the sound waves of each guitar string, the traces displayed on theoscilloscopes as shown in the diagrams.(i) Using Diagram 14(a) and 14(b), compare the number of oscillations, amplitude of wave and diameter of Guitar string.(ii) State the relationship between the frequency of sound wave and -diameter of the string -pitch of the sound [5 marks]Question 15 [Electricity]Diagram 15.1 and 15.2 show two identical resistors with resistance R connected to the ammeter, voltmeter,switch and batteries in different ways. DIAGRAM 15.1 DIAGRAM 15.2 DIAGRAM 11.2When the switch is on, the ammeter and the voltmeter show a reading. Based on Diagram 15.1 andDiagram 15.2, compare the type of circuit connection, the reading of ammeter, the reading of voltmeterand the effective resistance of the circuit.Relate the current flows in a circuit with the effective resistance to make a deduction regarding therelationship between type of a circuit connection and the effective resistance. [6 marks] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 48
    • X A-PLUS 2012Question 16 [Electromagnetism]Diagram 16(a) and Diagram 16(b) show the relative motion between the magnet and solenoid. The endsof the coils are connected to a zero centre galvanometer. Diagram 16(a) Diagram 16(b)Using Diagram 16(a) and Diagram 16(b),(i) compare the direction of the movement of the magnet(ii) compare the deflection of the galvanometer pointer(iii) Relate the movement of the magnet, the polarity at the top of the coil and the force acting on the magnet to explain a relevant physics law. [5 marks]Question 17 [Electronics]Diagram 17.1 and Diagram 17.2 show a bulb is connected to a diode and a dry cell. Diagram 17.1 Diagram 17.2Observe Diagram 17.1 and Diagram 17.2. Compare the condition of the two bulbs, the connection of thediode. Relate the diode connection with - the condition of the bulbs, and - the current flow through the diodeDeduce a relevant physics concept. [ 4 marks] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 49
    • X A-PLUS 2012Question 18 [Radioactivity]Table 18.1 shows a reaction equation and the total mass of atom before and after nuclear fission. Nuclear Fission Before Reaction After Reaction 239 1 141 97 Chemical Equation 94 𝑃𝑢 + 0 𝑛 56 𝐵𝑎 + 38 𝑆𝑟 + 2 1 𝑛 + 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 0 Total mass of atom 240.06082 a.m.u 239.85830 a.m.u TABLE 18.1Table 18.2 shows reaction equation and the total mass of atom before and after nuclear fusion. Nuclear Fusion Before reaction After reaction 2 3 4 1 Chemical Equation 1 𝐻+ 1 𝐻 2 𝐻𝑒 + 0 𝑛 + 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦 Total mass of atom 5.03013 a.m.u 5.01043 a.m.u TABLE 18.2 Using the information in Table 18.1 and 18.2 only, compare the process of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion,total mass of atombefore and after the reaction, and then relate the relationship between mass and energy released. [ 5 marks ]Question 19 [Radioactivity]Diagram 19(a) and Diagram 19(b) show the activities of two radioactive sources P and Q. DIAGRAM 19(a) DIAGRAM 19(b) X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 50
    • X A-PLUS 2012Based on Diagram 19(a) and Diagram 19(b),(i) State common characteristic of - the shape of the graph - the time taken for the activities of radioactive sources P and Q to become half of its initial value. [2 marks](ii) determine the time taken for the activity of radioactive sources P and Q to become half of its initial value. [2 marks] (iii) Name the physical quantity for the activity of a radioactive source tobecome half of its initial value. [1 mark]SECTION VI – PROBLEM SOLVING [QUALITATIVE] (Paper 2 Section A: Question 7; Section BQuestion 9/10 )Question 1 [ Introduction In Physics]You are required to give some suggestions to design an efficient alcohol thermometer to be used in physicsresearch expedition at North Pole.Using your knowledge about heat and properties of materials, explain how to build a thermometer whichcan function effectively based on the following aspects: (i) Strength of thermometer (ii) Sensitivity of thermometer (iii) Design of the thermometer so that the scale can easily be read (iv) Freezing point of the liquid (v) Thickness of the glass bulb’s wall [10 marks]Question 2 [ Forces and Motion]Diagram below shows a rocket. X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 51
    • X A-PLUS 2012You are required to give some suggestions to design a rocket which can travel in the outer space withhigher acceleration.Using the knowledge on forces and motion and the properties of materials, explain the suggestions basedon the following aspects: (i) the shape of the rocket (ii) the material used to build the rocket (iii) additional supply needed that enable the rocket to move in outer space (iv) the structure of the rocket to accelerate. (v) size of the combustion chamber [10 marks]Question 3 [ Forces and Motion]Diagram below shows an athlete throwing a javelinUsing appropriate physics concepts, explain the use of suitable equipment and techniques to improve hisperformance.Your answer should include following aspects: (i) Characteristics of material used for javelin (ii) Shape of javelin (iii) Motion of the athlete (iv) How the javelin should be thrown [10 marks]Question 4 [ Forces and Motion]Diagram 9.3 shows a badminton player in a competition.. Shuttle/ Bulutangkis Racquet / Raket Diagram 9.3 / Rajah 9.3You are required to give some suggestions to design the shuttle and racquet used in the competition. Usingyour knowledge of motion, forces and properties of material, state and explain the suggestions based onthe following aspects: (i) Shape of the shuttle. (ii) Characteristic of the material used for shuttle. X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 52
    • X A-PLUS 2012 (iii) Material used for the base of the shuttle. (iv) Material used for the string of the racquet. (v) Tension of the string of the racquet. [10 marks]Question 5 [ Forces and Pressure]The manager of a carnival near your home seeks your advice on handling a hot air balloon. The balloonshould be able to rise to about the height of a five-storey building, carry up to three people and can bebrought down to the same spot after a certain time.Explain your suggestion taking into account: (i) Size of the envelope (ii) Characteristic of the materials used for the envelope (iii) Equipment required to rise up the balloon. (iv) Characteristics of the material used for the basket, (v) the best times in a day to launch the balloon [10 marks]Question 6 [ Heat]Diagram below shows food being fried in a wok of cooking oilSuggest and explain how the food to be fried can be cooked in a short time based on the followingaspects of material of the wok and the cooking oil.a. Material of the wok X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 53
    • X A-PLUS 2012 (i) Specific heat capacity (ii) Thermal conductivity (iii) Melting pointb. Cooking oil (i) Specific heat capacity (ii) Boiling point [10 marks]Question 7 [ Heat]A family is having a picnic at Port Dickson beach. A container is used to stor the packet drinks as shown indiagram below.Use appropriate concepts in physics, explain the modifications required to the above container so as toeffectively cool packet drinks in a shorter time and keep the packet drinks remain cold for a longer period.State and explain the suggestion based on the following aspects: (i) Materials added in the container (ii) Specific heat capacity of the container (iii) Colour of the container (iv) Characteristics of the material used for the container. [10 marks]Question 8 [ Heat/Light]Diagram below shows a simple solar tank as a water heaterUsing appropriate physics concept, explain the modifications that can be used to make a solar moreefficient.Your answer should include the following aspects: (i) Type of mirror X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 54
    • X A-PLUS 2012 (ii) Radius of curvature (iii) Color of the tank wall (iv) Specific heat capacity and other suitable aspect (v) Size of the mirror [10 marks]Question 9 [ Light ]Diagram 9.3 shows two cars, R and S , travelling in the opposite directions, passing through a sharp band. Amirror is placed at X . Diagram 9.3Using the knowledge on reflection of light, explain your choice of mirror to help the driver to see anapproaching car based on the following aspect: (i) the type of mirror (ii) the diameter of the mirror (iii) the characteristics of material used for the mirror (iv) the thickness of the mirror (v) The position of the mirror[10 marks]Question 10 [ Waves]Diagram 10.3, shows the location of housing area. The residents of housing area at P receive clearertelevision signal compare to the residents of housing area at Q where it is located behind the hill. Broadcasting station Transmitter Hill Housing area Q Housing area P Diagram 10.3 X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 55
    • X A-PLUS 2012As a researcher, you are required to give suggestions about the modifications of transmission televisionsignal from broadcasting station so that the residents of housing area at Q are enable to receive bettersignal.State and explain the modification based on the following aspects: (i) the frequency of the signals (ii) the location of the transmitter (iii) the number of the transmitter (iv) the strength of the signals (v) the distance between two transmitters [10 marks]Question 11 [ Electricity]Diagram 4 shows the lamps in a domestic lightning circuit are connected in parallel. Diagram4The circuit is not complete and not efficient for electrical energy consuming and less safety.Suggest modifications that need to be done to the circuit to improve safety, produce the lamps lights upwith normal brightness and to increases the efficiency of electrical energy consuming.State and explain the modification based on the following aspects: (i) switch (ii) connection between bulb C and D (iii) suitable voltage for the bulb (iv) safety aspect (v) suitable device to be connected to bulb B. [10 marks]Question 12 [ Electromagnets]Diagram below shows a cross section of a simple seismometer which is used to detect the earth motionand then convert it into the electrical signals. Diagram 6 X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 56
    • X A-PLUS 2012You are required to give suggestions to design the seismometer which can work efficiently. Using yourknowledge, explain the suggestion based on the following aspects; (i) the stiffness of the spring (ii) density of the load (iii) the shape of the magnet (iv) the type of the electrical coil (v) how it is used to detect small motion [10 marks]Question 13 [ Electronics]Diagram 8 shows a control circuit for a simple fire alarm system. Diagram 8You are required to give suggestions to design the circuit so that it can switch on the transistor and soundan alarm when either one of the sensors gets hot. State and explain the suggestions based on the followingaspects: (i) The type of gate X (ii) Component used to detect heat and it position (iii) The position of the alarm. (iv) The use of extra components in the circuit and its positions to switch on the 240 V, 12 W alarm. [10 marks]Question 14 [ Electronics]Diagram below shows a shadow is formed on fluorescent screen of the Maltase cross tube. X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 57
    • X A-PLUS 2012Maltase cross tube in Diagram 10.3 is not suitable for measuring the frequency of the sound waves.Suggest modifications that can be made to the Maltase cross tube in Diagram 10.3 to transform it intoCathode Ray Oscilloscope that can measure the frequency of the sound waves.In your suggestions, state the components that are used and their functions based on the following aspects: (i) the electron gun (ii) the deflection system [10 marks]Question 15 [ Radioactive]Diagram 10.3 shows a radioactive source is handled by a scientist.The method shown is not safe.Suggest and explain; (i) The equipment to be used in handling a radioactive source. (ii) Modifications to the storing method to ensure safe keeping of the radioactive source. (iii) Other precautions that need to be taken when handling a radioactive source. [ 10 marks ]SECTION VII– PROBLEM SOLVING [QUANTITATIVE] (Paper 2 Section C Question 11/12 )1. (i) A toy car of mass 1.5 kg is moving at a constant velocity of 40 ms-1 collides with a wall and bounce back at a velocity of 35 ms-1. What is the impulse applied on the car? (ii) If the time of collision between the toy car and the wall takes 0.8 s, what is the impulsive force applied on the toy car?2. Diagram shows a car is moving with a constant velocity when the engine provides a thrust of 900 N. The car is then accelerates at 2 m s-2. The total mass of the car is 1 000 kg. 900 N X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 58
    • X A-PLUS 2012 (i) What is the frictional force between the tyre& the road? (ii) What is the force exerted by the engine when the car accelerates at 2 m s-2 ?3. A racing bike of mass 202 kg accelerates from rest to its velocity of18 kmh -1 in 10 s. (i) Calculate the acceleration of the racing bike. (ii) Calculate the force acting on the racing bike.4. Justin conducted an experiment to prove Hooke’s Law. The observation is plotted as the graph shown below. (i) Calculate the spring constant of spring P and spring Q. (ii) Calculate the work done by spring P to extend the spring to 10 cm.5. Diagram shows a boat which has a safety limit line, L. The volume of the boat under the line L is 4 m 3. The mass of the boat is 250 kg. (Density of water = 1 000kgm-3 ) L (i) Calculate the volume of water displaced by the boat. (ii) What is the mass of the maximum load that can be carried safely by the boat?6. An aircraft has a mass of 800 kg and the surface area of its wing is 40 m2. (i) If the air pressure below the wing is greater than the air pressure above the wing by 500 Nm-2 , calculate the force exerted on the wing. (ii) Determine the resultant force exerted on the wing of the aircraft. State the direction of the resultant force. (iii) Calculate the vertical acceleration of the aircraft. X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 59
    • X A-PLUS 20127. Diagram shows a hydraulic jack with a cross sectional area of the smaller piston is 0.2 m2 and the larger piston is 1.2 m2. (i) If a force of 6N is exerted on the smaller piston, what is the output force acted on the larger piston? (ii) If the smaller piston moves downward by 1.2 cm, what is the distance moved by the larger piston?8. The weight of the boat is 15 000 N. The maximum volume of water that can be displaced by the boat is 2.0 m3. (i) Calculate the buoyant force exerted on the boat. [Density of the sea water is 1020 kgm-3] (ii) A heavy box is put on the boat. Calculate the maximum weight of the box so that the boat will not sink.9. 0.004 m3 of cooking oil was heated by using electric deep fryer of power rating 240V , 2500W. The temperature of the oil rises from 30°C to 160 °C. Assuming all the electrical energy was used to increase the temperature of oil only and no heat loss to the surrounding. Calculate: (i) mass of the cooking oil. (ii) the time taken to heat the cooking oil. [Specific heat capacity of oil is 2000J kg–1 °C–1. Density of oil is 800 kg m-3]10. An object is placed at a distance of 20 cm from a concave lens of focal length 15 cm. (i) Calculate the image distance (ii) Calculate the magnification of the image (iii) State the characteristics of the image formed.11. A student is using a magnifying glass with focal length of 5 cm to observe a small ant at a distance of 2 cm. (i) Calculate the image distance. (ii) Determine the linear magnification of the image of the ant. X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 60
    • X A-PLUS 201212. Diagram shows three light rays from a point O travelling in a glass block towards points X, Y and Z. The refractive index of the glass block is 1.5.  X Y Z 30oα 50o β O Calculate the angle (i) ϴ (ii)  (iii) β13. A wooden bar P vibrates on a water surface of a ripple tank at a frequency of 5 Hz. The water wave produced is shown in the diagram below. (i) The distance between three consecutive crests is 8.0 cm. What is the wavelength, λ, of the water wave? (ii) What is the frequency of the water wave? (iii) Calculate the speed of the water wave in the ripple tank. X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 61
    • X A-PLUS 201214. Diagram shows a U-shaped soft iron core is wound with insulated copper wire PQ and RS. An a.c. supply of 240 V is connected at the ends of PQ and a bulb of 12V, 60W is connected at the ends of RS. (i) If the bulb lights up with normal brightness, determine the ratio of the number of turns in the coil PQ to the number of turns in the coil RS. (ii) Calculate the output current. (iii) If the efficiency of the transformer is 80%, calculate the current in the primary coil.15. A potential difference of 3 kV is applied across the cathode and anode of an electron gun. Calculate the maximum velocity of the electron produced. Given the charge of an electron, e = 1.6 x 10-19 C, mass of an electron, m = 9.0 x 10-31 kg.16. A cup of milk is contaminated with iodine-131. The half-life of iodine-131 is 8 days. (i) Iodine-131 is no longer a threat once its activity decay to one-eighth of its original activity. After how many days will the milk be safe to drink? (ii) The initial mass of a sample of iodine-131 is 20 mg. How much of iodine-131 will remain after 32 days? X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 62
    • X A-PLUS 2012SECTION VIII A – Paper 3 Section A1 A student carries out an experiment to study the relationship between the angle of incidence, i, and the angle of refraction, r, when a light ray passes from air to a semicircular glass block. The apparatus set-up for this experiment is shown in Diagram 1.1. Refracted ray Glass block r Incident ray i Ray box Diagram 1.1 The ray box is adjusted so that a ray of light enters the semicircular glass block at an angle of incidence, i = 15o.The angle of refraction, r, is measured with a protractor.The experiment is repeated with angles of incidence, i = 30o, 45o, 60o and 75o. The corresponding measurements made by the protractor are shown in Diagrams 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6. X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 63
    • X A-PLUS 2012 i = 15o sini = ………… 15o r = ………. sinr = ………… Diagram 1.2 Diagram 1.3 i = 30o sini = ………… 30o r = ………. sinr = ………… X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 64
    • X A-PLUS 2012 i = 45o sini = ………… 45o r = ………. sinr = ………… Diagram 1.4 i = 60o Diagram 1.5 60o sini = ………… r = ………. sinr = ………… X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 65
    • X A-PLUS 2012 i = 75o 75o sini = ………… r = ………. Diagram 1.6 sinr = …………(a) For the experiment identify: (i) The manipulated variable [1 mark] (ii) The responding variable [1 mark] (iii) The constant variable [1 mark](b) For this part of the question, write your answers in the spaces provided in the corresponding diagrams. Based on Diagrams 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6: (i) Record the readings, r, of the protractor. [2 marks] (ii) For each value of i, calculate and record the value of sin i. [1 mark] (iii) Calculate sin r for each value of r in 1(b)(i). Record the value of sin r. [2 marks] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 66
    • X A-PLUS 2012 (c) Tabulate your results for all values of i, sin i and sin r in the space below. [2 marks] (d) On the graph paper provided, plot a graph of sin i against sin r. [5 marks] (e) Based on your graph in 1(d), state the relationship between sin i and sin r. [1 mark] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 67
    • X A-PLUS 2012 Graph of sin i against sin r X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 68
    • X A-PLUS 20122 A student carries out an experiment to investigate the relationship between displacement, d and time, t of an object. The result of the experiment is shown in the graph of d against t, as in Diagram 3.1. (a) Based on the graph in Diagram 3.1, (i) state the relationship between d and t [1 mark ] (ii) determine the value of d when t = 0.4 s. Show on the graph, how you determine the value of d. d= [2 marks] (b) The acceleration, a, of the object and time, t, are linked mathematically by the equation a= 2m t where m is the gradient of the graph. (i) Calculate the gradient, m, when t = 0.5 s. Show on the graph how you determine m. m= [4 marks] (ii) Calculate the value of a when the time t = 0.5 s. a= [2 marks]The gradient of the graph, m, represents one physical quantity.(i) Name the physical quantity that represents the value of m [1 mark](ii) State how the physical quantity in (c) (i) varies with time. [1 mark](d) State one precaution that should be taken to improve the results of this experiment. [1 mark] X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 69
    • X A-PLUS 2012 X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 70
    • X A-PLUS 2012 SECTION VIII B– EXPERIMENT (Paper 3 Section B) Based on the diagrams in Questions 1- 15, (a) makeone suitable inference . (b) stateone appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated. (c ) describe how you would design an experiment to test your hypothesis In your explanation, state clearly the following : (i) The aim of the experiment (ii) The variables in the experiment (iii) The list of apparatus and materials (iv) The arrangement of the apparatus (v) the procedures of the experiment, which includes the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable (vi) the way you would tabulate the data (vii) the way you would analyse the dataNo. Situation Diagram 1(a) and Diagram 1(b) show a woman is taking a ride in two different cars. In Diagram 1(a), when the car just departs, she experiences a pushing force, F from the seat and the car moves from rest to 25 m s-1 in 10 s. In Diagram 1(b), when she is riding a race car with more powerful engine, she experiences a greater force and the car moves to a higher speed from rest in the same period.Q1 Diagram 1(a) Diagram 1(b) X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 71
    • X A-PLUS 2012No. Situation Diagram 2(a) and 2(b) show a car and a motorbike of different masses. It is observed that if the car takes up same power to produce same force as the motorbike, the car has lower acceleration than the motorbike.Q2 Diagram 2(a) Diagram 2(b) Diagram 3(a) shows the position of the driver when a moving car of 80 km h-1 stops suddenly. Diagram 3(b) shows the position of the driver when a moving car of 120 km h-1 stops suddenly.Q3 Diagram 3 (a) Diagram 3(b) X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 72
    • X A-PLUS 2012No. Situation Diagrams 3.1 and Diagram 3.2 show a launching mechanism of a toy gun consist of a spring. It is observed that when the spring is compressed and the gun fired vertically, the gun launch the projectile from rest to a different maximum height.Q4 Diagram 5 shows a lady and a man walking on a wooden floor. It is observed that the lady that wearing high heel can damage a wooden floor badly but not a man (heavier) that wearing snickers.Q5 Diagram 5 X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 73
    • X A-PLUS 2012No. Situation Diagram 6 (a) and 6(b) show a diver swimming in the sea water. The diver experiences more discomfort to his body and ear in Diagram 6 (b)Q6 Diagram 6(a) Diagram 6(b) Diagram 7(a) shows a device used to transmit thermal energy. The fins absorb energy from the sun and the pipe transmits the energy along its length into 25 oC of cold water in a tank until it reaches 50oC. It is observed that the time taken, t to increase the temperature in Diagram 3.1 is more than that in Diagram 3.2. Energy from the Energy from the sun sunQ7 1 m3 water tank 1 m3 water tank glass fin copper fin Diagram 7(a) Diagram 7(b) t = 30 minutes t = 10 minutes X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 74
    • X A-PLUS 2012No. Situation Diagram 8.1 and 8.2 show two pots of different size filled with boiling water. It is observed that the temperature of the water in Diagram 4.1 drops at a faster rate than in Diagram 4.2.Q8 Diagram 8.1 Diagram 8.2 Amira is out on a hot summer day and purchase a few balloons. When she gets home, she decides to leave a couple outside in the hot air and bring the rest into her air-conditioned room. She notice that the balloons inside and the balloons outside are slightly different shapes and sizes.Q9 X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 75
    • X A-PLUS 2012No. Situation Diagram 10 (a) and 10 (b) show a pencil is placed in front of the lens. The image of the pencil is formed when light moving through the convex lens Diagram10(a)Q10 Diagram 10(b) Diagram 11 (a) and11 (b)below show the fringes produced when red and blue monochromatic light sourceswere used.Q11 Diagram 11(a) Diagram 11 (b) X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 76
    • X A-PLUS 2012No. Situation Diagram 12 shows a guitar. It is observed that if one of the guitar strings is plucked with bigger displacement, the sound heard is louder.Q12 Diagram 12 Diagram 13(a) and 13(b) show 2 identical light bulbs when the light bulbs are connected to a 6 V of power supply. It is observed that the light bulbs light up at different brightness.Q13 Diagram 13(a) Diagram 13(b) Diagram 14(a) shows a girl is ironing her school uniform. After the iron is switched on for a while, there are still wrinkles on the uniform. Diagram 14b) shows that the wrinkles are gone when the temperature control knob as shown in figure 14(c) on the iron is turned.Q14 Diagram 14(a) Diagram 14(b) Diagram 14(c) X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 77
    • X A-PLUS 2012No. Situation Diagram 15 (a) and Diagram 15(b) show two electric bells. It is observed that when the number of dry cell used is changed, , the hammer in Diagram 15(a) strikes the gong faster compared to the hammer in Diagram 15(b).Q15 END OF MODULE “Recipe for success: Study while others are sleeping; Work while others are loafing; Prepare while others are playing; and...... Dream while others are wishing...”  William A.Ward  We wish all of you “The Very Best of Luck in Your SPM 2012 May God be with you always and give you peace of mind” From: SBP Physics Teachers, September 2012  X A-Plus Physics Module 2012 78