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Urban Areas: Policy, Planning and Zoning Recommendations
 

Urban Areas: Policy, Planning and Zoning Recommendations

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    Urban Areas: Policy, Planning and Zoning Recommendations Urban Areas: Policy, Planning and Zoning Recommendations Document Transcript

    • URBAN AREASPolicy, Planning, and Zoning Recommendations U 1
    • URBAN AREAS: General RecommendationsOur urban areas represent the greatest challenge for the future of Smart Growth. There is anabundance of land and deteriorated buildings for redevelopment. The market drive for theselocations will be dependent on a larger regional strategy as well as high quality urban design,streetscapes, green spaces and transit. It is critical that redevelopment efforts be focused intospecific urban neighborhoods and districts rather than diluted effort in all neighborhoods.Portions of Hartford and one of its immediate sub-center areas, the Parkville neighborhood,were selected to represent the “urban” section of the survey. Urban places represent the mostdistressed areas of the survey, but also have the greatest potential for renewal and hope if theideas generated by this survey are implemented. Images and questions generated from thissection of the survey provide the basis for recommendations for future changes in theComprehensive Plans, Zoning and Design Regulations.Recommendations include rehabilitation of existing structurally sound buildings, buildingnew housing and commercial buildings on vacant and underutilized land that fits an urbancharacter, improved sidewalks and streetscapes, creating new neighborhood parks, creatingparking and transit connections. Reinforcing existing neighborhoods and connecting them tojobs, retail and recreation with transit, bicycles and walking is critical. After infill and rehabilitation theExisting conditions near the Capitol urban character of the street is reclaimed Parking lots provide the greatest “land bank” for future redevelopment. As cities removed important street wall buildings, the city lost its human urban and dynamic character for a more negative suburban character. The urban area must be reclaimed and revitalized. General Policies for Urban Areas U 2
    • URBAN AREAS: General Recommendations for Urban NeighborhoodsExisting conditions today After RedevelopmentHousing units are vacant and deteriorated but appear to be in good structural condition.The above units are across from a large park and therefore have a greater priority forredevelopment. The streetscape is the most important design feature. Improving the character of the street generates a positive sense of place.Converting brownfields and underutilized land to parks is critical for the future. General Policies for Urban Areas U 3
    • Highest Rated Images - Urban CategoryThe highest rated images in the survey set the priority and fundamental planning policies forurban areas. Based on the results, the first priority is for the greater “pedestrianization” of thecity and its neighborhoods through “greening” of the city in uses such as urban plazas,streetscapes with trees and hedges, and small urban parks. Building rehabilitation and adaptivere-use, as well as transit and bicycle lanes, are also top priorities. Parks and Plazas Options: Urban Plaza Image Value +8.0: Classic urban plaza Image 70 with trees, pedestrian walks, pedestrian +8.0 (sd 2.9) lighting and raised landscaping. This plaza offers pedestrians several seating options including benches and the raised edges of the planting beds. Policy: Design plans to include new plazas in neighborhood centers and commercial areas. Existing Conditions: Rehabilitated housing and streetscape Image Value +7.8: Rehabilitated Image 62 streetscape with excellent semi-public edge, +7.8 (sd 3.2) pedestrian scaled lighting of street with rehabilitated “perfect sixes” housing. Policy: Develop standards for streetscapes and encourage rehabilitation and preservation of building form. Streetscape rehabilitation is as important as the rehabilitation of buildings and must be done concurrently. Parks and Plazas Options: Neighborhood park Image Value +7.8: Classic neighborhood Image 69 square surrounded by a combination of +7.8 (sd 3.2) single and multiple family housing. Policy: Design plans to include new neighborhood squares and greens in each neighborhood which could be the focus of a new neighborhood configuration. General Policies for Urban Areas U 4
    • Highest Rated Images - Urban CategoryImage Value +7.5: A new park created Housing Options: New park created from an old industrial sitefrom an old industrial site. The park has Image 68features including a large water feature, +7.5 (sd 3.3)open areas, and mature trees.Policy: Redevelop vacant industrialsites into open space and parks inlocations of the city that do not haveparks within easy walking distance.Other areas could be reforested wherethere is no current market for their reuse.Leaving them as deteriorated ‘brownfields’ will extend their negative impacton the city. Mobility Options: Provisions for on-street bicyclists Image 78Image Value +6.8: A commercial street +6.8 (sd 3.9)with a dedicated bicycle lane providesthe opportunity for on-street bicyclistsPolicy: Where possible, integratededicated bicycle lanes into the streetfabric. Redevelopment Options:Conversion of Industrial buildings to lofts andImage Value +6.7: An example of Image 63 live-work unitsurban rehabilitation. A former factory +6.7 (sd 3.9) 3.2)site has been converted into apartmentsor condominium units.Policy: Where possible, revitalizeexisting urban structures with adaptivere-use. General Policies for Urban Areas U 5
    • Lowest Rated Images - Urban CategoryThe negative images in the survey can be viewed as “opportunistic neglect”. The need foradditional parking became more prevalent as the city dismantled its transit and societybecame more auto dependent. These changes combined with demographic and economicchanges in the city. Negative images can be viewed as opportunities for renewal, if existingconditions are developed properly. Redevelopment and improvement of these areas could bea preview of the rebirth of the city and its neighborhoods. Existing Condition: Surface parking lots in Downtown HartfordImage Value -2.4: Large surface Image 55parking lots in downtown Hartford. -2.1 (sd 5.8)Policy: Realize that these are thegreatest “land bank” for futuredevelopment in the city. If to be used asa temporary use, landscape standardsshould be imposed. Existing Condition: Corner parking lot in residential area Image 57Image Value -2.4: Corner parking lot in -2.7 (sd 5.5)residential area, surrounded by chain linkfence. Multiple family housing on eitherside lack landscaping and trees. Comparethis image to the photo below, a computersimulation of this image. With theaddition of street trees and landscaping,the image value increases to +5.4.Policy: Raise and establish designstandards for existing commercial areas Screened parking lot with new streetscapeand residential neighborhoods. Include Parking Options: Image 72landscaping and edge treatments around +5.4 (sd 3.9)parking lots. General Policies for Urban Areas U 6
    • Simulated Development Options Urban CategoryThe following image sets depict various development options for existing conditions in theurban areas. For each set, an image was selected and modified by computer simulation toexplore various development options and their acceptability by the people of Hartford.In most cases, images that captured generally negative or indifferent characteristics werechosen for simulation. A variety of development options were then added to the existingconditions to gauge what was acceptable and what was unacceptable for the redevelopmentof the Hartford Region. In some cases, however, the reverse was performed. AntonNelessen Associates (ANA) took images of Hartford that captured positive aspects of theRegion. ANA then simulated what those places might become if current developmentpatterns of sprawl and strip-commerce are allowed to continue.From the VPS responses to these images, both existing and simulated, ANA was able to gaina greater understanding of what types of redevelopment were appropriate for the city andmore importantly, how these images fit within a greater regional picture. In some cases, boththe “before” and “after” images were included from a set. These sets provide the mostaccurate and convincing evidence of what the people of Hartford want and don’t want. Inother cases, only one or neither of the images from some sets made the final cut for the VPS.These omitted image sets are still valuable to this report. When viewed in conjunction withthe results from the VPS and Community Questionnaire, the image sets provide additionalevidence and examples of development options for the Hartford Region.These image sets and simulations are a proven method ANA has used in numerous ofprojects similar to the Hartford Region study. When used in conjunction with the rest of theVPS and Community Questionnaire, ANA is able to make informed, quantifiedrecommendations for the future development and redevelopment of the Hartford Region. General Policies for Urban Areas U 7
    • Neighborhood Center OptionsExisting Conditions • Neighborhood beginning renewal in center but with significant deterioration • Poor pedestrian realm • Lack of street furniture • Lack of street trees • Parking on sidewalk (not rated in VPS)Development Options—streetscape enhancements(simulation) • Rehabilitated buildings • Enhanced pedestrian realm • Addition of street furniture • Addition of street trees • Pedestrian crosswalk (not rated in VPS) General Policies for Urban Areas U 8
    • Parks & Open Space Options Existing Conditions • Industrial “Brownfield” site • Under-utilized land • No screening • Lack of landscaping • Deteriorated surroundings (not rated in VPS) Development Options—same site as green space (simulation)Housing Options: New park created from an old industrial siteImage 68 • Conversion to large neighborhood park space+7.5 (sd 3.3) • Screening added • Landscaping • Water feature General Policies for Urban Areas U 9
    • Residential Rehabilitation OptionsExisting Conditions • Deteriorated residential area • Littered yards • Poor pedestrian realm (note people walking on streets) • No street lamps • Lack of street furniture • Looks and feels abandoned (not rated in VPS)Development Options (simulation) Existing Conditions: Rehabilitated housing and streetscape Image 62+7.8 (sd 3.2) • Revitalized residential area • Enhanced pedestrian realm • Street lamps • Textured sidewalks • Semi-public edge defined General Policies for Urban Areas U10
    • Redevelopment OptionsExisting Conditions Existing Condition: Surface parking lots in Downtown Hartford 55 Image 55 ( • Under-utilized commercial-2.1 (sd 5.8) or mixed use space • Adjacent to the Capitol • Poor pedestrian realm • Large surface parking lots • No edge screeningDevelopment Options—same street with improvements(simulation) : In- Development Options: 60 In-fill new buildings downtown Image 60 (+5.7 (sd 3.9) • Regain Capitol image • Multiple story, mixed- use buildings • Enhanced pedestrian realm • Edge screening General Policies for Urban Areas U11
    • Urban Neighborhood Parking OptionsExisting Conditions Existing Condition: Corner parking lot in residential area Image 57 • Unscreened parking lot-2.7 (sd 5.5) • Poor pedestrian realm • No street lighting • No street treesDevelopment Options—same lot with new standards(simulation) Parking Options: Screened parking lot with new streetscape Image 72+5.4 (sd 3.9) • Screened parking lot • Enhanced pedestrian realm • Street lighting • Street trees • Textured intersection General Policies for Urban Areas U12
    • Neighborhood Center Redevelopment OptionsExisting Conditions Existing Condition: Corner commercial use Image 59-0.3 (sd 5.9) • Under-utilized commercial lot • Poor pedestrian realm • Poor landscaping • No street trees • Undefined crosswalksDevelopment Options – same lot with infill (simulation) Redevelopment Options: In-fill on corner Image 61+5.4 (sd 4.3) • Mixed-use infill • Enhanced pedestrian realm • Enhanced landscaping • Street trees • Defined crosswalks General Policies for Urban Areas U13
    • Revitalization of Neighborhood Centers OptionsExisting Conditions Existing Condition: Neighborhood “main street” • Revitalizing neigh- Image 56 borhood center+0.6 (sd 5.7) • Poor pedestrian realm • Lack of street furniture • Lack of street trees • Wide street • No buffer for the pedestrianDevelopment Options—same street with enhancements(simulation) Parking Options: Revitalized Parkville street Image 75 • Revitalized neigh-+6.6 (sd 4.1) borhood center • Enhanced pedestrian realm • Street lamps • Street trees • Defined crosswalk • Bicycle lane • Textured sidewalk General Policies for Urban Areas U14
    • Recommended Planning Standards: URBAN AreasDevelopment Building Blocks: URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS A primary recommendation that emerged from the cumulative analysis of the urban section of the survey stated that the city needs to be further defined and planned as a series of neighborhoods, with specific plans completed for each, as is being done for the Parkville neighborhood. The following will provide a general guide. An urban neighborhood is the primary development form for cities. An urban neighborhood differs from a suburban neighborhoods in that it is typically of higher density and has more compelling streetscapes. Each urban neighborhood should be identifiable. Urban neighborhoods are separated by major streets, parks or natural features, or by a change in character. The edge of each neighborhood should be within a five minute walking distance from a mixed-use neighborhood core with a small park or other focus feature such as a transit stop. Several neighborhoods can share schools, larger parks, and a larger sub-center. Each must have direct access to the major urban downtown or central city. The periphery of the neighborhood can be a lower density transition to another neighborhood or bounded by a major avenue or boulevard, with civic or institutional uses, cemeteries, or large educational institutions. About 160 acres is the maximum size of a traditional neighborhood, although they can be smaller. A size of 160 acres is formed by a circle with a radius of a maximum five minute walking distance (1,320 feet) from the periphery to the center core of the neighborhood. The minimum gross density of 8 dwellings per acre supports transit and a proper street building wall. The net density, the number of units per lot, ranges from 12 to 32 units per acre in the core to as low as 4 to 6 units per acre on the periphery. Individual Neighborhood Diagram 5 minute walk boundary Core of urban neighborhood Transition Area to other Urban Neighborhoods Planning Standards for Urban Places U15
    • Development Building Blocks: URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS CHARACTERISTICS OF AN IDEAL URBAN NEIGHBORHOOD • Edges defined by Boulevards, major street or natural feature. • Center green or plaza. • Mixed use commercial with parking in the rear located in the center. • Highest intensity of highest quality near the center. • Maximum five minute walk to peripheral; from the center. • School within walking distance of all homes in the neighborhood. Planning Standards for Urban Places U16
    • Development Building Blocks: URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS The internal street pattern of a neighborhood must be laid out in an interconnecting network of narrow, tree-lined streets, forming blocks. Rear lanes or alleys, providing access to garages and rear lot storage, are highly recommended. Specific street cross-sections are appropriate for each neighborhood. Over the curb parking, (meaning the door swings over the curb or the bumper crosses the curb--parallel and/or head-in parking) is required in the core of the neighborhood. On-street parking is recommended as guest parking in higher density residential areas. A Street Regulating Plan, consisting of a modified grid, is recommended for each neighborhood to help form developable blocks and the street structure. An excerpt from an example Street Regulating Plan is included in the appendix. The division of lots in each neighborhood should promote a range of lot sizes with larger lots on the periphery. Lots and buildings of varying sizes help to promote a range of family sizes, ages and income levels in a neighborhood and also offer visual variety. A network of bicycle paths/lanes and a continuous pedestrian network is required for each neighborhood. A consistent Design Vocabulary (illustrating building forms, materials, and colors) should be used in each neighborhood. Buildings of civic importance and those terminating the visual axis of major streets should have architectural emphasis. An excerpt from an example Design Vocabulary is included in the appendix. A neighborhood possesses an identifiable center containing a public park, along with non-residential and/or mixed-use buildings to accommodate required retail, job, and civic functions. The center green (or park) must be large enough to accommodate civic gatherings of the entire neighborhood. These public spaces act as the focus or “front yard” of civic and/or religious buildings. The area (square footage), resulting size, and number of the buildings in the core should be in proportion to the number of residential units in the neighborhood. At the minimum, a meeting hall, a mail sub-station (pick up and drop off), and live/work units with several mixed-use or stand alone units must be provided. A bus/transit stop must also be provided. Planning Standards for Urban Places U17
    • Development Building Blocks: URBAN NEIGHBORHOODSA Building Regulating Plan, which specifies the location and types of lots and buildings tobe developed, is also recommended. The building types from the survey to be included inthe Building Regulating and the Design Vocabulary are pictured below. To provide marketflexibility, building types for various portions of the plan may overlap. An excerpt from anexample Building Regulating Plan is included in the appendix. Multi family apartments Small lot single family Mixed use retail and apartments Planning Standards for Urban Places U18
    • Development Building Blocks: URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS The recommended square footage of space for jobs within the urban neighborhood is based on the ratio of jobs to housing. A minimum of 0.5 jobs per household is required. To calculate the actual square footage of building space needed for each neighborhood the number of jobs per household is multiplied by 150 to 350 square feet per job. Live/work units, mixed-use and/or stand alone buildings should be located in the neighborhood core. Home occupations, limited to a small amount of space and subject to parking restrictions, are recommended either in houses or above detached garages on the same lot as residential houses. Example: One neighborhood @160 acres @ 8 DU per acre = 1280 dwelling units; 1,280 x 0.5 j/h = 640 jobs; 300 sq. ft per job = 192,000 sq. ft. per urban neighborhood Example of urban neighborhood retail area A minimum of 12 square feet to a maximum of 25 square feet per housing unit is recommended for the local neighborhood retail component. Neighborhood retail should be limited to local service needs where and when possible. The national standard for neighborhood retail is approximately 19 square feet per capita, which most experts agree is overbuilt. According to Cushman and Wakefield, the ideal ratio is approximately 9 square feet per capita. Because all retail needs cannot be met in each neighborhood, a lower ratio of approximately 12 square feet per household is recommended to meet local needs. Example: One neighborhood @160 acres @8 DU per acre = 1,280 units x 12 sq. ft/u = 15,360 sq. ft. per neighborhood (minimum) Retail and service facilities at a minimum standard must be provided, as they are as important as basic infrastructure. They should be thought of as “vertical infrastructure” and initially may have to be leased or rented at cost. Retail for neighborhoods could include small restaurants, take-out food, and personal and business services. Planning Standards for Urban Places U19
    • Development Building Blocks: URBAN NEIGHBORHOODSA minimum of civic space at 300 square feet per housing unit must be provided in eachneighborhood. Required civic space is calculated by the square footage of land area, ratherthan the square footage of buildings. Civic uses in a neighborhood are similar to thosefound in a village; uses may include a community meeting room, a post office sub-station(pick up and drop off only), day care, churches, an elementary school, etc.. These uses mustbe situated at important visual locations in the plan of the neighborhood and must havesignificant architectural presence. It is important to note that the school must not occupymore land area than is allocated to civic uses. School site should attempt to be compact andcommunity-use based. Because of the extensive deterioration in many urban neighborhoods, there is an opportunity to create these highly desirable block parks as the center focus of the urban neighborhood.Internal parks in a neighborhood should accommodate the active and passive recreationalneeds of neighborhood residents. A minimum of 250 square feet of park space per residentialunit is required. The required park space is allocated both to the central green as well assmaller residential parks located within a short walk of units on surrounding streets. Sportsfields and elementary schools, if required, should be located in the peripheral open space ofseveral neighborhoods. Larger parks should be located on the peripheral of the urban neighborhood. This one is built on an older industrial site. Planning Standards for Urban Places U20
    • Development Building Blocks: URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS “Multiple-Neighborhoods” is a term given to two to five adjacent neighborhoods. Individual neighborhoods should accommodate their local retail, commercial, civic and park uses as previously indicated. Each of these neighborhoods should relate to a larger city sub-center. A lower retail ratio is appropriate for urban neighborhoods in close proximity to city a sub- center. Each urban neighborhood can still have its own center with uses like small supermarkets, services etc. The larger uses should be located in the sub-center. The periphery of “multiple-neighborhoods” should have a transition to other neighborhoods separated by a major street, park, natural feature etc. The separation between neighborhoods should be apparent and distinct. The edge of several neighborhoods could be a “seam,” (a planning term for a linear area between two similar districts or in this case urban neighborhoods) formed by a major avenue or boulevard with civic or institutional uses. It can also be a park or natural feature. Connections between the various neighborhoods are required and must be pre-designed within the context of a specific plan for that urban neighborhood. Parking is a critical need in the city. Much of Hartford was traditionally trolley based, and the demise of the trolley combined with existing development and inadequate transit service yield a parking problem. Primary parking must be confined to parking lots behind commercial and mixed-use buildings where possible. Pocket parking that is well screened and lighted and safe is required. Over-the-curb parking should be required in neighborhood cores. As residential buildings get larger and more dense, parking can be provided in multiple use parking structures within walking distance or in the case of new buildings, in the lower level. The conversion of these older industrial buildings into live/work spaces is a great catalyst for the redevelopment of an urban neighborhood. Planning Standards for Urban Places U21
    • Development Building Blocks: URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS Two urban neighborhoods separated by a school and/or green siteRecommended Program CharacteristicsArea: 80 - 160 Acres per neighborhoodRecommended Density: 8DU/ acre - 32 DU/ acreDwelling Units: 640 Minimum (to achieve positive streetscapes)Net Units per Acre: 12 - 32 in the core, 4 - 6 at the peripheryJobs to Housing Ratio(@ 150 to 350 sq.ft./buildingspace per job): 0.5:1 - 1.25 :1Internal Parks: 250 sq.ft./unitLocal Retail: 12 - 25 sq.ft./unitCivic Space: 300 sq.ft./unit (minimum)Water: RegionalSewage: Regional treatment Planning Standards for Urban Places U22
    • Development Building Blocks: SUB-CENTERSA city sub-center is an area of mixed-use, retail commercial, and service uses for a number ofneighborhoods. It differs from the Rural Center or a Town Center or a City Center. Thiscenter serves multiple neighborhoods. It is called the city sub-center because it is notdowntown. The primary service area of a city sub-center also extends a 5 minute walk(approximately 1,500 feet) from the end of the commercial district. It has a secondary servicearea up to a 1/2 mile from the core (approximately a 15 minute walk or a short bicycle ride).Beyond a five minute walk, most people will default to using a car. For those who default toa car, the intention of the city sub-center is to keep the drive as short as possible. This isfacilitated by the provision of multiple access opportunities to the center, thereby minimizingthe impact on surrounding streets. A sub-center should not front directly on a major arterial,but should be laid out parallel or perpendicular to it. By definition, a sub-center will be moreauto-oriented and therefore, must accommodate more parking. It is critical that each city sub-center be connected to the primary City Center and the suburban Town Centers.A city sub-center has a retail core extending from 1,000 to approximately 1,300 feet in length,the prescribed walking distance for most retail areas. In the traditional sense, this can becharacterized as a “Main Street”, which contains mixed-use retail, services, and civic uses,along with a green park or common as the focus of the sub-center. The mixed retail core canbe as deep as it is long or, in other words, it can be made up of several inter-connected blocks.The block pattern of a center or sub-center is larger than traditional residential blocks. A 200foot by 400 foot block size, with a larger combined module of 400 feet by 400 feet, isrecommended for larger service uses. The core of the city sub-center should contain single use retail buildings, as well as mixed-use buildings which have ground floor retail and/or services and housing or offices above. Because modern retail uses are typically related to streets with high traffic flows, it is critical that the proportion and character of the “Main Street” be controlled. Parallel parking and high quality streetscape features must be provided. Width and character of the street must be in proportion to the height of the building wall. Planning Standards for Urban Places U23
    • Development Building Blocks: SUB-CENTERSA city sub-center can range in acreage from 50 to 400 acres. 250 acres is considered thelargest optimum size for a linear “Main Street” type sub-center. The ultimate size andconfiguration of the city sub-center is defined as a maximum five minute walking distancefrom the periphery of the neighborhood to the beginning of ground level, mixed-usebuildings of the sub-center.The internal street pattern of a city sub-center must be laid out as an interconnectingnetwork of blocks with streets that are tree-lined boulevards, avenues and streets. Themain street should be the principal street in the city sub-center. Commercial alleys shouldprovide access to parking lots located behind buildings. Over-the-curb, parallel and/orhead-in parking is required in the city sub-center core. In higher density neighborhoodresidential areas surrounding a city sub-center, parallel street parking is recommended asguest parking. Specific street cross-section illustrations are required for city sub-centers.The core of the city sub-center should be surrounded by higher density residential units.The optimum number of housing units in a full sized sub-center is dependent on the landremaining, after retail, service, and civic components have been accommodated. The netdensity of residential units, the number of units per lot size, ranges from 12 to 24 housingunits per acre/lot in and around the core and can be as low as 4 units per acre at theneighborhood periphery. If mixed-use units are used in the neighborhood center/ sub-center core, density can range from 4 to 50 dwelling units per acre in addition to the groundlevel retail.Residential subdivision and building types in the city sub-center should promote a range ofunit types, with higher density either in or immediately adjacent to the center core andlower density on the edge. Lots and buildings of varying sizes and types help to promote arange of family sizes, ages, and income levels of residents. A large number of housingunits in the central core promotes pedestrian activity and provides “eyes on the street”security. A high percentage of rental units, as well as units for sale, should be provided.Mixed-use buildings in the core offer the opportunity for multi-floor buildings,contributing to the creation of a positive building wall and streetscape.Every city sub-center must have an Urban Design Plan prepared for it and translated into aBuilding Regulating Plan, which indicates the range of possible lots and buildingarrangements.A consistent Design Vocabulary (building forms, materials and colors) should be usedthroughout the city sub-center. Buildings of civic importance and those terminating majorstreets and/or forming visual axis should have architectural emphasis.The city sub-center must contain a public park or plaza along with non-residential ormixed-use buildings to accommodate required retail, service, job, and civic functions. Thecenter green or park must be large enough to accommodate civic gatherings of the attachedneighborhoods. Planning Standards for Urban Places U24
    • Development Building Blocks: SUB-CENTERSThe area (square footage), resulting size and number of the buildings in the core should be inproportion to the number of residential units within the primary and secondary service areasof the neighborhood center/sub-center. A neighborhood center/sub-center must have asubstantial retail and office core. Retail and service uses should serve neighborhoods withinone to three miles from the center core. At a minimum a neighborhood center/sub-centershould have a full-sized supermarket and pharmacy (these require a market base ofapproximately 3,500 housing units).To calculate retail space required by a city sub-centers (and their surrounding neighborhoods)for planning purposes, a ratio of between 20 square feet to a maximum of 40 square feet ofretail space per housing unit is recommended. Additional retail can be added toaccommodate a greater regional market. Ideally, retail at 20 to 40 square feet per housingunit can be distributed throughout the service area (of surrounding neighborhoods), themajority, however, should be located in the center/ sub-center. It is critical that thesurrounding neighborhoods, or service area, be connected directly to the center/sub-centerwith on-demand transit, trolley or direct bus connections. Transit connections must belocated in the core of every neighborhood, near neighborhood retail, civic, and open spaces.The national standard for retail is approximately 19 square feet per capita. However,according to Cushman and Wakefield, the ideal retail ratio is approximately 9 square feet percapita. Figured at 2.6 persons per household, the maximum ratio is 49.4 square feet percapita while the minimum is 23.4 square feet per capita. Because each neighborhood cannotprovide all retail needs, a lower ratio of approximately 12 square feet per household isrecommended in surrounding neighborhoods, with the remaining square footage per unit inthe city sub-center. A city sub-center should have a range of retail components including, but not limited to asupermarket, pharmacy, hardware/paint store, restaurants, bars, liquor store, beauty andbarber, clothing store, shoe store, gas station, bank, etc. A sub-center could also have one ormore hotels, gyms, and cinemas.Integrating jobs into the neighborhood fabric creates a city sub-center with greater marketappeal, ecological sustainability, and pedestrian appeal. Benefits of jobs located withinwalking distance of where people live include the reduction of auto dependence, the reductionof parking spaces, increased access of working parents to their children, and safer streets.Working within their neighborhood is generally a first choice for people, while using someform of public transit to get to the center/ sub-center, such as on-demand transit or trolleyservice, will generally be their second choice. Planning Standards for Urban Places U25
    • Development Building Blocks: SUB-CENTERSThe recommended square footage of space for jobs within a city sub-center is based on theratio of jobs to housing for the entire group of neighborhoods, including the residentialcomponent of the sub-center. A minimum of 0.5 jobs per household is recommended in eachneighborhood with the remainder, at 1.0 to 1.5 jobs per household, in the common sub-center.The actual square footage of building space is calculated by multiplying the number of jobsper household by 150 to 350 square feet per job, not including parking. A small percentageof the total number of jobs will include live/work units. Other jobs will be in mixed-useand/or stand alone buildings. Home occupations are recommended either in residentialhouses or on residential lots above a detached garage. Example: Four neighborhoods @160 acres @ 8 DU/ acre = 5,120 units One sub-center @ 265 acres @ 6 DU/ acre = 1,590 units Total = 6,710 unitsTotal square footage for jobs: 6,710 units x 1 job/household X 300 sq. ft. = 2,013,000 sq. ft.A minimum standard of retail and service/job facilities must be provided. The recommendedsquare footage does not including parking uses, which must be provided at a maximum of 3per 1,000 square feet of retail/commercial uses.Civic space should also be included as a component of a sub-center. Civic space must beprovided at a minimum of 300 square feet per unit, calculated from the square footage of landarea onto which the civic buildings are located rather than in the square footage of buildings.To serve as landmarks, these uses must be situated at important visual locations in the plan ofthe sub-center and must have significant architectural presence.Civic uses appropriate in a sub-center can include community meeting rooms, a post officesub-station, day cares, religious institutions (church, synagogue, etc.), library branches, fireand police stations, middle schools, etc.Internal parks found in a city sub-center should accommodate the active and passiverecreational need of sub-center residents. A minimum of 250 square feet of park space perresidential unit is required. This is allocated both to the central public space of the sub-centeras well as smaller residential parks located within a short walking distance from surroundinghousing units. As with other development types, school sites must not consume the entireallocation of park space within a sub-center. School space should be distributed in the sub-center within a realm of park types.On the following pages are a selection of zoning recommendations. The illustrations are keycomponents of the recommendations. ANA recommends that all zoning regulations relyheavily on illustrations rather than words alone to convey the desired outcome. Planning Standards for Urban Places U26
    • Urban Areas – ZoningThis last section covers some zoning concepts that correspondwith the VPS responses. (Zoning regulations should includeillustrations) TO ACHIEVE THIS DENSITY GRADIENT THE FOLLOWING AMENDMENT IS REQUIRED Density gradually decreases with distance from mixed-use street. Major shopping experience should be concentrated in 1,000 to 1,200 foot increments. MIXED-USE STREET (COMMERCIAL, OFFICE, RESIDENTIAL) RESIDENTIAL STREET (MULTI FAMILY HOUSING) RESIDENTIAL STREET (SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING - SMALL) RESIDENTIAL STREET (SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING – LARGE) Elements of a Typical Commercial/ Mixed-Use “Main Street” Buildings front onto primary or secondary streets Parking lots are located in the rear or on sides Crosswalks at every major intersection Street trees lined along both sides of the street Commercial center is focused on a “green” area Maximum walking experience is 1,000 to 1,200 feet Zoning Recommendations for Urban Places U27
    • Urban Areas – ZoningTO ACHIEVE THIS MIXED-USE STREETTHE FOLLOWING AMENDMENT IS REQUIRED:• Mixed-use development isencouraged and shall beorganized as follows:Ground Floor: commercial orofficeUpper floors: residential oroffice• Maximum height limit of 4stories or 48 feet, whicheveris less..Exception: Public buildings mayexceed 48 feet, but not 4 stories• Front yard not permitted..Exception: Single-use residentialstructures• On-street parking (diagonalor parallel) shall be required. Zoning Recommendations for Urban Places U28
    • Urban Areas – ZoningTO ACHIEVE THIS MIXED-USE STREETTHE FOLLOWING AMENDMENT IS REQUIRED:• Off-street parking and loadingprovided only in the rear yard.• Side yard not permitted.Exception 1: Single-use residentialstructuresException 2: Where a non-residential structure abuts aresidential property• Streetscape along mixed-use, commercial andresidential streetsconsisting of street trees,street lamps, texturedsidewalks, and crosswalks. Zoning Recommendations for Urban Places U29
    • Urban Areas – ZoningTO ACHIEVE THIS MIXED-USE PARKING DECKTHE FOLLOWING AMENDMENT IS REQUIRED:Mixed-use Parking Deckrequired for any parkingdeck built along a mixed-use street. It shall beorganized as follows:Ground Floor: commercialUpper Floors: parking COMMERCIAL Zoning Recommendations for Urban Places U30
    • Urban Areas – ZoningTO ACHIEVE THIS BUSWAYTHE FOLLOWING AMENDMENT IS REQUIRED:• On-street loadingprovided only for publictransportation. A parallelroadway may be built toallow buses to load andunload passengers safelywithout slowing traffic onthe principal roadway.• Passenger terminals (local)permitted• Passenger terminals(intercity and local)permitted Zoning Recommendations for Urban Places U31
    • Urban Areas – ZoningTO ACHIEVE THIS ON-STREET BIKE PATHTHE FOLLOWING AMENDMENT IS REQUIRED:On-street bike pathsprovided on all streetsand roads, with theexception ofexpressways, freewaysand parkways. Zoning Recommendations for Urban Places U32
    • Urban Areas – ZoningTO ACHIEVE THIS ALLEYTHE FOLLOWING AMENDMENT IS REQUIRED:Alleys located at the rear of all lots. The above is rear lane toaccess parking behind buildings. Zoning Recommendations for Urban Places U33
    • Urban Areas – ZoningTO ACHIEVE THIS RESIDENTIAL STREET(MULTI FAMILY HOUSING)THE FOLLOWING AMENDMENT IS REQUIRED: • Maximum height limit of 4 stories or 48 feet, whichever is less (Exception: public buildings may exceed 48 feet, but not 4 stories) • On-street parking required • Off-street parking provided only in the rear yard • Front yard 2-6 feet (for single-use residential structures) • Side yard for attached individual units: 0 feet between units and 2-3 feet at edge of block • Side yard for blocks of attached individual units (usually 4-6 in a row): 4-6 feet Zoning Recommendations for Urban Places U34
    • Urban Areas – ZoningTO ACHIEVE THIS RESIDENTIAL STREET(MULTI FAMILY HOUSING)THE FOLLOWING AMENDMENT IS REQUIRED: Off-street parking also provided underneath buildings where possible. Zoning Recommendations for Urban Places U35
    • Urban Areas – ZoningTO ACHIEVE THIS RESIDENTIAL STREET(SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING)THE FOLLOWING AMENDMENT IS REQUIRED: • Front yard 6-12 feet • Side yard 4-6 feet between units and 8-12 feet at edge of block (for narrow lots 24 – 36 feet wide) • Front yard 12-20 feet • Side yard 6-15 feet between units and at edge of block (for medium width lot 36 – 64 feet wide) • Front yard 20-30 feet • Side yard 15-25 feet between units and at edge of block (for wide lots 64 – 100+ feet wide) • Off-street parking provided only in the rear yard Zoning Recommendations for Urban Places U36
    • Urban Areas – ZoningTO ACHIEVE THIS NEW PARKTHE FOLLOWING AMENDMENT IS REQUIRED:New parks may bedeveloped from oldblocks of vacant ordeteriorated parcels inneighborhoods Zoning Recommendations for Urban Places U37
    • Urban Areas – ZoningTO ACHIEVE THIS SCREENED PARKING LOTTHE FOLLOWING AMENDMENT IS REQUIRED:Screening located onall sides of any lotcontaining 5 or morespaces, consisting of amasonry wall or solidfence (4-6 feet), trees(6” minimum caliper atplanting) spaced atequal intervals of notmore than 20 feet, withgrass and/orlandscaping onoutside edge. The wallor fence set back shallbe the same as thefront yard of thedistrict. Zoning Recommendations for Urban Places U38
    • Urban Areas – ZoningTO ACHIEVE THIS RESIDENTIAL LANETHE FOLLOWING AMENDMENT IS REQUIRED:Residential lanes located at therear of all lots, servicing privategarages (for single-use residentialstructures). Zoning Recommendations for Urban Places U39