Alternative fuel
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Alternative fuel

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Several type of alternative fuel and their advantages/disadvantages : Ethanol, Propane, Bio-diesel, Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas

Several type of alternative fuel and their advantages/disadvantages : Ethanol, Propane, Bio-diesel, Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas

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Alternative fuel Alternative fuel Presentation Transcript

  • Alternative Fuel
  • INTRODUCTION Conventional fuels  Fossil fuels (petroleum), coal, and nuclear materials such as uranium. Alternative fuels  also known as non-conventional fuels,  any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels.  which is consumed to provide energy to power an engine.
  • ETHANOL
  •  Mainly produced by the sugar fermentation process.  Can also be manufactured by the chemical process of reacting ethylene with steam.  A clear colorless liquid, it is biodegradable, low in toxicity and causes little environmental pollution if spilt.  Ethanol is a high octane fuel and has replaced lead as an octane enhancer in petrol.  Widely sold in the United States.
  • Advantages Much cleaner, it burns more cleanly (more complete combustion) Can reduce the net emissions of greenhouse gases The fuel spills are more easily biodegraded or diluted to non toxic concentrations. Can use any plant for production. Disadvantages Destroyed habitats including rainforests. Will increase food prices around the world. Pure ethanol is also difficult to vaporise Not as efficient as petroleum
  • PROPANE
  •  Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Not RPG  Clean-burning fossil fuel that can be used to power internal combustion engines.  Lower amounts of some harmful emissions and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2)  Most LPG used in U.S  Transportation fuel since 1912
  • How Propane Vehicles Work?  Propane is stored as a liquid in a relatively low-pressure tank  The supply of propane to the engine is controlled by a regulator or vaporizer, which converts the liquid propane to a vapor  The vapor is fed to a mixer located near the intake manifold, where it is metered and mixed with filtered air before being drawn into the combustion chamber where it is burned to produce power
  • Advantages  90% of propane used in U.S. comes from domestic sources  Less expensive than gasoline  Potentially lower toxic, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC)  Propane is clean, cost effective, safe and a reliable alternative fuel
  • Disadvantages  Limited availability  A few large trucks and vans can be special ordered from manufacturers; other vehicles can be converted by certified installers  Less readily available than gasoline & diesel  Fewer miles on a tank of fuel
  • BIODIESEL
  •  Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel  To create a biodiesel blend in different concentrations of B100, B20, B5, B2.  It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modifications.  Biodiesel is a form of diesel fuel manufactured from  vegetable oils,  animal fats,  recycled restaurant greases.
  • Biodiesel Compared to Petroleum Diesel Advantages Disadvantages • Can be used in most diesel • Use of blends above B5 engines, especially newer not yet approved by many ones auto makers • Less air pollutants (other • B100 generally not than nitrogen oxides) suitable for use in low • Less greenhouse gas temperatures emissions (e.g., B20 • Concerns about B100's reduces CO2 by 15%) impact on engine • Non-toxic durability
  • HYDROGEN
  •  A potentially emissions-free alternative fuel produced from domestic resources.  Not widely used today as a transportation fuel  Not occur free in nature in useful quantities, but it is manufactured in a number of ways.
  • Advantages  Emits only water vapour, assuming there is no leakage of hydrogen gas  It can store up to 3x as much energy as conventional natural gas.  Produced domestically.  Environmentally friendly. Disadvantages  It still costs a considerable amount of money to run a hydrogen vehicle  Dangerous
  • COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS
  •  a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG  a more environmentally "clean" alternative to conventional fuels.  It is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill, because natural gas is lighter than air and disperses quickly when released  made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed of methane, CH4), to less than 1 percent of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure
  • Advantages  it can be efficiently and safely stored.  more environmentally friendly due to its low emissions after burning.  most of the natural reserves of natural gas field are underutilized.  Improve lubrication because the cylinders are not washed by petrol excess Disadvantages  still does create greenhouse gas emissions.  highly volatile and can be dangerous is handled or transported carelessly.  they aren't as roomy as gasoline cars.  higher overall costs of a natural-gas vehicle compared to a gasolinepowered car.
  • THANK YOU