Alternative
Fuel
INTRODUCTION
Conventional fuels
 Fossil fuels (petroleum), coal, and nuclear materials
such as uranium.
Alternative fuels...
ETHANOL
 Mainly produced by the sugar fermentation process.
 Can also be manufactured by the chemical process of

reacting ethyl...
Advantages
Much cleaner, it burns
more cleanly (more
complete combustion)
Can reduce the net
emissions of greenhouse
gas...
PROPANE
 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Not RPG
 Clean-burning fossil fuel that can be used to power
internal combustion engines...
How Propane Vehicles Work?
 Propane is stored as a liquid in a relatively low-pressure
tank
 The supply of propane to th...
Advantages
 90% of propane used in U.S. comes from domestic
sources
 Less expensive than gasoline
 Potentially lower to...
Disadvantages
 Limited availability
 A few large trucks and vans can be special ordered from
manufacturers; other vehicl...
BIODIESEL
 Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at
any level with petroleum diesel
 To create a biodiesel blend ...
Biodiesel Compared to
Petroleum Diesel
Advantages

Disadvantages

• Can be used in most diesel • Use of blends above B5
en...
HYDROGEN
 A potentially emissions-free alternative fuel produced
from domestic resources.
 Not widely used today as a transportat...
Advantages
 Emits only water vapour, assuming there is no leakage
of hydrogen gas
 It can store up to 3x as much energy ...
COMPRESSED
NATURAL GAS
 a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and
propane/LPG
 a more environmentally "clean" alternative...
Advantages
 it can be efficiently and
safely stored.
 more environmentally
friendly due to its low
emissions after burni...
THANK YOU
Alternative fuel
Alternative fuel
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Alternative fuel

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Several type of alternative fuel and their advantages/disadvantages : Ethanol, Propane, Bio-diesel, Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas

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Alternative fuel

  1. 1. Alternative Fuel
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Conventional fuels  Fossil fuels (petroleum), coal, and nuclear materials such as uranium. Alternative fuels  also known as non-conventional fuels,  any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels.  which is consumed to provide energy to power an engine.
  3. 3. ETHANOL
  4. 4.  Mainly produced by the sugar fermentation process.  Can also be manufactured by the chemical process of reacting ethylene with steam.  A clear colorless liquid, it is biodegradable, low in toxicity and causes little environmental pollution if spilt.  Ethanol is a high octane fuel and has replaced lead as an octane enhancer in petrol.  Widely sold in the United States.
  5. 5. Advantages Much cleaner, it burns more cleanly (more complete combustion) Can reduce the net emissions of greenhouse gases The fuel spills are more easily biodegraded or diluted to non toxic concentrations. Can use any plant for production. Disadvantages Destroyed habitats including rainforests. Will increase food prices around the world. Pure ethanol is also difficult to vaporise Not as efficient as petroleum
  6. 6. PROPANE
  7. 7.  Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Not RPG  Clean-burning fossil fuel that can be used to power internal combustion engines.  Lower amounts of some harmful emissions and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2)  Most LPG used in U.S  Transportation fuel since 1912
  8. 8. How Propane Vehicles Work?  Propane is stored as a liquid in a relatively low-pressure tank  The supply of propane to the engine is controlled by a regulator or vaporizer, which converts the liquid propane to a vapor  The vapor is fed to a mixer located near the intake manifold, where it is metered and mixed with filtered air before being drawn into the combustion chamber where it is burned to produce power
  9. 9. Advantages  90% of propane used in U.S. comes from domestic sources  Less expensive than gasoline  Potentially lower toxic, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC)  Propane is clean, cost effective, safe and a reliable alternative fuel
  10. 10. Disadvantages  Limited availability  A few large trucks and vans can be special ordered from manufacturers; other vehicles can be converted by certified installers  Less readily available than gasoline & diesel  Fewer miles on a tank of fuel
  11. 11. BIODIESEL
  12. 12.  Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel  To create a biodiesel blend in different concentrations of B100, B20, B5, B2.  It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modifications.  Biodiesel is a form of diesel fuel manufactured from  vegetable oils,  animal fats,  recycled restaurant greases.
  13. 13. Biodiesel Compared to Petroleum Diesel Advantages Disadvantages • Can be used in most diesel • Use of blends above B5 engines, especially newer not yet approved by many ones auto makers • Less air pollutants (other • B100 generally not than nitrogen oxides) suitable for use in low • Less greenhouse gas temperatures emissions (e.g., B20 • Concerns about B100's reduces CO2 by 15%) impact on engine • Non-toxic durability
  14. 14. HYDROGEN
  15. 15.  A potentially emissions-free alternative fuel produced from domestic resources.  Not widely used today as a transportation fuel  Not occur free in nature in useful quantities, but it is manufactured in a number of ways.
  16. 16. Advantages  Emits only water vapour, assuming there is no leakage of hydrogen gas  It can store up to 3x as much energy as conventional natural gas.  Produced domestically.  Environmentally friendly. Disadvantages  It still costs a considerable amount of money to run a hydrogen vehicle  Dangerous
  17. 17. COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS
  18. 18.  a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG  a more environmentally "clean" alternative to conventional fuels.  It is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill, because natural gas is lighter than air and disperses quickly when released  made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed of methane, CH4), to less than 1 percent of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure
  19. 19. Advantages  it can be efficiently and safely stored.  more environmentally friendly due to its low emissions after burning.  most of the natural reserves of natural gas field are underutilized.  Improve lubrication because the cylinders are not washed by petrol excess Disadvantages  still does create greenhouse gas emissions.  highly volatile and can be dangerous is handled or transported carelessly.  they aren't as roomy as gasoline cars.  higher overall costs of a natural-gas vehicle compared to a gasolinepowered car.
  20. 20. THANK YOU
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