POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAHArchitecture Unit, Department of Civil Engineering C 2329 History of Modern Architecture Lecture 02: Modernism • modern classicism • expressionism • cubism • futurismwww.shahrilkhairi.com Prepared by SKA
POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAHArchitecture Unit, Department of Civil Engineering C 2329 History of Modern ArchitectureA.E.G High Tension Factory,Berlin,German 1910Factory, Modern ClassicismPeter Behrens• "Turbinen Fabrik A.E.G." .• "three-pin arch" steel frame.• glass and steel with masonry• dry and powerful style, free of historicinfluences• utilize new materials was a key factor Peter BehrensPeter Behrens was born inHamburg in 1868. Originallytrained as a painter,Behrens eventuallyabandoned painting infavor of graphic andapplied arts. Behren can beconsidered a key figure inthe transition from Jugendstil(art Nouveau) to IndustrialClassicism. He played acentral role in the evolutionof German Modernism.MODERNISM : MODERN CLASSICISM Prepared by SKA
POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAHArchitecture Unit, Department of Civil Engineering C 2329 History of Modern ArchitectureNotre Dame du Raincy 1922Church, Modern ClassicismAuguste Perret• Reinforcedconcrete• shallow concretevaulted ceilings• gossamer windowwallsAuguste Perret was born in Ixelles, Belgium in 1874.Perret created an architecturethat effectively blended modern theories with Gothic forms. In contrast to mostmodern theorists, Perret showed a concern for detail and texture. He establisheda connection between natural forms, classical symmetry and order, and thestructural system of concrete.MODERNISM : MODERN CLASSICISM Prepared by SKA
POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAHArchitecture Unit, Department of Civil Engineering C 2329 History of Modern ArchitectureEinstein Tower 1919Laboratory, astronomical observatoryErich Mendelsohn• Bearing Masonry, concrete over brick• curvaceous, streamlined form• aggressive and massive formsErich Mendelsohn was born in Allenstein, East Prussia (now Poland) in 1887. These early experiencesgenerated a personal philosophy of "Dynamism" that demonstrated an attitude that was bothexpressionistic and personal in nature. Mendelsohn used no historical precedents in formulating hisdesigns. As a result, his early buildings avoid the eclectic borrowing that mark so many of hiscontemporaries. Indeed, his architectural ideas were derived from expressionistic sketches andromantic symbolism.MODERNISM : EXPRESSIONISM Prepared by SKA
POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAHArchitecture Unit, Department of Civil Engineering C 2329 History of Modern ArchitectureFUTURISM 1914-15(Unbuilt buildings) electric power station,Monumental buildingAntonio Sant’EliaFuturist architecture began in the early-20th century, characterized by anti-historicism and longhorizontal lines suggesting speed, motion and urgency. Technology and even violence were amongthe themes of the Futurists. The movement was founded by the poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, whoproduced its first manifesto, the Manifesto of Futurism in 1909. The movement attracted a number ofarchitects. Among the latter there was Antonio SantElia, who, though he built little (being killed in WWI),translated the Futurist vision into bold urban form. The unbuilt designs and theories of would go on toinfluence both the Constructivists and a branch of Italian Fascist architecture.MODERNISM : FUTURISM Prepared by SKA
POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAHArchitecture Unit, Department of Civil Engineering C 2329 History of Modern ArchitectureCUBISM 1912-15Czech Cubism MuseumJosef Gocar• the only truly cubist buildings were thosedesigned in Czechoslovakia by a fewbohemian artists.A direct link between Cubist Art and Cubist Architecture does not exist. However both share the samecharacteristic of dealing with geometrical shapes and forms. Often Cubist Artists painted abstractobjects, as dissected geometrical shapes. Often buildings, based on Cubist principles, are designed asgeometrical interlocking shapes or quite simply as a single geometrical shape.MODERNISM : CUBISM Prepared by SKA
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