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  1. 1. ALCOHOL Prof. Dr. Shah Murad [email_address]
  2. 2. Alcohol
  3. 3. <ul><li>In chemistry , an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group ( - O H ) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. The general formula for a simple acyclic alcohol is CnH2n+1OH. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>In common terms, the word alcohol refers to ethanol , the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Ethanol is a colorless, volatile liquid with a mild odor which can be obtained by the fermentation of sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>(Industrially, it is more commonly obtained by ethylene hydration —the reaction of ethylene with water in the presence of phosphoric acid . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Ethanol is the most widely used depressant in the world, and has been for thousands of years. This sense underlies the term alcoholism ( addiction to alcohol). </li></ul><ul><li>Other alcohols are usually described with a clarifying adjective, as in isopropyl alcohol ( propan-2-ol ) or wood alcohol ( methyl alcohol , or methanol ). </li></ul>
  7. 7. three major subsets of alcohols <ul><li>primary (1°), </li></ul><ul><li>secondary (2°) and </li></ul><ul><li>tertiary (3°), based upon the number of carbon atoms the C-OH group's carbon is bonded to. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol is a simple 'primary' alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>The simplest secondary alcohol is isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol), and a simple tertiary alcohol is tert -butyl alcohol (2-methylpropan-2-ol). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Endogenous alcohol <ul><li>All humans always have some amount of alcohol in their bodies at all times, even if they never drink alcoholic beverages in their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>This is because of a process called endogenous ethanol production. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Many of the bacteria in the intestines use alcohol fermentation as a form of respiration . </li></ul><ul><li>This metabolic method produces alcohol as a waste product, in the same way that metabolism results in the formation of carbon dioxide and water . </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, human bodies always contain some quantity of alcohol produced by these benign bacteria. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Toxicity <ul><li>Ethanol in alcoholic beverages has been consumed by humans since prehistoric times for a variety of hygienic, dietary, medicinal, religious, and recreational reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>The consumption of large doses of ethanol causes drunkenness (intoxication), which may lead to a hangover as its effects wear off. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Depending upon the dose and the regularity of its consumption, ethanol can cause acute respiratory failure or death. </li></ul><ul><li>Because ethanol impairs judgment in humans, it can be a catalyst for reckless or irresponsible behavior. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The LD50 of ethanol in rats is 10,300 mg/kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Other alcohols are substantially more poisonous than ethanol, partly because they take much longer to be metabolized and partly because their metabolization produces substances that are even more toxic. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Methanol (wood alcohol), for instance, is oxidized to the poisonous formaldehyde in the liver by alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes ; this can cause blindness or death </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>An effective treatment to prevent formaldehyde toxicity after methanol ingestion is to administer ethanol. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol dehydrogenase has a higher affinity for ethanol, thus preventing methanol from binding and acting as a substrate . </li></ul><ul><li>Any remaining methanol will then have time to be excreted through the kidneys. </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining formaldehyde will be converted to formic acid and excreted </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Methanol itself, while poisonous, has a much weaker sedative effect than ethanol. </li></ul><ul><li>Some longer-chain alcohols such as n-propanol , isopropanol , n-butanol , t-butanol and 2-methyl-2-butanol do however have stronger sedative effects, but also have higher toxicity than ethanol. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>These longer chain alcohols are found as contaminants in some alcoholic beverages and are known as fusel alcohols ,and are reputed to cause severe hangovers . </li></ul><ul><li>Many longer chain alcohols are used in industry as solvents and are occasionally abused by alcoholics , leading to a range of adverse health effects </li></ul>
  17. 17. Occurrence in nature <ul><li>Alcohol has been found outside the Solar system. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be found in low densities in star and planetary system forming regions of space. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Alcohol is used by more young people in the United States than tobacco or illicit drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with approximately 75,000 deaths per year. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol is a factor in approximately 41% of all deaths from motor vehicle crashes. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Among youth, the use of alcohol and other drugs has also been linked to unintentional injuries, physical fights, academic and occupational problems, and illegal behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term alcohol misuse is associated with liver disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological damage as well as psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, and antisocial personality disorder . </li></ul><ul><li>Drug use contributes directly and indirectly to the HIV epidemic, and alcohol and drug use contribute markedly to infant morbidity and mortality. </li></ul>
  20. 20. In United States <ul><li>Zero tolerance laws, in all states, make it illegal for youth under age 21 years to drive with any measurable amount of alcohol in their system (i.e., with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥0.02 g/dL). </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>While illicit drug use has declined among youth, rates of nonmedical use of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medication remain high. </li></ul><ul><li>Prescription medications most commonly abused by youth include pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and depressants. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006, 2.1 million teens abused prescription drugs. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Teens also misuse OTC cough and cold medications, containing the cough suppressant dextromethorphan (DXM), to get high. </li></ul><ul><li>Prescription and OTC medications are widely available, free or inexpensive, and falsely believed to be safer than illicit drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Misuse of prescription and OTC medications can cause serious health effects, addiction, and death </li></ul>
  23. 23. IN PAKISTAN <ul><li>Various federal agencies/NGOs have identified youth-related programs that they consider worthy of recommendation based on expert opinion or a review of design and research evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>These programs focus on different health topics, risk behaviors, and settings including alcohol and other drug use. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>