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Alcohol

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  • 1. ALCOHOL Prof. Dr. Shah Murad [email_address]
  • 2. Alcohol
  • 3.
    • In chemistry , an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group ( - O H ) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. The general formula for a simple acyclic alcohol is CnH2n+1OH.
  • 4.
    • In common terms, the word alcohol refers to ethanol , the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages .
  • 5.
    • Ethanol is a colorless, volatile liquid with a mild odor which can be obtained by the fermentation of sugars.
    • (Industrially, it is more commonly obtained by ethylene hydration —the reaction of ethylene with water in the presence of phosphoric acid .
  • 6.
    • Ethanol is the most widely used depressant in the world, and has been for thousands of years. This sense underlies the term alcoholism ( addiction to alcohol).
    • Other alcohols are usually described with a clarifying adjective, as in isopropyl alcohol ( propan-2-ol ) or wood alcohol ( methyl alcohol , or methanol ).
  • 7. three major subsets of alcohols
    • primary (1°),
    • secondary (2°) and
    • tertiary (3°), based upon the number of carbon atoms the C-OH group's carbon is bonded to.
    • Ethanol is a simple 'primary' alcohol.
    • The simplest secondary alcohol is isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol), and a simple tertiary alcohol is tert -butyl alcohol (2-methylpropan-2-ol).
  • 8. Endogenous alcohol
    • All humans always have some amount of alcohol in their bodies at all times, even if they never drink alcoholic beverages in their lives.
    • This is because of a process called endogenous ethanol production.
  • 9.
    • Many of the bacteria in the intestines use alcohol fermentation as a form of respiration .
    • This metabolic method produces alcohol as a waste product, in the same way that metabolism results in the formation of carbon dioxide and water .
    • Thus, human bodies always contain some quantity of alcohol produced by these benign bacteria.
  • 10. Toxicity
    • Ethanol in alcoholic beverages has been consumed by humans since prehistoric times for a variety of hygienic, dietary, medicinal, religious, and recreational reasons.
    • The consumption of large doses of ethanol causes drunkenness (intoxication), which may lead to a hangover as its effects wear off.
  • 11.
    • Depending upon the dose and the regularity of its consumption, ethanol can cause acute respiratory failure or death.
    • Because ethanol impairs judgment in humans, it can be a catalyst for reckless or irresponsible behavior.
  • 12.
    • The LD50 of ethanol in rats is 10,300 mg/kg.
    • Other alcohols are substantially more poisonous than ethanol, partly because they take much longer to be metabolized and partly because their metabolization produces substances that are even more toxic.
  • 13.
    • Methanol (wood alcohol), for instance, is oxidized to the poisonous formaldehyde in the liver by alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes ; this can cause blindness or death
  • 14.
    • An effective treatment to prevent formaldehyde toxicity after methanol ingestion is to administer ethanol.
    • Alcohol dehydrogenase has a higher affinity for ethanol, thus preventing methanol from binding and acting as a substrate .
    • Any remaining methanol will then have time to be excreted through the kidneys.
    • Remaining formaldehyde will be converted to formic acid and excreted
  • 15.
    • Methanol itself, while poisonous, has a much weaker sedative effect than ethanol.
    • Some longer-chain alcohols such as n-propanol , isopropanol , n-butanol , t-butanol and 2-methyl-2-butanol do however have stronger sedative effects, but also have higher toxicity than ethanol.
  • 16.
    • These longer chain alcohols are found as contaminants in some alcoholic beverages and are known as fusel alcohols ,and are reputed to cause severe hangovers .
    • Many longer chain alcohols are used in industry as solvents and are occasionally abused by alcoholics , leading to a range of adverse health effects
  • 17. Occurrence in nature
    • Alcohol has been found outside the Solar system.
    • It can be found in low densities in star and planetary system forming regions of space.
  • 18.
    • Alcohol is used by more young people in the United States than tobacco or illicit drugs.
    • Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with approximately 75,000 deaths per year.
    • Alcohol is a factor in approximately 41% of all deaths from motor vehicle crashes.
  • 19.
    • Among youth, the use of alcohol and other drugs has also been linked to unintentional injuries, physical fights, academic and occupational problems, and illegal behavior.
    • Long-term alcohol misuse is associated with liver disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological damage as well as psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, and antisocial personality disorder .
    • Drug use contributes directly and indirectly to the HIV epidemic, and alcohol and drug use contribute markedly to infant morbidity and mortality.
  • 20. In United States
    • Zero tolerance laws, in all states, make it illegal for youth under age 21 years to drive with any measurable amount of alcohol in their system (i.e., with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥0.02 g/dL).
  • 21.
    • While illicit drug use has declined among youth, rates of nonmedical use of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medication remain high.
    • Prescription medications most commonly abused by youth include pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and depressants.
    • In 2006, 2.1 million teens abused prescription drugs.
  • 22.
    • Teens also misuse OTC cough and cold medications, containing the cough suppressant dextromethorphan (DXM), to get high.
    • Prescription and OTC medications are widely available, free or inexpensive, and falsely believed to be safer than illicit drugs.
    • Misuse of prescription and OTC medications can cause serious health effects, addiction, and death
  • 23. IN PAKISTAN
    • Various federal agencies/NGOs have identified youth-related programs that they consider worthy of recommendation based on expert opinion or a review of design and research evidence.
    • These programs focus on different health topics, risk behaviors, and settings including alcohol and other drug use.
  • 24.
    • THANK YOU

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