PAST: how journalism was empowered by the newsroom and existed through one-way communication
PRESENT: how the barriers of journalism were taken apart by the borderless Internet and how citizens had a say in the daily news
FUTURE: how journalist and audience became one and how multiple media will integrate into a seamless flow of information
Journalism in the past used the hypodermic needle theory which suggests that (click)
… the audience play a passive role.
On a typical day in a newsroom: Assignment editors will keep close eyes on events, and give assignments to reporters, cameraman, district correspondents. These professionals (reporters + district correspondents) searched for background info and facts needed for news stories through their network of sources of various departments & localities or from press releases & tip-offs. A typical newsroom where news stories are gathered, written, put together, edited and assembled for the news broadcast, telecast or newspaper involve the following members: (say from slide) Reporters cover news, programs etc. They get news from their sources District correspondents play similar roles to reporters, but they cover whole districts through their network of sources Sub editors & story writers – they finalize bulletins
Basically after the reporters, cameraman, district correspondents, have gotten news from the ground or through their network of sources of various departments & localities, they complete the news story and sub-editors will check through. Then the article gets published. Note: the public plays a spectator/audience role.
investigative journalism is skeptical and keen to bring information that someone wants to be keep secret, into the public light. Investigative journalists mainly used databases, archives, research sources & interviews to get information.
How did YJ become so popular? The industrial revolution created machines that could print thousands of papers in a single night which prompted greedy publishers who wanted to earn more revenue to sensationalise news, distort stories and create misleading images so as to drive more newspaper circulation among people (which was a characteristic of YJ) In fact, in today’s terms, yellow journalism is more commonly referred to as tabloid journalism.
Interactive Journalism is slowly moving to a transactional horizontal model i.e. now the news readers will give feedback to the news source / agency Changing definitions of the press: PAST: It refers to print, radio, TV NOW: now it is broader it encompasses social media + anyone with access to publishing technology
Today, aside from the newsrooms & event tipoffs, newspapers and TV also look to bloggers and monitoring online websites as their sources for news stories. Reporters and other journalists have all scrambled to learn these new tools. Broadcast journalists are also using online research in an increasingly important role in their newsgathering.
In other words, it’s the age of the Internet!
The news organizations’ access to the Internet were encouraged by the Web’s convenience, its ease of use, and the simultaneous decline in the cost of dial-up and network connections. Reporters will get their primary information sources from the Web as the volume of information there is increasing at geometric rates and the quality of that information is also improving. They use the Web to find government information, use search engines and indices, find difficult-to-locate information, identify potential sources, to provide depth and context in their coverage.
So how are news reported today? it’s a change from the past.
Similarly, just like how reporters gather news primarily from the Net, they report news there as well too.
What the head of comment & community has to do is to oversee all comment pages and community areas for the news organization’s web platforms.
The traditional mediums (newspaper, TV, magazines, radio) and…(click)
Online journalism form the bulk of news consumption by audience, esp with support from technological gadgets such as smartphones, tablets which enables people access to news anytime, anywhere Note: many traditional news agencies still use their sites as secondary platforms, with their print counterparts still forming main coverage (however, that is soon to change given the power of online-only platforms)
Another way that news is disseminated is through citizen journalism.
Citizen journalism was empowered by available self-publishing technologies (such as blogs etc) as users envisioned themselves as watchdogs Citizen journalism is highly supported by Social media which powered the spread of influencers of specific topics Citizen Journalism also gave rise to the development of Professional-amateur partnerships: Off The Bus: project by Huffington Post to let users follow 2008 presidential candidates on their campaign trail & post photos/videos/reports of what candidates’ were doing on & off-campaign
Daphne ends here
Rachel begins here. So what will journalism be like tomorrow?
There will be a change in the news model where “Everyone creates & consumes news.”
Journalism tomorrow will be an age of personalisation.
News will be gathered by via the Socialisation Of News , a.k.a The Information Divide where its accuracy vs. immediacy. With Social Media growing increasingly pervasive and prominent due to its ability to dramatically raise faster awareness about an event, a divide now exists between the awareness of the event and its report by a journalist. And this gap is immediately filled with tweets, updates, and posts as the crowd-powered socialization of information steps in to fill the void Journalist report needs time to discern, document, fact check, and publish material information, whereas citizen media doesn’t necessarily have it, whether or not it is completely or only partially based on facts. - As such, in the gap between event & published story, netizens are the journalists, reporting what is seen & heard via tweets, pics, videos, livestreams etc. SO, journalists must go one step beyond to dig further into the story via channels netizens cannot reach + fill in the void through their own social media channels
Firstly through Curative Journalism
- The definition of “ Curation,” is that it “gathers all these fragmented pieces of information to one location, allowing people to get access to more specialized content.” In fact, the concept of curation / curating news is not new. Looking at news organisations, many have curation as a core competency. For instance, they have several roles such as the editor to organize information filed by reporters into a deliverable package for readers
So since curation / curating news is not new, then what’s new? Or why am I even bringing up an “old” concept? It’s because… This “old” concept has interestingly brought forth the statement that “Despite shrinking newsrooms and overworked reporters, journalism is in fact thriving.” The art of information gathering, analysis and dissemination has been strengthened over the last few years, and have given rise to the evolution of the journalist amongst the curator!
How did this role of journalistic curator come about? It came about with the push of social media and advancements in communications technology , which gave rise to a curator (one who puts together fragmented pieces) to become a journalist And why is the role of a journalistic curator important? They are not on the front lines covering a particular industry, or filing a story themselves, but they respond to reader’s need With a whole lot of content emerging from many many sources (blogs, mainstream media, social networks), a vacuum (an emptiness) has been created between reporter and reader — or information gatherer and information seeker. So, having a trusted human editor to help sort out all this information has become necessary fill up this emptiness
- So with that, there is this Social curation website called the “pearltrees” where people making sense of the Web’s information by piecing relevant information together (kind of like creating a “playlist” of web sources) - It’s highly useful for journalists wanting to explore further into a particular story OR consumers wanting relevant info in a different media about the story
What are some characteristics of a Journalistic Curator? A Journalistic Curator… - Does what reporters have always done (with the exception of it being done in real time and being a lot more transparent) - Help navigate readers through the vast ocean of content Create followers based on: trust: where the curator’s reporting is consistent and accurate taste: where the curator know how to determine what is newsworthy, and tools
A Journalistic Curator can consider using “storify” to do its job.
What’s next for curative journalism? The role of the curator will continue to grow as journalism continues to evolve and adapt to advances in technology and the influence of social media. Trusted curators, as well as standards and better tools to filter content will be two things to watch over the coming months and years. Additionally, creating a work force of curators — whether freelancers or paid staff members — will help curation grow.
Here’s an excerpt of what someone has to say about the role of journalistic curator. Basically, she is implying that there is enough information for curators to cover and survive in the future journalistic realm
Secondly, news in the future will be reported via Hyperlocalisation .
- When you report in a hyperlocal style, you get hyperlocal news. Hyperlocal news, is characterized by three major elements. Firstly, it refers to community-based news Secondly, it is intended primarily for residents of that particular community Thirdly, it is may/may not be created by a resident of the location (e.g. a photo can be hyperlocal but not locally produced).
These are some hyperlocalised NCT tools. Blogs are a key part of the hyperlocal ecology. Wikis have also played a role. In April 2010, the Wahoo Newspaper partnered with WikiCity Guides to extend its audience and local reach. And websites where you can find hyperlocalised communities and happenings.
What’s next for the Hyperlocalisation style of reporting? Industry sources indicate that it is still too early to predict whether or not newspapers will / should be going towards the hyperlocal direction The first quote shows that newspapers should not hyperlocalise because of their negative experience where it was not well-received online
The second quote shows a more neutral viewpoint, stating that it was too early to tell
And a third quote shows a very positive viewpoint towards newspapers adopting the hyperlocalised methods. So with the varying degree of views towards hyperlocalising journalism, it is still not known where the future of hyperlocalisation lies.
Rachel ends here Now let’s watch a video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LRceOYbrVzc - Journalists can use Augmented Reality in several ways and as seen from the video, AR can be used on magazines. - AR will enrich journalism. Provide new opportunities to bring stories to life. Makes news tangible for readers in new & exciting way, and advertising people will love it too
Shah begins here Thank Rachel News dissemination tomorrow will focus on curation, not content: collaboration, not standalone reports. Internet has widened the number of available news channels Difficult to sieve what is important and where can it be found Curation will enable the best & most varied of news to form a single coherent story that flows with varying news sources Collaboration will ensure that different news channels are able to contribute to different parts of the story and not pollute the Internet with similar stories & facts Competition can no longer exist on such an organic and networked ecosystem as the Internet
Curation will come with the advent of news aggregators Already starting but we will see more aggregators appear & news portals will have aggregation features to make sense of other stories on the Internet However, in the future, one will not go out to find the news they want to know. The news they want to know will come and find them instead.
The update focuses on presenting news stories happening around the world and locally in a way that is more customizable and user-centric. The purpose of the new look is all about surfacing news items tailored to individual users. Once you’ve personalized your google news, the next time you go onto google news, there will be a “News for you” section which displays stories in a section or list view based on users’ specified interests in topics like Business, Sports or their own preferred subject matters.
In Newsmap, the size of each cell is determined by the amount of related articles that exist inside each news cluster that the Google News Aggregator presents. Users can quickly identify which news stories have been given the most coverage, viewing the map by region, topic or time Through that process it still accentuates the importance of a given article.
Collaboration will come in by transposing the closed-door physical newsroom to a transient, open environment: the Internet This newsroom will be shared by everyone: it is open-source Will give greater transparency for traditional news portals, to citizen journos & public-at-large Dispute: may disrupt with secret leads for investigative stories but trust will play important part in liquid newsroom Liquid newsroom Highly connected and globally aware, people are open for changes, new reading experiments, and experiences.
LN will incorporate various elements of old-school newsroom process and new-school news socialisation & personalisation ideals to integrate in the Internet’s organic ecosystem This will be key to developing a new definition of “the press” as the liquid newsroom makes every consumer a prosumer and a prosumer a consumer as well News will be a shared entity with different responsibilities depending on which side are you on Citizen journos will continue to generate heavy discussion & keep the ball rolling Journos from press agencies will be key to going deeper into investigative stories with the network of contacts they have as part of the job Liquid newsroom functions on trust & a common goal: sounds idealistic but those who decide to contribute heavily to the ecosystem should be of a mental capacity to understand his/her responsibility in the bigger picture
How it works: http://www.nextlevelofnews.com/liquid-newsroom/ A liquid newsroom is a topic related platform which can be set up within minutes. Select a topic, the major news sources needed and get in touch with the people on the ground and you can start to publish articles /summaries and comments right from the beginning. Editors will be enabled to curate a stream of news covering a subject of interest and to distribute their pieces via all channels inclusive social networks. The newsdesk, a section of the liquid newsroom, supports the exchange of information with people on the ground (journos or citizen journalists) via their mobile devices. Talk to them if you need more footage, interviews or whatever is interesting to your readers and use the material from people outside seemlessly in your editing process. Eyewitnesses can send their footage, or other material directly to the editors in the newsroom who publish news on their site within short time frames. Publishing, communicating and commenting (answering questions of your readers) can be managed within one process supported by technology. Everyone can set up a liquid newsroom to collaborate with others on the same topic despite of geographical distance.
One big trend of the journalism of tomorrow is centered on the end of labeling different types of media and separating them. The journalist of tomorrow can no longer afford to write only for the newspaper as the audience now consumes a variety of media – sometimes at the same time. The journalist should be able to communicate the story in various media forms to the audience. Journalism tomorrow will be centered on mobility and a 360-degree approach to news. All media will be one. This is the essence of media convergence.
The journalist of tomorrow will be doing many things, but essentially he/she will become more human. Humans inform, interact and educate and tomorrow’s journalist will be a jack-of-all-trades and master of all. He/she has to post a web article, write a longer investigative article for the newspaper, record a video, report from the TV studio, create headlines & summaries suitable for mobile reading, lend his/her voice to a podcast and document everything real-time on social media, besides galvanising reactions and straw polls from readers and using their amateur footage to craft a stronger, more “real” story. That sounds very demanding for a journalist but the fun (and longevity) in journalism’s future is transposing the same message in various forms. If a journalist can present all this information in a “hub” that can be delivered as a concise yet impactful package to the audience, the 360-degree coverage is achieved. Notice I said “package” as a singular word: no longer will readers do one thing at a time. They want it all at one go and tomorrow’s journalist will do just that. There will be no more “channel”, there will only be one place for all the info.
Although there will be many interfaces, news values still remain except some added ones enabled by technology, which as made aggregation & filtering easier, community gathering stronger & more visible as well as design simpler & more visually appealing
In media convergence, breaking news will lie with the “hyperlocal” audience, living as where they are. The liquid newsroom as well as curative journalistic sites will enable all the “breaking news” to be gathered sensibly through story-piecing & made sense of through algorithms similar to search engines & aggregators. Journos will then embark on exploring beyond the basic skeleton with their background checks & interviews with people involved in their story that will only speak to select journos in press agencies. They will then report through a variety of news mediums before presenting everything in a “hub” of story info based on what has previously been covered. Comments & further tipoffs will be gathered and the story will continue to run & the cycle, repeated, should the journo feel the need to uncover another angle again. All this while, the audience will shape the story. The journo will only come in to fill the blanks. Thus, news organisations must realise that media convergence means they have to work harder but are unable to take full credit for the story.
Impact on different aspects of journalism today
The new business model will give rise to the entrepreneurial journalist: one which is able to see money where the conversation is, but not monetize a conversation directly. Revenue has sharply decreased with the broadest of media and this model of media should change. With hyperlocal information and targeted communites, audiences will naturally gravitate more towards sources of info that are finally in touch with their needs & wants. This “social capital” can be marketed as a targeted community in whole, not a cross-section of disparate communities in a catch-all newspaper which only serves to alienate, not combine. Funding channels will come in to targeted options that can galvanise communities and generate strong discourse, as well as innovation in new technologies and ways of reporting, including media convergence. An example for this is letting the demand of an investigative story be decided by the end user: the audience, through his wallet.
Spot.Us is an open source project to pioneer “community powered reporting.” Through Spot.Us the public can commission and participate with journalists to do reporting on important and perhaps overlooked topics. This has impacted on Investigative Journalism caused IJ to flourish Anyone can submit a story tip for something they’d like to see investigated, and any reporter can submit a story pitch, which they will investigate once funding is complete. The final product is then available for free to any publication.
Bleak future Future may be dim but it certainly does not mean the end of newspapers; Newspaper companies are not going to disappear Drop in circulation (Declining readership), loss of advertisers Decreasing revenue Newspaper would become more niche (separate home, world, business sections & become hyperlocalised) cheaper cost price There will still be a segment of the population that will be attuned to the “realness” of the paper as opposed to the Web
By 2021-2031, the paper will transform into a rollable e-Sheet like a rubber placemat, full-colour & charged by sunlight & ambient light. It will only need low power & can be connected to wireless connection ports. It will be virtually indestructible and can be washed or dropped without destroying the paper. This will be the “paper” we will use daily for all sorts of things, including reading the newspaper from.
Magazine business as a whole remains relatively healthy because of the rise of so many niche publications and the staying power of glossy entertainment news Print: Declining readership few experts predict that it would eventually die (extinct) Digital: Opportunity to thrive due to the magazines' special relationship with their audience (loyalty because of niche coverage)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gel9C85vZWM 0:59 to 2:30
Mere citizens who may not have had any substantial and professional media training can supply TV/radio broadcasts with photos/videos taken by handphone However, broadcast journos need to accept this status quo and share news ownership with everyone: audience need to create news, journos need to supplement news. The fast pace of news has made broadcast technology somewhat dated with its clunky nature and complicated operations. This is about to change.
Let’s take a look at how cellular technology will combine with antiquated broadcast technology to make it faster for you to see images of what’s happening in a war. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aT5_TJQ3QFE
The newsroom of the future is one that truly embodies the nature of the news being produced: it is open, discoursive and fully integrated. Media convergence will be seen in the newsroom: TV studios, printing press, radio/podcast booths, computers, tablets & post-production graphics & videos will combine into one newsroom. The newsroom will produce the same message in different forms for different audiences that consume news at different times.
At the end of the day, technologies will change and so will the nature of news. But the need to know what’s happening still remains a key part of our lives and that is how news will continue to stay. However, it must stay relevant, connected and discoursive to continue to be an important part of society. Breaking news & investigative stories are no longer the most important thing in news. It’s about bringing the relevance of the story in the formats that suit the times to people that matter: the audience. They have to feel part of the news, because without them, there is no movement: just a flimsy piece of information no one will feel part of.
The Future of Journalism
Rachel Tan (0939902) Daphne Kook (0939647) Shah Salimat (0900887) DMC 3B01 Future of Journalism
The Change to Today <ul><li>Interactive journalism, slowly moving to a transactional horizontal model </li></ul><ul><li>Audience were commentators; they are slowly becoming watchdogs & newsmakers </li></ul><ul><li>Changing definitions of “the press” </li></ul>
Assignment editors Reporters Cameraman District correspondents Get news from their network of sources (PR professionals, locals, blogs, Internet etc.) Craft multimedia news package Audience Get news from their network of sources (other eyewitnesses etc.) Post on social media/ blogs
And because the audience are no longer passive, the newsroom has to adapt accordingly
Present Journalism Mediums <ul><li>ONLINE JOURNALISM </li></ul><ul><li>Forms bulk of news consumption by audience </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional news agencies use online mediums as secondary publishing platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Several news organisations are online-only platforms (e.g. The Huffington Post) </li></ul>Pew State of the News Media report, 2010
Present Journalism Mediums <ul><li>CITIZEN JOURNALISM </li></ul><ul><li>User-generated reports through blogs, podcasts & videos </li></ul><ul><li>Highly supported by social media </li></ul><ul><li>Development of pro-am partnerships (e.g. Ohmynews, Off The Bus by The Huffington Post) </li></ul>
Styles of reporting in journalism today include
Style Of Reporting <ul><li>Makes no claim of objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Newspaper columns, Editorials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregation of information from numerous individuals or organizations into a single news story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies that break stories and sell them to other publications for post </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite of watchdog journalism </li></ul></ul>
Socialisation Of News <ul><ul><li>a.k.a. The Information Divide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy VS. Immediacy </li></ul></ul>Occurrence Of Event Published story/report by Journalist Social Media GAP
Curative Journalism <ul><li>Curation: Gathers all these fragmented pieces of information to one location , allowing people to get access to more specialized content </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of Curation / Curating news not new </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News organisations have curation as a core competency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I.e. Editors organise information for readers </li></ul></ul>
What’s new? <ul><li>Despite shrinking newsrooms and overworked reporters, journalism is in fact thriving </li></ul>Journalistic curator
<ul><li>HOW? With the push of social media and advancements in communications technology </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? Respond to readers’ need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort out information </li></ul></ul>Reporter / Information gatherer Reader / Information seeker Journalistic curator
From Curator to Journalist <ul><li>Does what reporters have always done </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Except: done in real time & more transparent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help navigate readers through the vast ocean of content </li></ul><ul><li>Create followers based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul></ul>
What’s next for Curative Journalism? <ul><li>Role of curator will continue to grow </li></ul><ul><li>Watch out for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trusted curators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards and better tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating a work force of curators will help curation grow </li></ul>
Anthony DeRosa, proposition leader at Reuters “ We all have access to pretty much the same information sources, aside from the investigation and journalism that people at news agencies perform. There’s enough out there for someone who simply wants to be a helpful guide, to plant their flag and be a good resource for whatever it is they’re interested in. You can use RSS, Twitter, Storify, Storyful and any number of other tools to stay on top of what is happening and be a human filter for what I should be looking at.”
Hyperlocalisation <ul><li>Hyperlocal News: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community-based news </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended primarily for consumption by residents of that community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May / may not be created by a resident of the location </li></ul></ul>
What’s next for Hyperlocalisation? <ul><li>Too early to predict </li></ul>We tried to go hyperlocal online but it didn't work. People said: "Sorry, that's not what we expect from the Chicago Tribune. We expect something different from the Chicago Tribune. If we want that kind of information, we'll go to the Pioneer Press weekly newspaper where they have all that stuff." James O'Shea, Formerly from the Chicago Tribune
What’s next for Hyperlocalisation? It may be too early to say. I continue to believe in doing great foreign and intentional reporting. David Hiller Publisher, Los Angeles Times
What’s next for Hyperlocalisation? If you get it right and if you are focused on covering the local news, there's still no better source for that news than the newspaper. Charles Bobrinskoy Vice chairman, Ariel Capital Management
News Aggregators A website that collects headlines & news story snippets from other websites
Changes in News Aggregation From aggregated news search & discovery to personalized consumption OLD NEW
<ul><li>Newsmap by Google News </li></ul><ul><li>Google News automatically groups news stories with similar content and places them into clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Users can quickly identify which news stories have been given the most coverage, viewing the map by region, topic or time </li></ul>
New Business Model <ul><li>Revenue decreases in media with broad coverage </li></ul><ul><li>News sites need to realise their “social capital” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build targeted communities of discourse with layer of journalism on top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market targeted communities to sponsors & advertisers to create similar discourse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixture of revenue channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government funding towards new reporting technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government can no longer fund as much for news agencies that will not be the purveyor of breaking news </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertisers will pump more money if they can market to targeted communities as opposed to a cross-section market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowdfunding for investigative stories </li></ul></ul>Pew State of the News Media report, 2010
News Organisations Today <ul><li>Newsrooms shrinking </li></ul><ul><li>The death of beats </li></ul><ul><li>The “hyperlocal” correspondent </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of radar & community desks </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing importance in visual journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Instability of journalism careers </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-platform storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-timeframe storytelling </li></ul>
- Martin Belam, Information Architect, Guardian.co.uk “ We'll no doubt see a change in the mix of whether news is produced by the professional, the pro-am, or the random passer-by who happens to be at the right place at the right time once with a cameraphone. From chronicle to broadside, from broadsheet to iPhone app, the format and delivery of news has always changed as a result of technological change and innovation, but the basic human behaviour of wanting to uncover, tell, and share stories of common interest always remains. ”