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MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
MeMorY human Behaviour
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MeMorY human Behaviour

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MemoryY

MemoryY

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  • Impairment
  • the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon —exemplifies the difficulties that can occur in retrieving information stored in long-term memory One reason recall is not perfect is the sheer quantity of recollections that are stored in long-term memory. Although the issue is far from settled, many psychologists have suggested that the material that makes its way to long-term memory is relatively permanent. One of the major ways we sort through memories is through the use of retrieval cues. A retrieval cue is a stimulus that allows us to recall more easily information that is located in long-term memory. It may be a word, an emotion, a sound; whatever the specific cue, a memory will suddenly come to mind when the retrieval cue is present. Retrieval cues guide people through the information stored in long-term memory in much the same way as a search engine like “Yahoo” guides people through the World Wide Web. They are particularly important when we are making an effort to recall information, as opposed to being asked to recognize material stored in memory. In recall , a specific piece of information must be retrieved—such as that needed to answer a fill-in-the-blank question or write an essay on a test. In contrast, recognition occurs when people are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it previously, or are asked to identify it from a list of alternatives. As you might guess, recognition is generally a much easier task than recall (see Figure 7-7 and 7-8).
  • the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon —exemplifies the difficulties that can occur in retrieving information stored in long-term memory One reason recall is not perfect is the sheer quantity of recollections that are stored in long-term memory. Although the issue is far from settled, many psychologists have suggested that the material that makes its way to long-term memory is relatively permanent. One of the major ways we sort through memories is through the use of retrieval cues. A retrieval cue is a stimulus that allows us to recall more easily information that is located in long-term memory. It may be a word, an emotion, a sound; whatever the specific cue, a memory will suddenly come to mind when the retrieval cue is present. Retrieval cues guide people through the information stored in long-term memory in much the same way as a search engine like “Yahoo” guides people through the World Wide Web. They are particularly important when we are making an effort to recall information, as opposed to being asked to recognize material stored in memory. In recall , a specific piece of information must be retrieved—such as that needed to answer a fill-in-the-blank question or write an essay on a test. In contrast, recognition occurs when people are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it previously, or are asked to identify it from a list of alternatives. As you might guess, recognition is generally a much easier task than recall (see Figure 7-7 and 7-8).
  • Levels-of-processing theory suggests that the amount of information processing that occurs when material is initially encountered is central in determining how much of the information is ultimately remembered. According to this approach, the depth of information processing during exposure to material—meaning the degree to which it is analyzed and considered—is critical; the greater the intensity of its initial processing, the more likely we are to remember it. The theory goes on to suggest that there are considerable differences in the ways information is processed at various levels of memory. At shallow levels, information is processed merely in terms of its physical and sensory aspects. At the deepest level of processing, information is analyzed in terms of its meaning. We may see it in a wider context and draw associations between the meaning of the information and broader networks of knowledge. Levels-of-processing theory has considerable practical implications. For example, the depth at which information is processed is critical when learning and studying course material. Rote memorization of a list of key terms for a test is unlikely to produce long-term recollection of information, because processing is being carried out at a shallow level. In contrast, thinking about the meaning of the terms and reflecting on how they relate to information that one currently knows is a far more effective route to long-term retention. Flashbulb memories are memories around a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid they represent a virtual snapshot of the event. Several types of flashbulb memories are common among college students. For example, involvement in a car accident, meeting one’s roommate for the first time, and the night of high school graduation are all typical flashbulb memories (Rubin, 1985; see Figure 7-9 ).
  • Levels-of-processing theory suggests that the amount of information processing that occurs when material is initially encountered is central in determining how much of the information is ultimately remembered. According to this approach, the depth of information processing during exposure to material—meaning the degree to which it is analyzed and considered—is critical; the greater the intensity of its initial processing, the more likely we are to remember it. The theory goes on to suggest that there are considerable differences in the ways information is processed at various levels of memory. At shallow levels, information is processed merely in terms of its physical and sensory aspects. At the deepest level of processing, information is analyzed in terms of its meaning. We may see it in a wider context and draw associations between the meaning of the information and broader networks of knowledge. Levels-of-processing theory has considerable practical implications. For example, the depth at which information is processed is critical when learning and studying course material. Rote memorization of a list of key terms for a test is unlikely to produce long-term recollection of information, because processing is being carried out at a shallow level. In contrast, thinking about the meaning of the terms and reflecting on how they relate to information that one currently knows is a far more effective route to long-term retention. Flashbulb memories are memories around a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid they represent a virtual snapshot of the event. Several types of flashbulb memories are common among college students. For example, involvement in a car accident, meeting one’s roommate for the first time, and the night of high school graduation are all typical flashbulb memories (Rubin, 1985; see Figure 7-9 ).
  • Levels-of-processing theory suggests that the amount of information processing that occurs when material is initially encountered is central in determining how much of the information is ultimately remembered. According to this approach, the depth of information processing during exposure to material—meaning the degree to which it is analyzed and considered—is critical; the greater the intensity of its initial processing, the more likely we are to remember it. The theory goes on to suggest that there are considerable differences in the ways information is processed at various levels of memory. At shallow levels, information is processed merely in terms of its physical and sensory aspects. At the deepest level of processing, information is analyzed in terms of its meaning. We may see it in a wider context and draw associations between the meaning of the information and broader networks of knowledge. Levels-of-processing theory has considerable practical implications. For example, the depth at which information is processed is critical when learning and studying course material. Rote memorization of a list of key terms for a test is unlikely to produce long-term recollection of information, because processing is being carried out at a shallow level. In contrast, thinking about the meaning of the terms and reflecting on how they relate to information that one currently knows is a far more effective route to long-term retention. Flashbulb memories are memories around a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid they represent a virtual snapshot of the event. Several types of flashbulb memories are common among college students. For example, involvement in a car accident, meeting one’s roommate for the first time, and the night of high school graduation are all typical flashbulb memories (Rubin, 1985; see Figure 7-9 ).
  • As we have seen, although it is clear that we can have detailed recollections of significant and distinctive events, it is difficult to gauge the accuracy of such memories. In fact, it is apparent that our memories reflect, at least in part, constructive processes , processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning that we give to events. The notion that memory is based on constructive processes was first put forward by Sir Frederic Bartlett, a British psychologist. He suggested that people tend to remember information in terms of schemas , organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled (Bartlett, 1932). Our reliance on schemas means that memories often consist of a general re-construction of previous experience. Bartlett argued that schemas were based not only on the specific material to which people are exposed, but also on their understanding of the situation, their expectations about the situation, and their awareness of the motivations underlying the behavior of others In short, our expectations and knowledge affect the reliability of our memories (Katz, 1989; Ross & Newby, 1996; McDonald & Hirt, 1997). In some cases, the imperfections of people’s recollections can have profound implications, as we see when we consider memory in the legal realm.
  • For William Jackson, the inadequate memories of two people cost him five years of his life. Jackson was the victim of mistaken identity when two witnesses picked him out of a lineup as the perpetrator of a crime. On that basis, he was convicted and sentenced to serve fourteen to fifty years in jail. Five years later the actual criminal was identified, and Jackson was released. Research on eyewitness identification of suspects, as well as on memory for other details of crimes, has shown that witnesses are apt to make substantial errors when they try to recall details of criminal activity (Miller, 2000; Wells et al., 2000). One reason is the impact of weapons used in crimes. When a criminal perpetrator displays a gun or knife, it acts like a perceptual magnet attracting the eyes of the witnesses. As a consequence, witnesses pay less attention to other details of the crime and are less able to recall what actually occurred. One reason that eyewitnesses are prone to memory-related errors is that the specific wording of questions posed to them by police or attorneys can affect the way they recall information, as a number of experiments illustrate. The same constructive processes that act to make us inaccurately recall the behavior of others also reduce the accuracy of autobiographical memories. Autobiographical memories are our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own lives. For example, we tend to forget information about our past that is incompatible with the way in which we currently see ourselves. One study found that adults who were well adjusted but who had been treated for emotional problems during the early years of their lives tended to forget important but troubling childhood events, such as being in foster care. College students mis-remember their bad grades—but remember their good ones (see Figure 7-11; Robbins, 1988; Bahrick et al., 1996; Stein et al., 1996).
  • The first attempts to study forgetting were made by German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus about a hundred years ago. Using himself as the only participant in his study, he memorized lists of three-letter nonsense syllables—meaningless sets of two consonants with a vowel in between, such as FIW and BOZ. By measuring how easy it was to relearn a given list of words after varying periods of time had passed since initial learning, he found that forgetting occurred systematically, as shown in Figure 7-12. As the figure indicates, the most rapid forgetting occurs in the first nine hours, and particularly in the first hour. After nine hours, the rate of forgetting slows and declines little, even after the passage of many days. Despite his primitive methods, Ebbinghaus’s study had an important influence on subsequent research, and his basic conclusions have been upheld (Wixted & Ebbesen, 1991). There is almost always a strong initial decline in memory, followed by a more gradual drop over time. Furthermore, relearning of previously mastered material is almost always faster than starting from scratch, whether the material is academic information or a motor skill such as serving a tennis ball.
  • Decay is the loss of information through nonuse. This explanation for forgetting assumes that when new material is learned, a memory trace — an actual physical change in the brain—appears. In decay, the trace simply fades away with nothing left behind, because of the mere passage of time. Although there is evidence that decay does occur, this does not seem to be the complete explanation for forgetting. Often there is no relationship between how long ago a person was exposed to information and how well it is recalled. Because decay does not fully account for forgetting, memory specialists have proposed an additional mechanism: interference . In interference, information in memory displaces or blocks out other information, preventing its recall. To distinguish between decay and interference, think of the two processes in terms of a row of books on a library shelf. In decay, the old books are constantly crumbling and rotting away, leaving room for new arrivals. Interference processes suggest that new books knock the old ones off the shelf, where they become inaccessible. Most research suggests that interference is the key process in forgetting (Mel’nikov, 1993; Bower, Thompson, & Tulving, 1994). We mainly forget things because new memories interfere with the retrieval of old ones, not because the memory trace has decayed.
  • Decay is the loss of information through nonuse. This explanation for forgetting assumes that when new material is learned, a memory trace — an actual physical change in the brain—appears. In decay, the trace simply fades away with nothing left behind, because of the mere passage of time. Although there is evidence that decay does occur, this does not seem to be the complete explanation for forgetting. Often there is no relationship between how long ago a person was exposed to information and how well it is recalled. Because decay does not fully account for forgetting, memory specialists have proposed an additional mechanism: interference . In interference, information in memory displaces or blocks out other information, preventing its recall. To distinguish between decay and interference, think of the two processes in terms of a row of books on a library shelf. In decay, the old books are constantly crumbling and rotting away, leaving room for new arrivals. Interference processes suggest that new books knock the old ones off the shelf, where they become inaccessible. Most research suggests that interference is the key process in forgetting (Mel’nikov, 1993; Bower, Thompson, & Tulving, 1994). We mainly forget things because new memories interfere with the retrieval of old ones, not because the memory trace has decayed.
  • Decay is the loss of information through nonuse. This explanation for forgetting assumes that when new material is learned, a memory trace — an actual physical change in the brain—appears. In decay, the trace simply fades away with nothing left behind, because of the mere passage of time. Although there is evidence that decay does occur, this does not seem to be the complete explanation for forgetting. Often there is no relationship between how long ago a person was exposed to information and how well it is recalled. Because decay does not fully account for forgetting, memory specialists have proposed an additional mechanism: interference . In interference, information in memory displaces or blocks out other information, preventing its recall. To distinguish between decay and interference, think of the two processes in terms of a row of books on a library shelf. In decay, the old books are constantly crumbling and rotting away, leaving room for new arrivals. Interference processes suggest that new books knock the old ones off the shelf, where they become inaccessible. Most research suggests that interference is the key process in forgetting (Mel’nikov, 1993; Bower, Thompson, & Tulving, 1994). We mainly forget things because new memories interfere with the retrieval of old ones, not because the memory trace has decayed.
  • In proactive interference , information learned earlier interferes with recall of newer material. Suppose, as a student of foreign languages, you first learned French in tenth grade, and then in eleventh grade you took Spanish. When in the twelfth grade you take a college achievement test in Spanish, you may find you have difficulty recalling the Spanish translation of a word because all you can think of is its French equivalent.
  • retroactive interference refers to difficulty in recall of information because of later exposure to different material. If, for example, you have difficulty on a French achievement test because of your more recent exposure to Spanish, retroactive interference is the culprit (see Figure 7-14). One way of remembering the difference between proactive and retroactive interference is to keep in mind that pro active interference progresses in time—the past interferes with the present—whereas retro active interference retrogresses in time, working backward as the present interferes with the past. Although the concepts of proactive and retroactive interference suggest why material may be forgotten, they still do not explain whether forgetting due to interference is caused by the actual loss or modification of information, or by problems in the retrieval of information. Most research suggests that material that has apparently been lost because of interference can eventually be recalled if appropriate stimuli are presented (Tulving & Psotka, 1971; Anderson, 1981), but the question has not been fully answered
  • Decay is the loss of information through nonuse. This explanation for forgetting assumes that when new material is learned, a memory trace — an actual physical change in the brain—appears. In decay, the trace simply fades away with nothing left behind, because of the mere passage of time. Although there is evidence that decay does occur, this does not seem to be the complete explanation for forgetting. Often there is no relationship between how long ago a person was exposed to information and how well it is recalled. Because decay does not fully account for forgetting, memory specialists have proposed an additional mechanism: interference . In interference, information in memory displaces or blocks out other information, preventing its recall. To distinguish between decay and interference, think of the two processes in terms of a row of books on a library shelf. In decay, the old books are constantly crumbling and rotting away, leaving room for new arrivals. Interference processes suggest that new books knock the old ones off the shelf, where they become inaccessible. Most research suggests that interference is the key process in forgetting (Mel’nikov, 1993; Bower, Thompson, & Tulving, 1994). We mainly forget things because new memories interfere with the retrieval of old ones, not because the memory trace has decayed.
  • Alzheimer’s disease , an illness that includes among its symptoms severe memory problems. Alzheimer’s, discussed earlier in the chapter, is the fourth leading cause of death among adults in the United States. One in five people between the ages of 75 to 84, and almost half of those 85 and older, have the disease. In its initial stages, Alzheimer’s symptoms appear as simple forgetfulness of things like appointments and birthdays. As the disease progresses, memory loss becomes more profound, and even the simplest tasks—such as how to dial a telephone—are forgotten. Ultimately, victims may lose their ability to speak or comprehend language, and physical deterioration sets in, leading to death. The causes of Alzheimer’s disease are not fully understood. However, increasing evidence suggests that it results from an inherited susceptibility to a defect in the production of the protein beta amyloid, necessary for the maintenance of nerve cell connections. When the manufacture of beta amyloid goes awry, large clumps of cells grow that trigger inflammation and the deterioration of nerve cells in the brain (Barinaga, 1999; Cowley, 2000; Cooper, Kalaria, McGeer, & Rogers, 2000; see Figure 7-17). Korsakoff’s syndrome , a disease afflicting long-term alcoholics. Although many of their intellectual abilities may be intact, Korsakoff’s sufferers display a strange array of symptoms, including hallucinations and repetition of the same story over and over again.
  • amnesia , memory loss that occurs without other mental difficulties—the syndrome that affected Terry Dibert, described in the chapter opening prologue. The classic case involves a victim who receives a blow to the head and is unable to remember anything from his or her past. In reality, amnesia of this type, known as retrograde amnesia, is quite rare. In retrograde amnesia , memory is lost for occurrences prior to a certain event. Usually, lost memories gradually reappear, although full restoration may take as long as several years. In certain cases, some memories are lost forever (Eich et al., 1997; Kapur, 1999). A second type of amnesia is exemplified by people who remember nothing of their current activities. In anterograde amnesia , loss of memory occurs for events following an injury. Information cannot be transferred from short-term to long-term memory, resulting in the inability to remember anything other than what was in long-term storage prior to the accident.
  • Transcript

    • 1. MEMORY
    • 2. Chapter 5 MEMORY :Module 1: The foundations of memoryModule 2: Recalling long term memoriesModule 3: Forgetting: When memory fails or why weforget?
    • 3. Content :What is memory?Three – stage model of memoryThree types of memory: SM, STM, LTMRecalling long term memoriesWhy do we forget?How can you improve your memory?References
    • 4. What ismemory?Memory - is the process by which weencode , store , and retrieveinformation.
    • 5. Encoding-initial recording ofinformationStorage-informationsaved for future use.Retriever- recovery ofstored information.Memory is built on three basic processes:
    • 6. Three-stage model of memory
    • 7. Sensory memorySensory memory - The ability to look at an item, andremember what it looked like with just a second ofobservation, or memorization, is an example ofsensory memory.Sensory memory lasts only an instant.Types of sensory memory:•Iconic memory•Echoic memory•Haptic memory
    • 8. Short-term memoryShort-term memory -is the capacity forholding a small amount of information inmind in an active, readily available state fora short period of time.Short-term memory lasts from a fewseconds to a minute.
    • 9. Long-term memoryLong Term Memory -contains information that you haverecorded in your brain in the past.Long-term memory can last as little as a few days or aslong as decadesLong-term memory modules :-Declarative memory*Semantic memory*Episodic memory-Procedural memory
    • 10. Recalling Long-Term MemoriesCopyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Royalty-Free/CORBIS
    • 11. Recalling Long-TermMemoriesTip-of-the-tongue phenomenonInability to recall information thatone realizes one knowsRetrieval cueStimulus that allows us to recallmore easily information that islocated in long-term memoryCopyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.Royalty-Free/CORBIS
    • 12. Recalling Long-TermMemoriesRecallMemory task in which specific information must beretrieved.RecognitionMemory task in which individuals are presented with astimulus and ask whether they have been exposed to it inthe past or to identify it from a list of alternatives.Copyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.Royalty-Free/CORBIS
    • 13. Recalling Long-TermMemoriesLevels-of-processing theoryEmphasizes the degree to whichnew material is mentally analyzedExplicit memoryImplicit memoryCopyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.Royalty-Free/CORBIS
    • 14. Recalling Long-TermMemoriesExplicit memory: intentional or consciousrecollection of informationImplicit memory: memories of which people arenot consciously aware, but which can affect subsequentperformance and behavior.Copyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.
    • 15. Recalling Long-TermMemoriesFlashbulb memoriesMemories around a specific,important, or surprising event thatare so vivid they represent a virtualsnapshot of the eventCopyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.Royalty-Free/CORBIS
    • 16. Constructive Process inMemoryConstructive processProcesses in which memories areinfluenced by the meaning that we giveto eventsSchemasOrganized bodies of information storedin memory that bias the way newinformation is interpreted, stored, andrecalledCopyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.Joshua Ets-Hokin/Getty Images
    • 17. Recalling Long-TermMemoriesMemory in the courtroomRepressed memoryFalse memoryAutobiographical memoryRecollections ofcircumstances and episodesfrom our own livesCopyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required for reproduction ordisplay.PhotoLink/Getty Images
    • 18. Copyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Module 22: Forgetting- WhenMemory FailsRoyalty-Free/CORBIS
    • 19. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Forgetting: HermanEbbinghaus
    • 20. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Forgetting: WhenMemory FailsFailure of encodingDecay (lapse of time)InterferenceCue dependant forgettingMeaningless materialIncomplete practiceExcessive materialUnorganized materialHead injurySimilarityBiological reasons
    • 21. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Forgetting: WhenMemory FailsFailure of encodingFailure to pay attention to the material in thefirst place. Or material that is not encoded inthe LTM.DecayLoss of information through nonuseAssumes that when new material is learned amemory trace appears (actual physicalchange in the brain
    • 22. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Forgetting: WhenMemory FailsInterferenceInformation in memory displaces orblocks out other information, preventingits recallProactive & Retroactive interference:the before and after of forgetting
    • 23. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.ProactiveInterferenceInformation learned earlier interferes with recall ofnewer material
    • 24. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.RetroactiveInterferenceDifficulty in recall of information because of laterexposure to different material
    • 25. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Forgetting: WhenMemory FailsCue dependant forgettingForgetting that occurs when there areinsufficient retrieval cues to regenerateinformation that is in memory.Biological reasons
    • 26. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Memory DysfunctionsAlzheimer’s diseaseAn illness that includes among itssymptoms severe memoryproblemsKorsakoff’s syndromeA disease afflicting long-termalcoholics
    • 27. Copyright © 2005 TheMcGraw-Hill Companies,Inc. Permission required forreproduction or display.Memory DysfunctionsAmnesiaMemory loss that occurs withoutother mental difficultiesRetrograde amnesiaMemory is lost for occurrencesprior to a certain eventAnterograde amnesiaLoss of memory occurs for eventsfollowing an injuryKeith Brofsky/Getty Images
    • 28. How can you improve your memory?Sleep wellOrganize your lifeEat well and eat rightKey words / take effective notesPractice and rehearseDon’t’ believe claims about drugs that improvememory
    • 29. Conclusion :In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain,and recall information and experiences. Memory is one of themost important things to our life. It helps us to improve ourability to understand the world. Memory traditionally can bedevided into three parts : sensory , short-term and long-termmemory.
    • 30. Conclusion :Memory loss through decay come from nonuse of the memory;memory loss through interference is due to the presence ofother information in memory, whereas, cue dependant forgettingis due to insufficient cues available to retrieve information frommemory.
    • 31. References :Information was taken on September 16thRobert Feldman. “Understanding Psychology”, New York (N.Y.) : McGraw-Hill, 2008http://www.wikihow.com/Improve-Your-Memoryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declarative_memoryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procedural_memoryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Episodic_memoryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_memory
    • 32. Pictures references:All pictures were picked on September 16thhttp://www.montonfashion.com/lit/wp212/wp-content/uploads/2008/09/smelio-laikrodis.jpghttp://www.kaunozinios.lt/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/klaustukas_sxc.jpghttp://www.trukme.lt/uploads/images/LMDP/Lamiga/23_m0204_pilka.jpghttp://blog.wonghongting.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/thinking-pic.jpghttp://ims.mii.lt/klav/nuotrauka1.gifhttp://hdnaujienos.lt/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/1-13-09-samsung_p2370.jpghttp://www.tykiai.lt/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/deze-300x300.jpghttp://blog.cyclope-series.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/idea_bulb.jpghttp://www.nurseweb.villanova.edu/womenwithdisabilities/Stress/Thought2.jpghttp://www.dynamicflight.com/avcfibook/learning_process/1-9.gif

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