PERCEPTION What you get from this picture.?? Different people understood same things differently. This occurs due to perception.
PERCEPTION DEFINITION Oxford defines perception as “receiving, collecting, action of taking possession, apprehension with the mind or senses.” Simply, “it is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of the environment by organizing and interpreting sensory information.”
PERCEPTUAL PROCESS MODEL Environmental Stimuli Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting Selective Attention Organization and Interpretation Attitudes and Behavior
FEATURES OF PERCEPTION It is an intellectual process. It is a process of becoming aware of situations. It is a psychological process. It differs from person to person.
PERCEPTION PROCESS. Receiving stimuli. Selection of stimuli. Organisation of stimuli. Interpretation of stimuli.
LEARNINGLearning is another important variableof human behaviour. Learning is a termfrequently used by the people in a widevariety of contexts. It is a continuousprocess. It occurs all the time.
DEFINITIONSE. R Hilgard defines learning as “a permanent changein behaviour that occurs as a result of prior experience”.Mitchel has defined learning is “the process by whichnew behaviour are acquired”.
So it seen that all are generally agreed,learning involves changes in behaviour,practicing new behaviour and establishingpermanency in the change.
Features of Learning Learning involves change in behaviour. This change in behaviour may not benecessarily being an improvement over previousbehaviour. This change may be good or bad from anorganizational print of view.
The change must be relatively permanent Temporary changes may be only reflectiveand fail to represent experience.Learning is reflected in behaviour. The behavioural change must be based onsome form of practical experience.
The practice of experience must bereinforced in order for learning to occur. Learning occurs through out one’s life.
Steps in Learning Process Input There should be a stimulus which isclearer to the learner. Without a stimulus,learning does not take place.
Response The stimulus results in responses. Responsesmay be physical from or may be in terms of attitudes,familiarity, perception or other complex phenomena.A person should be encouraged and allowed topractice the performance response.
Motivation There must be a motivation or drive beforethere can be any learning. Motivation issomething that moves a person to action, andcontinues him in the course of action alreadyinitiated. It includes interest and the attitude tolearn. He is likely to learn even though hepossesses adequate capacity to learn andunderstands what is being taught.
Reinforcement It is the fundamental condition of learning.Reinforcement in learning is some type of rewardfollowing the performance of an activity that leads tothe likely hood of the activity being performed again.If a person is not rewarded or does not perceive thelike of the reward in near future, he stops learning.
THEORIES OF LEARNING
THEORIES OF LEARNINGLearning is the acquisition of new behaviour. Peopleacquire new behaviour frequently. A number oftheories of learning are so far developed. Thesetheories can be grouped in three categories. They areconditioning theory, Cognitive theory and Sociallearning theory.
1) Conditioning TheoryConditioning has two main theories;1. Classical conditioning2. Operant conditioning.
a) Classical ConditioningClassical conditioning states that behaviour which islearned by repetitive association between a stimulus and aresponse. Classical conditioning through offers explanation forlearning, fails to explain total behaviour. Certainpsychologists mention classical conditioning is passive.
b) Operant ConditioningOperant can be defined as behaviour that produceseffects. Operant conditioning acts on environment toproduces consequences. It is basically assumed thatman’s behaviour is determined by environment andindividual learn by producing alteration in theirenvironment. Operant conditioning presupposes thathuman being explore their environment and act uponit.
2) Cognitive Theory of LearningCognitive theory is very much alive and relevant today.It refers to an individual’s ideas, thoughts’ knowledge,interpretations, and understanding about him and hisenvironment. This theory was developed by Tolman.This theory assumes that the organism learns themeaning of various objects and events and learnedresponses depend upon the meaning assigned tostimuli.
3) Social Learning TheorySocial learning theory stresses upon the ability of anindividual to learn by observing model-parents, teachers,motion pictures, T.V artists, bosses and others. Manypattern of behaviour are watching the behaviour of othersand observes its consequences for them.
Principles of LearningLearning principle help a manager, gain maximumefficiency in a learning situation. The learning principlesincludes;1. Motivation2. Knowledge of Results3. Reinforcement4. Schedules of learning5. Whole versus part learning6. Learning Curves7. Meaningfulness of materials