Hacking• Hacking is an act of penetrating computer systems to gain knowledge about the system and how it works.• Hacking is the act of gaining access without legal authorization to a computer or computer network or network resources.
Hacking means making somethingwork regardless of the circumstances
Ethical Hacking• Ethical hacking is the use of hacking knowledge to attempt to enter a network to find its loopholes and back doors.• It is often referred to as ‘legalized hacking’ and yes it is indeed legal and can even reap a lot of profits for highly skilled individuals.
Hacker• Hackers are actually computer enthusiasts who know a lot about computers and computer networks and use this knowledge with a criminal intent.• He is a person who uses his hacking skills and tool sets for destructive or offensive purposes such as disseminating viruses or performing DoS attacks to compromise or bring down systems and networks.• Hackers are sometimes paid to damage corporate reputations or steal or reveal credit-card information
Types of Hackers• White hat – Good guys Don’t use their skills for illegal purposes Computer security experts• Black hat – Bad guys Use their skills for illegal purposes Criminals
Types of Hackers• Script kiddies – Wannabe hackers No technical skills Have no clue about what’s happening in• Elite hackers – Usually professionals Develop new attacks/tools
Why perform an ethical hack? To determine flaws and vulnerabilities To provide a quantitative metric for evaluating systems and networks To measure against pre-established baselines To determine risk to the organization To design mitigating controls
Skills Required Becoming an Ethical Hacker Criminal mindset Thorough knowledge about Computer programming, Networking and operating systems. highly targeted platforms (such as Windows, Unix, and Linux), etc. Patience, persistence, and immense perseverance
Footprinting Gathering information of target information Internet Domain name, network blocks, IP addresses open to Net, TCP and UDP services running, ACLs, IDSes Intranet Protocols (IP,NETBIOS), internal domain names, etc Remote access Phone numbers, remote control, telnet, authentication Extranet Connection origination, destination, type, access control
Scanning After obtaining a list of network and IP addresses scanning starts: ping sweeps (active machines): user pinger in Windows and nmap in Linux/UNIX. This is an example of pinger. TCP port scanning (open ports in active machines): SYN and connect scans work with most hosts. SYN is stealthier and may not be logged. In Windows NT use SuperScan and in Linux/UNIX use nmap. See an example of SuperScan. BUT, hackers use scripts with binary files, not graphical tools. 14
Types of Scanning Scanning Type PurposePort scanning Determines open ports and servicesNetwork scanning IP addressesVulnerability scanning Presence of known weaknesses
Enumeration• After scanning process and is the process of gathering and compiling usernames, machine names, network resources, shares, and services.• It also refers to actively querying or connecting to a target system to acquire this information.
Attack• SQL injection• SQL injection is a code injection technique that exploits a security vulnerability occurring in the database layer of an application.• The vulnerability is present when user input is either incorrectly filtered for string literal escape characters embedded in SQL statements or user input is not strongly typed and thereby unexpectedly executed.
SQL injection• During a SQL injection attack, malicious code is inserted into a web form field or the website’s code to make a system execute a command shell or other arbitrary commands.• Just as a legitimate user enters queries and additions to the SQL database via a web form, the hacker can insert commands to the SQL server through the same web form field.
Wireless Hacking Techniques• Cracking encryption and authentication mechanism• Eavesdropping or sniffing• Denial of Service• AP masquerading or spoofing• MAC spoofing
Wi-Fi network security• Use Strong Encryption Protocol• Don’t Announce Yourself-Disable SSID• Change Default Administrator Passwords and Usernames• Limit Access To Your Access Point• Do Not Auto-Connect to Open Wi-Fi Networks• Assign Static IP Addresses to Devices• Enable Firewalls On Each Computer and the Router• Position the Router or Access Point Safe