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Solectron: From Contract Manufacturer to Global Supply Chain Integrator
 

Solectron: From Contract Manufacturer to Global Supply Chain Integrator

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Solectron: From Contract Manufacturer to Global Supply Chain Integrator

Solectron: From Contract Manufacturer to Global Supply Chain Integrator

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    Solectron: From Contract Manufacturer to Global Supply Chain Integrator Solectron: From Contract Manufacturer to Global Supply Chain Integrator Presentation Transcript

    • Case Study Solectron: From Contract Manufacturer to Global Supply Chain Integrator Prepared by: Shaheen Sardar SCM Lab. Department of Industrial and Management Engineering, Hanyang University, South Korea
    • The Electronics Manufacturing Services Industry • Electronics manufacturing services (EMS):  Also called contract manufacturing.  Large number of small job shops that manufactured assemblies for OEMs. • Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs): OEMs are the Clients that used EMS to:  Increase their own production capabilities.  Get rid of production that did not contribute to competitive advantage (e.g. cables or simple circuit boards). • Growth of OEMs and EMS industry:  From 1970s to early 1980s, consumer electronics required low production levels.  In 1980s and 1990s, the industry continued its rapid growth. The contract manufacturer Solectron grew rapidly. Became a leading company by the mid 1990s.
    • Overview: Solectron Corporation (Solar + Electronics) • • • • • • • • • • • Was: Global electronics manufacturing company Founded: 1977 Initial purpose: Solar energy equipment Headquarters: Milpitas, California, US Focus: Quality and company culture Key customers: Ericsson, Cisco, Compaq, HP and IBM Locations: 50+ in more than 20 countries Employees: 80,000 Economic downturn: 2001 2001: Laid off 20,000 employees, closed some facilities Purchased by Flextronics: 2007
    • Solectron’s Sales in Various Sectors
    • “Be the best and continuously improve” “Our mission is to provide worldwide responsiveness to our customers by offering the highest quality, lowest total cost, customized, integrated, design, supply-chain and manufacturing solutions through long-term partnerships based on integrity and ethical business practices.” • Customer First • Respect for Individual • Quality • Supplier Partnerships • Shareholder Value • Social Responsibility
    • The Five S’s • Seiri • Seiton • Seiso Organization Orderliness Cleanliness • Seiketsu • Shitsuke Standardized Cleanup Discipline
    • Early Cultural Development • Started in 1978, when Dr. Winston Chen joined the company as president. • He believed: We can achieve lowest cost only by achieving highest quality standards. • He used following two basic principles:  Superior customer service.  Respect for the individual. “We don‟t tell people, „You’re good,‟ or „You’re bad.‟. We say, „Here’s what customers say.‟ That‟s a very powerful tool.” Dr. Winnston Chen
    • Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Awards Dr. Koichi Nishimura’s approach was:  Never be satisfied.  Continuously question existing practices.  Struggle for continuous improvement. • For his advance manufacturing practices, Solectron was twice awarded Malcolm Baldrige Award for manufacturing Quality. Most people think we're a manufacturing company. We're good at manufacturing, but we're really a service company. Dr. Koichi Nishimura, Solectron CEO
    • Day-to-Day Practice • 7:30 A.M. meetings on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday. • 30-50 management people. Tuesday • Quality progress overview. • Internal customer satisfaction review. • Review of management training provided by a combination of company executives and external guest speakers. • Highly focused on quality. • Process improvement. • Knowledge sharing. Wednesday • Prevention rather than correction. Thursday • Customer satisfaction. • Program management. • Customers grade its performance every week.
    • Culture and Acquisition Integration Growth strategy: Acquired manufacturing operations from customers through 1990s. • Assigned an integration team to work with acquired operations. • Team (4-8 members) represent finance, Human resources, operations, materials, and information technology. • Team worked with acquired company for 3-6 months after:  The acquisition was finalized.  Training the new employees.  Acting as a Solectron resource.
    • Evolution from Contract Manufacturer to Global Supply Chain Integrator • It increased size and scope of business. • It started outsourcing in 2001. • Eventually, Solectron was in stronger position (than its customers) to negotiate with parts suppliers. • Solectron began to: Take on additional purchasing. Parts inventory. Kitting responsibility.
    • Outsourcing decision Major strategic decision Upsetting and difficult to reverse Affected thousands of workers
    • 3 Types of Analysis before Outsourcing Strategic analysis: • Strategic importance • Synchronization of manufacturing strategy with business strategy Operational analysis: • Performance targets and needs of manufacturing and supply chain (e.g. unit cost and lead time) Organizational analysis: • Difficulty in transformation of supply chain
    • Solectron’s Central Theme about Outsourcing Allocate their own resources on core competencies Research and development Marketing
    • 3 Benefits of Outsourcing Time-tomarket • Decreased by outsourcing Economics • Greater cost savings • Risk reduction due to: • (1) product changes • (2) short product life cycles • (3) other sources of inefficiencies Technology • Access to latest manufacturing technologies • Reduced complexity of manufacturing process • Saving excessive cost
    • Technological Developments • 1970s-1980s: Printed circuit board (PCB) assemblies (Pin-through-hole (PTH)). • PTH was an inexpensive method for low-volume assembly. • In 1983, Solectron began building a new type of PCB assembly (i.e. Surface mount technology (SMT)). • SMT offered high volume assembly. • Capital cost of SMT was much higher than PTH. • Solectron could balance cost of SMT equipment across the volume of many customers.
    • New Business Model • In 1992, Solectron introduced a new business model when it purchased manufacturing sites from IBM. • Model was repeated many times, and Solectron rapidly grew. • Solectron acquired manufacturing facilities from customers, and used them to fulfill long-term supply contracts. • This allowed for risk pooling due to:  Fluctuating demands from different companies were smoothed.  Safety stock levels of common component inventory could be reduced.
    • New Business Model • This model supported OEMs to: Concentrate on their core competencies (i.e. product definition, engineering, and marketing). Use Solectron production. to perform procurement and • Procurement and production were the core competencies of Solectron.
    • New Business Model Consolidation and Relocation: • Consolidation within the EMS industry in late 1990s. • Solectron acquired two top-ten EMS companies. • Solectron moved production of high volume products to Asia in order to:  Decrease production costs.  Move production to future high growth markets. • Through acquisitions, Solectron developed a global network of facilities located close to:  Its customers.  To emerging markets.
    • New Business Model Information systems: • Solectron established a Web-enabled extranet that allowed information sharing. • Equal access to all parties for planning and decision analysis. • This helped to minimize “bullwhip” effect that occurred when: Making decisions in an uncertain environment when: Demand signals were not aligned.
    • New Business Model Information systems: Web Publishing Suppliers Supplier/Customer Information through the Web Sites World Wide Materials Database Product Data Management (PDM) Connectivity Customer Shop Floor Control “Core” Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Applications: -Materials -Manufacturing -Finance -Service Applications -Multisite Integration Model Report Writer Fast “What if” Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Other Financial Applications Financial Consolidation Warehouse Management System Global Enterprise and Resource System (GEARS)
    • Solectron Corporation Business Units Technology Solutions • Provided building blocks used to quickly get products to market. • 11% revenues of company’s total sales in 2000. Global Manufacturing • New product introduction services. • Design for manufacturing, concurrent engineering, and prototyping. • 88% revenues of company’s total sales in 2000. Global Services • Offered repair, upgrades, and maintenance. • Warehousing, logistics, returns management, engineering change management, and end-of-life management. • Less than 2% revenues of company’s total sales in 2000.
    • Global Materials Services Group →Supports three business units →Offers following services Managing suppliers Handling procurement Optimizing inventories Forecasting Logistics support
    • Situation in the Fall of 2001 • In the fall of 2000, customer demand started to become greater than supply. • Solectron observed forecasting inefficiencies. • Solectron tried to avoid excessive orders from OEMs. • Strong culture to “continuously improve” and belief in “customer first” made it difficult to resist the pressure to increase production. • In early 2001, demand started to decrease. • New orders decreased from $6.5 billion in the December, 2000 to $2.1 billion in June, 2001. • Revenue declined from $5.7 billion in the December, 2000 to $3.6 billion in August, 2001.
    • Situation in the Fall of 2001 • Solectron was unable to stop orders it had placed with its 4000 suppliers. • This increased the inventories. • Solectron was able to decrease its inventories by: Returning excess material to OEM customers. Returning to its previous JIT practices. • Solectron announced restructuring by: Workforce reductions. Facility closures.
    • Situation in the Fall of 2001 • Solectron formed a high level crossfunctional team to: Validate the value scheme at each Solectron site. Develop restructuring goals and plans. Monitor progress. • The team evaluated: New cost structures. More efficient organizational designs. Improved customer relationship management.
    • Situation in the Fall of 2001 • By October 2001, the workforce reduced from its peak of 80,000 to less than 60,000. • Number of SMT lines cut from 1100 to less than 700. • Floor space had been reduced from 14 million to less than 11 million square feet.
    • Situation in the Fall of 2001 • Solectron remained optimistic for the longterm. • Use of outsourcing as an OEM strategy continued to accelerate. • It expected dramatic growth in Asia.
    • Situation in the Fall of 2001 • It struggled with the question of “How to weather the current storm and ensure that it was properly positioned for the future.”
    • June 2007 • On June 5, 2007, Flextronics International Ltd., the Singapore based contract electronic assembly firm in the U.S. announced its intention to buy Solectron. • On October 15, 2007, the evening before of the Solectron's 30th anniversary, Solectron was acquired by Flextronics.
    • Market Mix of Flextronics International Ltd.
    • Study Questions 1. How has Solectron’s value to its customers evolved over time? 2. How has global expansion contributed to Solectron’s ability to move from a contract manufacturing supplier to a supply chain integrator? 3. How has the company been able to successfully integrate its acquisitions? 4. What was the impact of the company's culture on the success of the company, on the business downturn of 2001, and its ability to respond to the business downturn? 5. What additional products and services should Solectron provide to its customers in future? 6. What should the company do in the short term? In the long term?
    • Question 1: How has Solectron’s value to its customers evolved over time? Answer: Dr. Chen’s Practices  Highest Quality Standards at Lowest Cost  Superior Customer Service New Business Units  Global Services offered product repair, upgrades, and maintenance  Technology Solutions helped minimize time-to-market Long term Contracts  Reduced prices for volume purchases
    • Question 2: How has global expansion contributed to Solectron’s ability to move from a contract manufacturing supplier to a supply chain integrator? Answer: Information Integration: Reduced bullwhip, early problem detection, fast responses. Workflow Coordination: Improved services, earlier time to market, efficient and accurate gains. New Business Models: Higher efficiency, new markets, new products.
    • Question 3: How has the company been able to successfully integrate its acquisitions? Answer: • Company culture supported integration. • They assigned an integration team to work with acquired operations. This integration team was composed of 4 to 8 people representing the major functional areas: Finance, Human Resources, Operations, Materials, and Information Technology. • The integration team became involved even before the acquisition was closed. • A detailed plan was created after the acquisition was closed.
    • Question 4: What was the impact of the company's culture on the success of the company, on the business downturn of 2001, and its ability to respond to the business downturn? Answer: 1. Continuous improvement: Could have slowed the response to business downturn. 2. Quality: Advantage in the marketplace. 3. Customer satisfaction
    • Question 5: What additional products and services should Solectron provide to its customers in future? Answers: • Solectron has remained optimistic despite economic hardships. • The firm claims demand for OEM customers would soon increase and also the EMS industry would expand substantially in future. • Continue their history of success in Quality and Customer Service by looking for new markets to enter. • Thinking globally-Approximately 50 sites worldwide. • Bought by Flextronics-(2007) to better serve customers increasingly complex requirements more efficiently and more competitively.
    • Question 6: What should the company do in the short term? In the long term? Answers: Short term:  Continue cutting costs and inventory levels.  Keep struggling for continuous improvement.  Continue to be in a position to negotiate with suppliers. Long term:  Keep adapting to economy and the customers demand.  Continue to make acquisitions to help fill long term contracts.  Continue to be a global force that focuses on quality.
    • References • Barnes, E., Dai, J., Deng, S., Down, D., Goh, M., Lau, H. C., & Sharafali, M. (2000). Electronics manufacturing service industry. The Logistics Institute–Asia Pacific, Georgia Tech and The National University of Singapore, Singapore. • Simchi-Levi, D., Kaminsky, P., and Simchi-Levi, E., & (2008). Designing and managing the supply chain: Concepts, strategies, and cases (3rd edition). United-States: McGraw-Hill. • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solectron • http://www.flextronics.com/