COURSE TITLE: Environmental issues of textileindustryCHAPTER 6: Eco-labelling (Oeko- tex-100 and EU eco-label) Prepared by: Shaheen Sardar BSc textile engineering MS Textile Management Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan Email: email@example.com
OEKO-TEX® STANDARD 100• A voluntary testing and certification system, which is uniform worldwide, for the objective assessment of potential harmful substances in textile products at all stages of production throughout the textile value chain.
PRODUCT RANGE• All textile products including raw materials, yarns, textile fabrics, finished textile products can be certified.• Basic principle: All components of the product, including interlinings and accessories such as buttons, zip fasteners etc. must meet the requirements of the Oeko-Tex® criteria catalogue without exception.
TESTING OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES The Oeko-Tex® laboratory tests currently comprise over 100 individual parameters:• Substances which are prohibited by law (e.g. carcinogenic dyestuffs).• Substances which are regulated by law (e.g. formaldehyde, phthalates, heavy metals or pentachlorophenol).
TESTING OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES• Substances which, according to the latest understanding, have been proven to be harmful to health (e.g. pesticides, allergy- inducing dyestuffs, tin-organic compounds).• Precautionary parameters to safeguard health (e.g. a skin-friendly pH-value, colorfastness).
CERTIFICATION RESPONSIBILITY• The International Oeko-Tex® Association, a grouping of 15 independent textile research and test institutes in Europe and Japan with representative offices in a further 45 countries around the world, is responsible for Oeko-Tex® certification.• The Oeko-Tex® certificate is issued by the relevant test institute following successful testing. Germany and France are exceptions: here, products are tested by the authorized test institutes, and certificates are issued by certification centers specifically set up for this purpose.
AIM OF CERTIFICATION• Risk assessment of potential harmful substances in textile products that exist within the globally organized textile and clothing industry, creating a uniform safety standard which is applicable throughout the world.
CONCEPT OF CERTIFICATION The Oeko-Tex® testing and certification system is based on 3 basic principles: (1) Appropriateness:• The more intensively a textile comes into contact with the skin, the higher the human ecological requirements which must be met.
CONCEPT OF CERTIFICATION (2) Modular Principle:• The Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 makes it possible to certify textile products at all stages of the processing chain (including accessories).• It also expressly permits the use of certified source materials. This means that duplicate tests can be avoided, and the additional costs for product testing are equally distributed between all partners involved throughout the textile chain.• The responsibility for the human ecological quality of the products lies with the party who is in a position to determine the chemicals employed in production in the form of dyestuffs and auxiliaries by the combination of materials used.
CONCEPT OF CERTIFICATION (3) Comprehensive Security:• Textile products may only be certified if all components, including non-textile accessories, meet the requirements of a uniform Oeko-Tex® product class.• To maintain the required security, the Oeko- Tex® Association carries out product controls on a minimum of 15% of all certificates issued on the market on an annual basis.
CERTIFICATION PROCEDURE• Certification of products by one of the authorized Oeko-Tex® test institutes follows a strictly defined procedure, and experience shows that this takes four weeks per certificate, although this can be processed more quickly in individual cases where possible.
CERTIFICATION PROCEDURE• (1) Company’s application for certification to one of the Oeko-Tex® member institutes or their representative offices.• (2) Representative sample materials submitted for laboratory testing.• (3) Individual test plan drawn up to specify the scope of the tests and the article group to be certified.
CERTIFICATION PROCEDURE• (4) Textile samples submitted tested within the stipulated Oeko-Tex® methodology in the laboratory.• (5) Oeko-Tex® institute informs the applicant of the results of the laboratory tests in the form of a test report.• (6) Applicant confirms in a declaration of conformity that the products in current production demonstrate the same human ecological properties as the samples tested.
CERTIFICATION PROCEDURE• (7) To ensure this, the applicant must provide the test institute in question with credible evidence that a suitable quality assurance system has been put into place. In the frame of the certification process the applicants company will be audited by an auditor of the mandated Oeko-Tex® institute.• (8) Oeko-Tex® certificate issued by the test institutes in question or the relevant certification centre
COST OF CERTIFICATION• The financial cost of certification according to Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 is made up of the costs for laboratory testing, the expenses for the company audit by the relevant Oeko-Tex® institute, and a license fee to cover the one-year duration of the certificate.• The cost depends on the type of textile product in question and the method of manufacture, and an estimate can be obtained as part of the application and specification of the individual test plan.
FUNCTION OF THE CERTIFICATE• An Oeko-Tex® certificate is issued for a period of one year and can be extended on application.• In trade, it serves as evidence of successful certification and authorizes the certificate holder to mark his products with the label “Confidence in textiles” for the period of validity, or to advertise in other forms.
FUNCTION OF THE CERTIFICATE• The certificate includes the test number used on the label and a description of the article group which demonstrates precisely which products the certificate refers to and to which product class they have been allocated.
ADVANTAGES OF CERTIFICATION FORTHE TEXTILE AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY• Health Protection: Textiles of all kinds which pose no risk to health.• In-house quality assurance: Sensible complement to in-house quality assurance with reference to the optimization of human ecological product quality.• Quality Improvement: Annual adaptation of the Oeko-Tex® criteria catalogue means that companies’ own quality standards are constantly being improved.
ADVANTAGES OF CERTIFICATION FORTHE TEXTILE AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY• Credibility: Product testing and certification by internationally renowned and independent test institutes.• Transparency: Accelerated exchange of information and simplification of supply relationships based on the internationally binding criteria catalogue.
ADVANTAGES OF CERTIFICATION FORTHE TEXTILE AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY• Marketing: Additional sales argument by means of the proactive labeling of certified products with the Oeko-Tex® label.• Brand Character: High level of acceptance and prevalence of the Oeko-Tex® criteria within the textile and clothing industry and high level of awareness of the label amongst many end users.
FOUR PRODUCT CLASSESProduct Textiles and textile toys for babies and toddlers under threeClass I years of age. (e.g. baby products of all types such as romper suits, pushchair covers, textile toys, baby slings etc.)Product Textiles which, when used as intended, have a large portionClass II of their surface coming into direct contact with the skin (e.g. underwear, bedding, terry goods, shirts, blouses etc.)Product Textiles which, when used as intended, do not come intoClass III contact with the skin, or only to a small extent (e.g. jackets, coats etc.)Product Furnishing materials for decorative purposes (e.g. tableClass IV linen and curtains, as well as textile wall and floor coverings, mattress cores etc.)
FOUR PRODUCT CLASSES• Products with Oeko-Tex® certification are allocated to one of the four product classes based on the intended use of the textile.• The more closely a product comes into contact with the skin (and the more sensitive the human skin), the more stringent the human ecological criteria which apply for laboratory testing.• Products for babies and toddlers are therefore subject to the most stringent human ecological requirements.
OEKO-TEX®STANDARD 1000• The tests for harmful substances in textiles specified in the Oeko-tex® Standard 100 were first introduced in 1992 and these met with great success.• As a logical progression of this ecological concept, the “Oeko-Tex® International – Association for the Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Textiles” introduced the Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000 for production ecology in 1995.
OEKO-TEX®STANDARD 1000• It is a testing, auditing and certification system for environmentally-friendly production sites throughout the textile manufacturing chain.• For certification according to Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000, companies must meet stipulated criteria relating to their environmentally-friendly manufacturing processes and provide evidence that at least 30% of total production is already certified according to Oeko-Tex® Standard 100.
OEKO-TEX®STANDARD 1000• The required criteria include:• Avoiding the use of environmentally-damaging auxiliaries and dyestuffs• Compliance with standard values for waste water and exhaust air treatment• Efficient energy consumption• Avoiding noise and dust pollution• Specified measures for safety at the workplace• Use of child labor prohibited• Introduction of basic elements of an environmental management system
OEKO-TEX®STANDARD 1000• The company is monitored by an independent auditor from “Oeko-Tex® International – Association for the Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Textiles”. The certificate is valid for three years and must be renewed regularly.• Oeko-Tex Standard 100 certifies the textile products themselves.• Oeko-Tex Standard 1000 certifies the production facilities that make those products.
OEKO-TEX®STANDARD 1000• If a company is certified for compliance with Oeko-Tex® Standard 1000 and its products are already certified for compliance with Oeko-Tex® Standard 100, it can obtain the Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 plus label for these products under certain conditions.
EU ECO-LABELINTRODUCTION:• An eco-labelled product generates less environmental impacts on air, water, soil and human health throughout its life cycle, from raw material extraction to end of life (“from cradle to grave”).
INTRODUCTION• The EU eco-label is a voluntary product label. It was established in 1992 to encourage businesses to market products and services that meet high standards of environmental performance and quality.
INTRODUCTION• The EU Eco-label is an official label managed by the European Commission which certifies that a product or service is of good environmental quality and guaranteed technical performance.
INTRODUCTION• The labels are awarded according to environmental criteria set by the member states of the EU with involvement of industry and consumer and environmental NGOs (non- governmental organizations) European Commission of Environment.• These criteria cover the whole life cycle of a product, from the extraction of raw materials, through manufacture, distribution, use and disposal of the product.
INTRODUCTION• These assessment criteria are not generic. Specific products and services have their own criteria.• There is a significant body of legislation that has been assembled to back up the EU eco- label which has been periodically reviewed since 1992 to keep the text up to date and ensure that lessons learned in the implementation of eco-label schemes are incorporated.
INTRODUCTION• Products include Cleaning products, Textile products and footwear, Paints and varnishes, Electronic Equipment, Floor coverings, Furniture, Gardening, Household Appliances, Lubricants, Mattresses, Copying and graphic paper, Tissue papers etc.
MAIN AIMS OF ECO-LABEL• To achieve significant environmental improvements. It foresees this by developing, publishing and promoting criteria that will push the market forward, in order to minimize the environmental impacts of a wide range of products and services over their whole life- cycle;
MAIN AIMS OF ECO-LABEL• To ensure the credibility of the award by efficient administration and through criteria which are environmentally strong, are based on good science, including the precautionary principle, take account of consumer health; require good product performance, are developed transparently and cost-effectively, with the participation of stakeholders, are reasonably attainable, and are up to date;
MAIN AIMS OF ECO-LABEL• To encourage manufacturers, retailers and service providers to apply for the award, to publicize their own participation in the scheme, and to promote the availability of eco-labeled products and information about them;• To encourage purchasers to buy products and services with the award;• To improve consumer awareness and behavior regarding the environmentally optimal use of products and services.
ADVANTAGES OF THE EU FLOWER LABEL• The European Flower label offers several characteristics that offer advantages to producers and retailers. It has a high reputation based on strong and reliable criteria and is a guarantee for high environmental performance. Putting the eco- label on textile products means that they have the following assets:
ADVANTAGES OF THE EU FLOWER LABEL• Reduce water and air pollution during fiber production.• Limited use of substances which are harmful to the environment and in particular to the aquatic environment and health.• Guarantee of shrink resistance during washing and drying.• Guarantee of color resistance to perspiration, washing, wet and dry rubbing, and light exposure.• Whole production chain covered.
ADVANTAGES OF THE EU FLOWER LABEL• Other advantages of the EU Flower label include:• It is supported by public authorities.• It is certified by an independent Competent Body.• It is easy to spot.• It is scientifically based.• The quality of the product is guaranteed to be at least as good as equivalent products with no environmental benefits.• It covers all the main environmental impacts of a product over its life-cycle.• It is recognized in all the EU countries plus Norway and Iceland
EU-ECOLABEL AND OTHER NATIONAL ECO-LABELS• Even though national labels have been a very successful experience and have certainly contributed to the environmental awareness of people, the progress towards a single market needs a common instrument that prevents confusion amongst consumers and producers.
EU-ECOLABEL AND OTHER NATIONAL ECO-LABELS• One of the main ideas behind the creation of the EU Eco-label was to provide information that would be consistent across the whole EU. The EU Eco-label is the result of a common policy - all Member States are asked to approve the ecological criteria - which should therefore be the reference for consumers.
EU-ECOLABEL AND OTHER NATIONAL ECO-LABELS• The advantage of the EU Eco-label is that it promotes transparency and simplicity, since the criteria applied to a product remains the same, regardless of the Member State in which it is produced or sold.• The EU Eco-label and national eco-labels can co-exist happily. When a product has been awarded with both national and EU eco- labels, you will find the two logos displayed side by side on the product.
EU ECOLABEL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCHEMES• Environmental management schemes such as ISO 14001 are focused on the general environmental performance of the company.• Eco-labeling schemes like the EU eco-label focus on the specific products or services of the firm.
EU-ECOLABEL AND TEXTILE INDUSTRY• Many textiles and clothing exporters have already started answering to developed countries environmental concerns by awarding foreign Ecolabel-largely the Oekotex- on their products.• The EU is a major market and hence these certifications have brought several market advantages including market access, higher price and overall quality improvements.
EU-ECOLABEL AND TEXTILE INDUSTRY• It is felt that in future, an EU-wide label like the ‘EU Flower’ would be better, as it will have wider acceptance in Green procurement schemes of Governments within the EU, besides the fact that its comprehensive criteria can better protect the domestic environment as well.
GREEN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT• Basing all purchasing decisions and allocation of contracts on environmental criteria along with other criteria such as price and quality.• The easiest way to do Green Public Procurement is to use the European Eco-label.• Companies which pride themselves on environmental stewardship and thoughtful care of the environment may use green procurement, among many other tactics, to ensure that they do business in an environmentally responsible way.
GREEN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT• Within a procurement department, green procurement can involve changes in department procedure which are designed to benefit the environment. For example, rather than having people submit purchase orders and requests on paper, the procurement department might switch to electronic methods of communication so that paper is not wasted. The department might also engage in environmentally friendly activities like reducing energy usage, keeping plants around the office to improve air quality.
GREEN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT• During the procurement process, green procurement involves seeking out products which are manufactured sustainably.
ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF EU ECO-LABELLED PRODUCTS• A study conducted in 2004 on the Direct and Indirect benefits of the EU Eco-label, showed that with only a modest five percent market share for EU eco-labeled products in the European Union, the savings comparing to typically performing versions (standard products) would be substantial, including the following:
RESOURCE SAVED /AVOIDED PER Amount saved per yearYEARElectricity 14,700,000 kWhCO2 produced from energy use 9,318,000 tonnes CO2Water use 12,285,000 million litresReduced use of hazardous 13,800 tonnessubstancesMaterials savings (other than 530,700 tonnes of materialshazardous substances)Reduced discharges to water 30,400 tonnes of CODReduced air pollution 17,500 tonnes of pollutants
SIZE OF THE MARKET OF EUROPEAN ECO-LABELLED PRODUCTS – 260 holders as of September 2005 – About 2500 articles split in 23 product groups300 Number of companies250 Millions of articles/items sold20015010050 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003