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Chapter 5; solid waste management and resource recovery


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CHAPTER 4: Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery. This chapter includes general concepts about Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery. Examples of textile waste management are included.

CHAPTER 4: Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery. This chapter includes general concepts about Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery. Examples of textile waste management are included.

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  • 1. COURSE TITLE: Environmental issues of textileindustry CHAPTER 5: Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery Prepared by: Shaheen Sardar BSc textile engineering MS Textile Management Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan Email:
  • 2. • Dedicated to respected teachers and dear students of Pakistan and the world
  • 3. OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE• The rapid advancements in technology have brought significant comfort in the lives of human being, but the environment is constantly subject to great pressures causing an imbalance in the eco system.• The course shall give awareness to the students about the environmental issues particularly related with the textile industry.This course covers following two areas.1. Basic “Environmental engineering and Science” concepts.2. Environmental issues of textile industry.
  • 4. Course contentsCOURSE TITLE: Environmental Issues of Textile Industry(According to Higher education Commission, Pakistan)Module 1: Textile & Environment• Air pollution• Water pollution• Noise pollution• Effect of fiber production & manufacturing industry on environment• Effect of yarn manufacturing industry on environment• Effect of fabric manufacturing industry on environment• Effect of textile processing industry on environment• Effect of garment manufacturing industry on environment
  • 5. Course contentsModule 2: Environmental Management Systems• ISO 14000Module 3: Eco-labeling• Oeko -tex- 100• EU eco-labelModule 4: Cleaner Production Technologies Related to Textile Industry• Sources, impact, monitoring, reduction and control of pollution in textile industry
  • 6. Course contentsModule 5: Textile Effluents & Waste Management• Environmental impact assessment• Environmental audits• National Environmental Quality Standards• Textile effluent treatment methods: physical; chemical; biological• Textile waste managementModule 6: Occupational Health and Safety• OSHA standards, Personal Protective Equipments.
  • 7. Solid Waste Management and Resource RecoveryREFERENCES:• Introduction to environmental engineering and Science by Gilbert M. Masters• Textile Waste Recycling by Mrs. P. M. Katkar and Ms. S. M. Bairgadar .pdf file on internet search.• Internet search• This chapter includes general concepts about Solid Waste Management and Resource Recovery. Examples of textile waste management are included.• Please advise me by email if you need complete notes (.ppt and .doc) regarding this course. (Thanks)
  • 8. INTRODUCTION• Solid wastes are wastes that are not liquid or gaseous, such as durable goods, non-durable goods, containers and packaging, food scraps, yard trimmings, and miscellaneous inorganic wastes.
  • 9. INTRODUCTION• Municipal solid waste (MSW) is solid waste from residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial sources, but it does not include such things as construction waste, automobile bodies, municipal sludges, combustion ash, and industrial process wastes even though those wastes might also be disposed of in municipal waste landfills or incinerators.
  • 10. Municipal Solid waste
  • 11. INTRODUCTION• “Garbage or food waste” is the animal and vegetable residue resulting from the preparation, cooking, and serving of food.• “Rubbish” consists of old thin cans, newspaper, tires, packaging materials, bottles, yard trimmings, plastics, and so forth.• “Generation” refers to the amounts of materials and products that enter the waste stream.
  • 12. INTRODUCTION• “Material recovery” is the removal of materials from the waste stream for purposes of recycling or compositing.• “Discards” are the solid waste remaining after materials are removed for recycling or compositing. These are materials that are burned or buried.• Waste generation = Materials recovery + Discards.
  • 13. Structure of Solid Waste Solid Wastes (refuse) Other wastes Municipal solid(Construction, automobil waste (MSW)es, industrial wastes. etc.) Garbage (food waste) Rubbish Trash Non combustible
  • 14. Industrial Solid waste
  • 15. Hierarchy of waste minimization
  • 16. INTRODUCTION• Pollution should be prevented or reduced at the source whenever feasible;• Pollution that cannot be prevented should be recycled in an environmentally safe manner whenever feasible;• Pollution that cannot be prevented or recycled should be treated in an environmentally safe manner whenever feasible;
  • 17. INTRODUCTION• Disposal or other release into the environment should be employed only as a last resort and should be conducted treated in an environmentally safe manner;
  • 18. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT• Reusing a product (in the same application for which it was originally intended) saves energy and resources.• “Remanufacturing” refers to the process of restoring a product to like-new condition. The restoration begins by product life cycle.
  • 19. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT• Completely disassembling the product, cleaning and refurbishing the reusable parts, and then stocking those parts in inventory. That inventory along with new parts, is used to manufacture products that are equal in quality to new units,• Recycling is the act of recovering materials from the waste stream and reprocessing them so they become raw materials for new applications.
  • 20. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT Product Life Cycle Raw materials acquisition OUT PUTS: Recycling Materials processing -Solid wastesIN PUTS:-Energy -Air emissions-Raw Remanufacturing Product manufacturing -Water effluentsmaterials -Waste heat and-Air, water energy recovery Packaging and distribution Product reuse Product use Disposal
  • 21. SOURCE REDUCTION• Garbage that is not produced does not have to be collected.GREEN PRODUCT DESIGN STRATEGIES:• Green product design: It is the design that concerns itself with reducing the environmental impacts associated with the manufacture, use, and disposal of products. It is an important part of any pollution prevention strategy.• Goals are waste prevention and better materials management.
  • 22. SOURCE REDUCTION GREEN DESIGNWASTE PREVENTION: BETTER MATERIALS MANAGEMENT:Reduce: Weight Facilitate: Remanufacturing Toxicity Recycling Energy use CompostingExtend: Service life Energy recovery
  • 23. GREEN PRODUCT DESIGN STRATEGIES• There are following green product design strategies:(1) Product system life extension:• By extending product life, consumers replace products less often.• Product should be designed to be durable, reliable, reusable, re- manufacturable, and repairable.
  • 24. GREEN PRODUCT DESIGN STRATEGIES(2) Material life extension:• For extending the life of materials, product should be designed to be recycled easily.
  • 25. GREEN PRODUCT DESIGN STRATEGIES(3) Material selection:• In some cases, substituting one material for another can have modest impact on quality and price of product, but can have a considerable impact on the environment.• Reduce the toxicity of material whenever possible. Heavy metals (Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, mercury, arsenic, copper, tin, and zinc) are especially dangerous.
  • 26. GREEN PRODUCT DESIGN STRATEGIES(4) Reduced material intensiveness:• Reducing the amount, and/ or toxicity of materials required to make a given product while maintaining the product’s usefulness and value.
  • 27. GREEN PRODUCT DESIGN STRATEGIES(5) Process management:• Manufacturing the products requires raw materials and energy inputs.• Better materials management can lead to better environmental impacts. Wastes can be minimized by more carefully estimating and ordering needed inputs, and more careful inventory control.• Energy required to manufacture a product is an important component of a life-cycle assessment.
  • 28. GREEN PRODUCT DESIGN STRATEGIES(6) Efficient distribution:• Methods of packaging and transporting products greatly affect the overall energy and environmental impacts associated with those products.
  • 29. GREEN PRODUCT DESIGN STRATEGIES(7) Policy options:• Germany has shifted the burden of packaging disposal from the consumer back to manufacturers and distributors.• Germany’s Packaging Waste Law requires manufacturers and distributors to recover and recycle their own packaging wastes.• Germany’s take-back policy is one of many examples of approaches that governments can take to encourage reduction in the environmental costs of products.
  • 30. SOURCE REDUCTIONLABELING:• American consumer would purchase products that are environmentally superior to competing products, even if they cost a bit more. (U.S. EPA 1991).• Manufacturers are using following terms on product labels. (1) Recyclable, (2) Recycled, (3) eco-safe, ozone-friendly, and biodegradable.
  • 31. LABELING• Some sort of credible labeling system certifying that the products and packaging bearing such labels have been independently certified to meet certain environmental standards would be a powerful motivator in the marketplace.• There are now several competing eco-labels being promulgated by private organizations in the United States.
  • 32. LABELING• “Green Seal” labels provide a simple, overall stamp of approval, analogous to the Underwriter Laboratories (UL) label on electrical appliances or the Good Housekeeping Seal for approval.
  • 33. LABELING• “Scientific Certification Systems” label attempts to use life-cycle analysis to compare products based on resource inputs and waste outputs.
  • 34. Scientific Certification Systems
  • 35. Scientific Certification Systems
  • 36. LABELING• In other countries, national labels are prevalent. Examples are as follows:(1) TCO, GS Mark, and Green Mark (Taiwan)(2) Blue angel (Germany)(3) Energy Star (USA)(4) Nordic Swan (Nordic area)(5) EU-flower (EU)(6) Environmental Choice (Canada)
  • 37. LABELING
  • 38. SOURCE REDUCTION GERMANY’S RESOURCE REDUCTION PROGRAM:• Blue angel environmental labeling scheme is the world’s most established system.• Blue angel designation is given to categories of products that meet certain environmental criteria.
  • 39. GERMANY’S RESOURCE REDUCTION PROGRAM• These labels are found on paints, lacquers, and varnishes when they have low volatility. (1) Batteries when they have sufficiently low amounts of hazardous substances, (2) Copiers, that reduce waste and have low emissions, water-efficient plumbing systems, energy-efficient windows, and biodegradable lubricating oils.
  • 40. GERMANY’S RESOURCE REDUCTION PROGRAM• Packaging wastes account for 1/3 of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs).• There are following three types of packaging defined by Germany’s law.• (1) Transport packaging (such as containers and wooden pallets) must be taken back by manufacturers and distributors to be reused or recycled outside of the public waste system.
  • 41. GERMANY’S RESOURCE REDUCTION PROGRAM• (2) Secondary packaging (such as boxes around tooth paste tubes) must be collected by distributors.• (3) German industry is given a choice----- either to achieve strict recycling quotas or “the Government will require large deposit fees and stores will be required to take back the sales packaging wastes”.
  • 42. RECYCLING• Materials are collected and used as raw materials for new products, it is recycling.• Collecting recycles, separating them by type, processing them into new forms that are sold to manufacturers, and purchasing and using goods made with reprocessed materials.
  • 43. RECYCLING• Textiles are collected. Useable clothing is either given to people who need it in the country or exported abroad. The textiles that are not useable are recycled into a variety of products such as mattress filing. Year Percent of textile recovered in the U.S. 1960 2.8% 1980 6.3% 2005 15.3%
  • 45. RECYCLING• TEXTILE RECYCLING: Textile recycling is the method of reusing or reprocessing used clothing, fibrous material and clothing scraps from the manufacturing process.• Textiles in municipal solid waste are found mainly in discarded clothing, although other sources include furniture, carpets, tires, footwear, and nondurable goods such as sheets and towels.
  • 46. TEXTILE RECYCLING• After collection of the textiles, workers sort and separate collected textiles into good quality clothing and shoes which can be reused or worn. Damaged textiles are sorted to make industrial wiping cloths.• If textile re-processors receive wet or soiled clothes however, these may still end up being disposed of in landfill, as the washing and drying facilities are not present at sorting units.
  • 47. TEXTILE RECYCLING• Clothing fabric generally consists of composites of cotton (biodegradable material) and synthetic plastics. The textiles composition will affect its durability and method of recycling.
  • 48. TEXTILE RECYCLING• Fiber reclamation mills grade incoming material into type and color. The color sorting means no re-dying has to take place, saving energy and pollutants. The textiles are shredded into "shoddy" fibers and blended with other selected fibers, depending on the intended end use of the recycled yarn. The blended mixture is carded to clean and mix the fibers and spun ready for weaving or knitting.
  • 49. TEXTILE RECYCLING• The fibers can also be compressed for mattress production.• Textiles sent to the flocking industry are shredded to make filling material for car insulation, roofing felts, loudspeaker cones, panel linings and furniture padding.
  • 50. TEXTILE RECYCLING• For specialized polyester based materials the recycling process is significantly different.• The first step is to remove the buttons and zippers then to cut the garments into small pieces. The shredded fabric is then granulated and formed into small pellets. The pellets are broken down polymerized and turned into polyester chips. The chips are melted and spun into new filament fiber used to make new polyester fabrics.
  • 51. TEXTILE RECYCLING• Some companies are creating new pieces of clothing from scraps of old clothes.• Ninety-nine percent of used textiles are recyclable.
  • 52. RECYCLING• Typically, recycling technologies are divided into primary; secondary, tertiary.• Primary approaches involve recycling a product into its original form.• Secondary recycling involves melt processing a plastic product into a new product that has a lower level of physical, mechanical and/or chemical properties.• Tertiary recycling involves processes such as pyrolysis and hydrolysis, which convert the plastic wastes into basic chemicals or fuels.
  • 53. RECYCLINGADVANTAGES OF RECYCLING:• Recycling system uses 20 percent less energy and reduces carbon dioxide emissions.• Reducing environmental load through the efficient use of resources and energy and the recycling of used products.• Individuals are doing more than promoting the health of the environment through recycling.
  • 54. ADVANTAGES OF RECYCLING• Recycling include petroleum savings, greenhouse gases reduced, energy conserved.• Reduces the need for landfill space. Textiles present particular problems. In landfill as synthetic (man-made fibers) products will not decompose.• Reduces pressure on virgin resources.
  • 55. ADVANTAGES OF RECYCLING• Aids the balance of payments as we import fewer materials for our needs.• Results in less pollution and energy savings, as fibers do not have to be transported from.
  • 56. RECYCLING DESIGNING TEXTILE PRODUCTS FOR EASY RECYCLING:• A great challenge in the design of products that are easy to recycle is seen in the development of eco- friendly products.• Waste should be avoided both in the production process and when disposing of products.• In addition, material substance should, at the end of product life, be suitable to be returned into the material cycle.
  • 57. DESIGNING TEXTILE PRODUCTS FOR EASY RECYCLINGMaterial Systems are given below;• (1) Single Material system.• (2) Single -material composite systems.• (3) Multi -material composite systems with detachable connection.• (4) Multi -material composite systems with compatible material.• (5) Multi -material composite systems with permanent fixed connection.
  • 58. DESIGNING TEXTILE PRODUCTS FOR EASY RECYCLINGSingle Material system:• Products consisting of only one material in a single system (non-composite) are easy and pure to re-use. With them, it is not generally necessary to separate the product structure prior to processing.• This is why single-material systems are preferable when it comes to the design of products easy to recycle.
  • 59. DESIGNING TEXTILE PRODUCTS FOR EASY RECYCLINGSingle -material composite systems:• Combinations of different kinds of textile made from the same polymer (e.g. PP fiber material and PP film or coating) are single-material composite systems, which are also easy to recycle.
  • 60. DESIGNING TEXTILE PRODUCTS FOR EASY RECYCLINGMulti -material composite systems:• Systems containing separable composites need to be disassembled prior to recycling, which can be done manually or by machine.• This is what happens, for example, to non-textile functional elements used within garments, and to technical textiles. Processes such as gluing, laminating or stitching result in composites which cannot be separated.• With regard to complete re-use, the materials chosen should go well together so they can be processed together. Otherwise, they may serve as a fuel or as a raw material (generation of energy or of synthesis gas).
  • 61. RECYCLINGRECYCLING SECTORS:• The recycling of resources can be broadly divided into thermal, material and chemical sectors. Thermal Recycling: In the fiber and textile industry, thermal recycling is intended to recover heat energy generated from the incineration of fiber wastes as thermal or electrical energy. This method, although easily practicable, does not mean the recycling of resources.
  • 62. RECYCLING SECTORSMaterial recycling: Material recycling recoverspolymers from fibers or plastics, and atpresent, the idea of transforming polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) into fibers is mosteconomical and widely used for practicalpurposes. But there is concern about thismethod which is apt to let impurities mix intorecovered polymers, resulting in declinedquality and spinning stability.
  • 63. RECYCLING SECTORSChemical Recycling: Chemical recyclingrecovers monomers from waste fibers bypolymer decomposition. This is the method ofthe future. Impurities can be easily removedfrom recovered monomers, so their quality willbe made exactly equal to virgin monomers.
  • 64. COMPOSTING• Aerobic degradation of organic materials under controlled conditions, yielding a marketable soil amendment or mulch.• Organic waste placed in a compost bin in the garden rots in the presence of oxygen. Microbes, fungi, insects and worms slowly decompose the rubbish into a sustainable source of compost that can be used in the garden. Before you get your bin going to throw, however, take a critical look at how much food you waste.
  • 67. COMPOSTING• In England, a million tons of textile waste is sent to landfill every year.
  • 68. WASTE TO ENERGY COMBUSTION• Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.• In the following figure, Municipal solid waste in the furnace of a moving grate incinerator capable of handling 15 metric tons (17 short tons) of waste per hour. The holes in the grate elements supplying the primary combustion air are visible.
  • 70. A diagram of a Traditional Waste-To- Energy Facility
  • 71. WASTE TO ENERGY COMBUSTION• Incineration (combustion) of MSW, has positive effects including volume reduction, immediate disposal without waiting for slow biological processes to do the job, much less land area requirements, destruction of hazardous materials, and the possibility of recovering useful energy.
  • 72. WASTE TO ENERGY COMBUSTION• On the negative side of combustion, (1) poorly operated incinerators release toxic substances such as dioxins into air, (2) the ash recovered may be classified as hazardous materials that require special handling, and (3) the public has generally been reluctant to accept the technology.• Recycling is considered a greater good than incineration.
  • 73. LANDFILLSThere are following three classes of landfills.(1) Class-I landfills or secure landfills: Designed to handle hazardous wastes.(2) Class-II landfills or monofills: Handle so called designated wastes, which are particular types of wastes such as incinerator ash or sewage sludge that are relatively uniform in characteristics and require special handling.(3) Class-III landfills or sanitary landfills: Engineered facilities designed to handle MSW.
  • 74. LANDFILLS• It should be the last alternative in an integrated Waste management system.• Textile waste in landfill contributes to the formation of leachate as it decomposes, which has the potential to contaminate both surface and groundwater sources.
  • 75. LANDFILLS• Another product of decomposition in landfill is methane gas, which is a major greenhouse gas and a significant contributor to global warming, although it can be utilized if collected.• The decomposition of organic fibers and yarn such as wool produces large amounts of ammonia as well as methane.
  • 76. LANDFILLS• Ammonia is highly toxic in both terrestrial and aquatic environments, and can be toxic in gaseous form. It has the potential to increase nitrogen in drinking water, which can have adverse effect on humans.