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Rsi 26 5-solooooooo

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    Rsi 26 5-solooooooo Rsi 26 5-solooooooo Presentation Transcript

    • M.PHIL IN APPLIED LINGUISTICS (SESSION 2011- 2013) DILSHAD HUSSAIN SHAH
    • DATA COLLECTION IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
    •  Job analysis  Critical components of survey research  Sound methodology  Wording of questionnaire  Advantages and disadvantages of mailed questionnaires:  Portfolio  Introduction  Significance of portfolio  Interrelationship studies  Case studies  Developmental studies  Growth studies Contents.  Qualitative data collection: Definition and purpose:  Methodologies in Descriptive Research  Data collection sources and techniques  Observing.  Drawbacks of Observation  Interviewing.  Steps Involved in a structured interview.  Questionnaires.  Examining records  Survey  School surveys
    • Qualitative data collection: Definition and purpose: 1-Qualitative data collection, or field work, involves spending considerable time in the setting under study immersing oneself in this setting and collecting relevant information un obtrusively. Descriptive narrative and visual data are collected to gain insights into the phenomena of interest. 2-The type of data collected is largely determined by the nature of the problem.
    • • The most common ways to collect information for descriptive research Include: Surveys Interviews Observations Portfolios. Interrelationship studies Developmental studies Methodologies in Descriptive Research.
    • Data collection sources and techniques  Data collection sources and techniques  Qualitative research includes data collected through observations interviews , questionnaires , phone calls, personal and official documents, photographs, recordings, drawings, journals, e-mail messages and responses, and informal conversations.  In qualitative research the researcher is the primary data collection instrument.
    • Observing.  Observing.  When qualitative researchers obtain data by watching the participants, they are observing.  A researcher who becomes a part of and a participant in the situation under observation is called a participant observer.  A researcher can be an active participant observer; a privileged, active observer; or a passive observer.
    • •A nonparticipant observer observes the situation but does not participate in the situation while observing it. •Field notes are the records of what the observer has seen or heard . Field notes contain literal descriptions as well as personal reactions and comments on what the observer has experienced and thought about during an observation session. Field notes may be guided by a protocol developed prior to the observation session.
    • Drawbacks of Observation Some problems associated with observational research include Defining and developing coding schemes Training observers Experiencing technical errors
    • Interviewing. •An interview is a purposeful interaction in which one person obtains information from another. •The unstructured interview is like casual conversation and allows the qualitative researcher to inquire into something that has presented itself as an opportunity to learn about what is going on at the research setting.
    • Steps Involved in a structured interview. • Decide type of information sought • Decide on type of questioning • Prepare 1st draft • Seek suggestions/criticism from others; revise if necessary •Test interview on small "pilot" group • Edit and revise based on results or suggestions from pilot respondents. • Prepare final version - decide on procedures for distribution and for use.
    • Questionnaires. •A questionnaire is a written collection of self report questions to be answered by a selected group of research participants. •Developing and presenting questionnaires takes presentation should be attractive. Be sure to protect participants, confidential information. Examining records: •Useful educational records include archival documents, journals, maps, videotapes, audiotapes, and artifacts.
    • These may be used singly or in various combinations depending on the research question to be addressed. SURVEY •Used in the simplest way, surveys may be used to reveal summary statistics by showing responses to all possible questionnaire items. For instance, 30% of the participants agreed, 50% disagreed, and 20% had no opinion. Descriptive results of this type are typical of survey research in education and often provide leads in identifying needed changes.
    • Survey data may also be used to explore relationships between two or more variables. Rather than limit their research to one variable, researchers can investigate relationships in the survey data and have a more substantial research contribution •Survey Studies assess the characteristics of whole populations of people or situations.
    • Some Types involved in surveys are as under: School Surveys Used to gather data concerned with internal or external characteristics of a school system Job Analysis Used to gather information to be used in structuring a training program for a particular job
    • Documentary Analysis Closely akin to historical research; deals with documenting present situations Public Opinion Surveys Used to enhance the decision making process by government officials Community Surveys Used to gather data concerned with internal or external characteristics of a community
    • Critical Components of Survey Research • Sound Methodology • Well designed Data Collection Instruments. Sound Methodology Data collection instruments should be designed to collect information in a way that will yield quantifiable results, and they should be distributed to all subjects so that data can be summarized and compared.
    • Surveys can be in the form of: •Written questionnaires •Personal interviews or Telephonic interviews. Factors to be considered in choosing a data collection method
    • Or *written questionnaires include: a) - Sampling b) - Type of Population c) - Question Form d) - Question Content, e) - Response Rates f) - Costs g) - Available Facilities h) - Length of Data Collection I) - Computer-Assisted Techniques for data collection.
    • Wording of Questionnaire Wording of questionnaire must be soft, academic and understandable to every one. following ambiguities should be avoided. • Unclear phraseology? • Jargon? • Questions too long/complex? • Unstated assumptions or unseen implications? • Biased or emotionally loaded terms? Stereotypes? • Objectionable wording?
    • Advantages of Mailed Questionnaires: Ability to reach large numbers of people across a wide geographic region. Ease and low cost of distribution Minimal amount of staff and facilities needed, Ability of respondents to respond in their own time frame. Disadvantages Lower response rate Need to take design a survey instrument with a simple format.
    • Core need of a mailed questionnaire is that a letter of transmittal should be accompanied it to state the purpose and importance of the research, the importance of responding to the research, a time frame to respond, a confidentiality statement, an offer to share results, and a thank-you to the respondent.
    • Best results can only be obtained if good questioning techniques are utilized. They should use complete sentences and offer a limited set of answers. Surveys should be interesting and should be worded so that the questions mean the same to everyone. They should inform participants about the kinds of answers that are appropriate and should provide definitions for any terms that might be confusing.
    • PORTFOLIO Introduction Portfolios consist of learner-created products that reflect the processes of learning and development over time. Portfolios have been recommended as a way to integrate learning and assessment since portfolios offer students an opportunity to learn about their own learning while they require active student responsibility and self assessment.
    • Significance of Portfolio Portfolios serve as measures of student progress. They can take many forms such as game performances, multimedia projects, artwork, compositions, etc.
    • INTERELATIONSHIP STUDIES Interrelationship Studies trace relationships among the facts obtained to gain a deeper insight into the situation. Some Types of This Study Are as under;
    • Case Studies Probes in depth into an individual situation or personality with the intent of diagnosing a particular condition and recommending corrective measures
    • DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES Developmental studies are concerned with the existing status and interrelationships of phenomena and changes that take place as a function of time
    • Growth Studies May be either longitudinal or cross-sectional. The longitudinal technique is the most satisfactory for studying human development. The cross-sectional technique is more commonly used because it is less expensive.