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Phenomenology.ppt By Dilshad Hussain Nikyalvi

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  • 1. Phenomenology By: DILSHAD HUSSAIN SHAH
  • 2. . The sociology of everyday life is a sociological orientation concerned with: Experiencing, Understanding ,Describing, Analyzing, communicating. With this people interact in concrete situations. The studies face to face social interactions by observing and experiencing them in natural situations, that is, in situations that have not been scientifically manipulated.
  • 3. Sociologies of Everyday Life Phenomenology studies common sense, conscious experience, and routine daily life. It can be placed in the category of sociologies of everyday life. In the article, Sociologies of everyday life, by Jack Douglas Argues that sociologist have years been rebuilding the and thus rebuilding the foundation of all theory and method in the social sciences. Five major bodies of theoretical ideas found  Symbolic interactionism  Dramaturgical analysis  Labeling theory  Phenomenology and ethnomethodology  existentialism
  • 4. The Role of Consciousness • There are several difference between phenomenology and sociology. • Phenomenology relies on reflexive experience as it takes form in consciousness. • The research assumes intentional consciousness of the researcher. • Through the techniques of reduction in variation, phenomenology is able to find the rudimentary structures and processes of experience. • From this perspective, the researcher takes the perspective of the other and imposes a sense of order on the environment.
  • 5. . • Phenomenologist are more concerned with the way individuals construct in their own conscious the meanings of things. • They are characterized as a subjective or creative sociology because it seeks to understand the world from the point of view of the acting subject and not from the perspective of the scientific observer. • Meanings come from interacting through a negotiation in their everyday lives.
  • 6. The Phenomenological Approach • Edmund Husserl developed the phenomenological approach. • Designates two things: – A new kind of descriptive method that made a breakthrough in philosophy at the of the nineteenth century. – A science which is intended to supply the basic instrument for a rigorously scientific philosophy and in its consequent application to make possible a methodological reform of all the science. Roots of Phenomenological: oEntrenched in the German tradition oSome of the most important intellectual debates taking place between the world wars.
  • 7. . The ideas that came under the phenomenology umbrella Generated in an atmosphere of heightened social conflict and anxiety about the future. Husserl wanted to examine the phenomena of conscious and bracket them in order to test their truth. Influence by Descartes, Hume, and Kant Descartes Mediations Husserl’s first conceived of the possibility of seeking a universally rational “science of being” by turning his theoretical focus on an objective world to a reflective one. Descartes argued that the social world exist only in the context of presentations of experiences of people. He also promoted the idea of transcendental subjectivity, a philosophy founded through a psychology of inner experience.
  • 8. Edmund Husserl• Background – He was sent away to school in Vienna at age 10 to began his German classical education at a “real gymnasium.” – Universities attended were Leipzig (math, physics, and philosophy), Berlin (math), Vienna (doctoral Work) – Father of phenomenology – His ideas were complex and confusing – His work was translated from German to English – He was Jewish, the Jewish population was controlled by marriage licenses; only 328 Jewish families were allowed in 1787 and stopped in 1849. • Married Malvine Charlotte Steinschneider and had three children.
  • 9. . Held a position of Privatdozent at Halle University. He accepted a professorship at Freiburg in Breisgau in 1916 and stayed there until retirement in 1928 Calvin O. Schrag wrote in the introduction to The phenomenology of Internal Time-Consciousness Some of the main themes and ideas that emerged throughout this development were: A critique of psychololgism The phenomenological Eidetic reduction The phenomenological ego Transcendental intersubjectivity Time consciousness The life world
  • 10. PhenomenologyBegins with the assumption that every certainty is questionable. In Ideem I Husserl describe phenomenology as a “doctrine of essences” and a doctrine concerned with what things are not with whether they are. He was not looking to establish absolute presupposition on which to build a whole system of knowledge. Therefore, he was not interested in being a system builder. He was always a beginner, reexamining the foundations of his investigations, resisting all fixed formulations and final conclusions. Philosophy, was never ending pursuit of serious and open- ended questions, which lead to further questions that may require a resetting of the original questions.
  • 11. . • Nakhnikian described “Husserl’s phenomenology as an outgrowth of his attack on psychologism. –Psychologism is a species of the view that philosophy is reducible to a factual science, in this case to psychology. –Also is an attempt to reduce the fundamental laws of logic and mathematics to psychological generalizations about the way people think; it is a type of scientific generalization. • Husserl is against ‘biologism’ and anthropologism as he is against pschologism.
  • 12. . • In short, phenomenology is not a science of facts, but a science of essential being, an eidetic science (meaning an insubstantial empirical science; it is a science that aims at establishing the “knowledge” of essence. • Distinguished between facts and essence. –Described sciences of experience as sciences of “fact” –Facts are determined by acts of cognition which underline human experiences. –Something is real and thus a fact because it possesses a spatiotemporal existence, having a particular duration of its own and a “real” content.
  • 13. DILSHAD HUSSAIN SHAH MUHAMMAD ASHFAQ M.PHIL IN APPLIED LINGUISTICS (SESSION 2011-2013)