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  1. 1. INTERVIEWS Presenters: Robert Farnsworth Roshani Shrestha Ardis Holldorsdottir Hannah Schechter
  2. 2. Introduction Benney and Hughes (1970) stated that “An interview is the “favored digging tool” of social researchers. They rely largely on verbal accounts to learn about social life.” (as cited in Taylor and Bogdan, 1998. p. 87).
  3. 3. Historical Men… Charles Booth 1840-1916 -Combined census data with interviews, observations and notes from the London School Board -Determined social class -Produced poverty maps of London Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 -Psychoanalysis
  4. 4. More Historical Men… William Isaac Thomas 1863-1947 -Studied in Germany -Interests in ethnography -Studied Polish immigrants -Wrote book with Florian Znaniecki “The Polish Peasant” George Gallup 1901-1984 -The Gallup Poll -Interviewing public opinion -Global survey in 1976 of Quality of life around the world -Market research
  5. 5. Original & Current Techniques Past- War Torture & Interrogation Present- Ahhhh- War…. Torture & Interrogation
  6. 6. Disciplines Conservation Social Sciences  Landscape Architecture  Sociology  Anthropology  Psychology  Education  Business  Media  Medicine • War
  7. 7. Types of Interviews Structured Interviews Semi-structured Interviews Unstructured Interviews
  8. 8. Structured Interviews Quantitative Approach Definition Interviewer gives a set of predetermined questions or “probes” to the interviewees Aim Measures facts, attitudes, knowledge, behavior Finding accurate information without influences from the researcher
  9. 9. Structured Interviews Relationship between interviewer and interviewee Minimize interaction No distractions No flexibility strict control over interview
  10. 10. Structured Interviews Concern While Conducting Interviews Keeping control of how questions are asked Using the same questions for all interviewees Following a fixed order Using a rating scale or tick box Ethical considerations
  11. 11. Structured Interviews Strengths Control Reliability Speed Structuring reduces variability Efficient use of time Weaknesses Close of theoretical avenues Limit freedom to talk Miss what interviewees think is important Does not allow complexity of answers
  12. 12. Structured Interviews Quality of Data Framing interview with tactics Data collection process Interpreting interview Types of Interviews Telephone Face-to-face Mail (usually associated with survey research
  13. 13. Structured InterviewsTypes of characteristics Face to face interviews Telephone interviews Mail interviews Definition Type of interview where the interviewer has direct contact with the interviewee Type of interview where the interviewer has an indirect contact with the interviewee. Type of interview where the interviewer doesn’t have any contact with the interviewee. Quality of data Trained interviewer Trained interviewer Well defined and administrated questionnaire Sampling From telephone or address From a telephone directory From a complete list of population Data collection The interviewer contacts each member of the sample to conduct the interview in person People are interviewed at the time of the first phone call or at another , more convenient time Eachh member of the sample receives a notice letter in advance, followed by a questionnaire. Then within a week they receive a postcard reminder Data recording Video, tape recorder, notes Tape recorder Questionnaire Involvement of researcher The researcher has direct contact with the interviewee, but does not influence the interview The researcher has phone contact with the interviewee. The researcher is completely separated from the interviewee Strength Enables the interviewer to establish rapport with the respondent Less costly than personal interview Produce results quickly The interviewer has control of the interview More effective when the number of the questions is relatively small and time available to gather data is short Do not need trained interviewers Minimize sampling error at relative low cost Weaknesses Higher cost of the survey Expensive Time consuming Not all people have telephone Telephone directories could be incomplete Necessity of knowledgeable supervisor They are sensitive to non coverage error Some people are less likely to respond to the questionnaire than others The researcher has little control over what happens to the questionnaire after it is mailed.
  14. 14. Semi-Structured Interviews Everyone gets the same questions asked, but there is flexibility in how they are asked. Particularly useful for exploring the views of a subject towards something
  15. 15. Semi-Structured Interviews Strengths Well suited for exploring attitudes, values, beliefs, and motives…. Sensitive areas (Barriball, 1993) Non-verbal indicators assist in evaluating truthfulness/validity and urgency (Farnsworth, 2006) Facilitates getting every question answered Ensures the respondent is working on his/her own Can potentially increase response rate…
  16. 16. Semi-Structured Interviews Weaknesses ‘Equivalence of meaning’ difficulties may arise ‘Preferred social response’ Non-response/particular groups being unrepresented Invasion of privacy Extenuating circumstances Prejudices, stereotypes, appearances and/or perceptions of researcher may alter response
  17. 17. Semi-Structured Interviews Getting Beyond the Constraints Constructing the questionnaire is critical (Lazarsfeld, 1954) All questions must comply with three principles Specification Division Tacit Assumption
  18. 18. Semi-Structured Interviews Training for the interviews Developing competency and understanding of the study Developing an awareness of potential errors or biases
  19. 19. Unstructured InterviewsAlso known as… Qualitative interviewing Non-directive interviewing Non-standardized interviewing Open-ended interviewing In-depth interviewing
  20. 20. Unstructured InterviewsQualitative approach Definition “…repeated face-to-face encounters between the researcher and the informants directed toward understanding informants’ perspective on their lives, experiences, or situations as expressed in their own words” (Taylor & Bogdan, 1998, p. 88)
  21. 21. Unstructured InterviewsAim/Logic Learn what is… Important to the participants What meaning the phenomenon under study has to them Their point of view Their understanding and experiences Types of in-depth interviews Life History Learn about events and activities that cannot be observed directly To yield a broad picture of a range of settings, situations, or people Group interviews
  22. 22. Unstructured InterviewsCreate trust between researcher and participant Anonymity and confidentiality Follow cultural rules “nice and gentle” Show interest Be understanding
  23. 23. Unstructured InterviewsTo conduct a good interview You need to… Be nonjudgmental Ask open questions Allow people to speak Be a good listener Tolerate the silence Probe when it is appropriate Make sure you have the right understanding
  24. 24. Unstructured InterviewsStrengths Rich data Understand what is important to the participant General understanding of provided when little is know about the issue Important concepts are uncovered that can eventually guide future enquiries Weaknesses People say and do different things in different situations Language barriers Time consuming Researcher’s bias Little control Attention not focused on a given issue Very little factual information provided
  25. 25. Ethics Informed consent Make sure the participants understand what the research is for and where it will be published Protecting participants by changing names and places when necessary Nonjudgmental interviewers Trustworthy interviewers Confidentiality Member-checking
  26. 26. Examples in CSS Alicia De la Cruz-Novey Peruvian Tourism Comparing three protected areas- rainforest, coast, and highlands Semi-structured interviews & archival data How tour operators and local tourist initiatives can reduce negative impacts on the ecosystem Questionnaires & archival data Evaluate socioeconomic changes in communities with tourism plan Questionnaires, archival data, & literature analysis Evaluation of the cost and effectiveness of different types of participation for the development and implementation of tourism plans
  27. 27. Examples in CSS Shannon Amberg Perception of risks and benefits of eating fish Will use semi-structured interviews to understand how media affects people’s choices Will use the results to write a survey
  28. 28. Conclusion Remember… Be like Oprah!
  29. 29. Current Techniques Interviewing for dating services…
  30. 30. And now for some dating fun...