History of microbiology


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History of microbiology

  1. 1. HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY SHAHASAD SALAM History of microbiology
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Microbiology is the Science that studies Microorganisms.  Microorganisms, roughly, are those living things that are too small to be seen with the naked eye.  Microorganisms cannot be distinguished Phylogenetically from “Microorganisms.  For example, many fungi are microorganisms, as well as all bacteria, all viruses, and most protists. History of microbiology
  3. 3.  Microorganisms only with major diseases such as AIDS, uncomfortable infections, or such . common inconveniences as spoiled food. Microorganisms also have many commercial applications. They are used in the synthesis of such chemical products as vitamins, organic acids, enzymes, alcohols and many drugs. Marine and freshwater microorganisms form the basis of the food chain in oceans, lakes, and rivers History of microbiology
  4. 4. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)  He is the father microbiology.  Van Leeuwenhoek ground more than 500 optical lenses. He also created at least 25 microscopes.  Van Leeuwenhoek was introduced via correspondence to the Royal Society of London by the famous Dutch Physician Reinier de Graaf. He soon began to send copies of his recorded microscopic observations to the Royal Society. In 1673 his earliest observations were published by the Royal Society in its journal: Philosophical Transactions. History of microbiology
  5. 5. Spontaneous generation Spontaneous generation theory that put forward by the Aristotle. Spontaneous generation is an obsolete principle regarding " the origin of life from inanimate matter. Living things came forth from nonliving things because the nonliving material contained pneuma, or "vital heat. One school believed that the small organisms arose from nonliving materials spontaneously known as abiogenesis. Then others believed in biogenesis in that living organisms arose from a living thing. Animals do not arise by spontaneous generation. History of microbiology
  6. 6. Francesco Redi, 1665. He is an Italian physician. He showed that maggots that develop on putrefying meat are the larvae of flies. Never appear if the meat is closed and the flies are prevented from laying eggs. For technical reasons, it is far more difficult to prove that microorganisms do not arise spontaneously One. History of microbiology
  7. 7. Redi’s Experiment History of microbiology
  8. 8. John Needham(1713 – 1781) He did experiments with gravy. The experiments consisted of briefly boiling a broth mixture and then cooling the mixture in an open container to room temperature. Later, the flasks would be sealed, and microbes would grow a few days later. Those experiments seemed to show that there was a life force that produced spontaneous generation. Needham did not use proper sterile technique. His experiments were challenged and repeated by Lazzaro Spallanzani, an Italian scientist. History of microbiology
  9. 9. Lazzaro Spallanani He is an italian scientist and he conducted a number of experiments in the middle of the18th century. He repeated the exp of Needham. On repeated boiling of gravy will kill the endospore of any microbes. Spallanzani did not have any microbes grow in his sealed flasks One of the first to provide strong evidence was by him. History of microbiology
  10. 10. Louis Pasteur History of microbiology
  11. 11. History of microbiology
  12. 12. John Tyndall(1820 –1893)  The proponents of spontaneous generation still kept up.  English physicist John Tyndall undertook a series of experiments.  If meat and vegetable infusions are heated for 5 min –sterile Hay infusions – 5 min – not sterile.  Repeated the first set of experiments. Could not – even after1 hr. of heating growth.  After many experiments realized that the hay had spores which are resistant to heating.  The presence of hay in the lab caused the air to be laden with spores.  Once he grasped this point, he proceeded to test the limit of heat resistance of spores could not destroy even after heating 5-1/2 hrs.  Tyndall developed a method of discontinuous heating –Tyndalization – 1 min heating on five successive occasions sterilization.  Continuous boiling even for 1 hr. did not sterilize. History of microbiology
  13. 13. The Germ Theory of Disease The realization that yeasts playa crucial role in fermentation was the first link be have been the activity of a microorganism and physical and chemical changes in organic materials. This discovery alerted scientists to the possibility that microorganisms might have similar relationships with plants and animals specifically that microorganisms might cause disease. This idea was known as the Germ theory of disease. History of microbiology
  14. 14. Robert Koch 1876 German physician. He was Pasteurs young rival in the race to discover the cause of anthrax, a disease that was destroying cattle and sheep in Europe. Koch discovered rod -shaped bacteria now known as Bacillus anthracis (ba-sillus an-thra-sis) in the blood of cattle that had died of anthrax. He cultured the bacteria on nutrient sand then injected samples of the culture into healthy animals.] When these animals became sick and died, Koch isolated the bacteria in their blood and compared them with the bacteria originally isolated . He found that the two sets of blood cultures contained the same bacteria. History of microbiology
  15. 15. Kochs postulates History of microbiology
  16. 16. Edward Jenner British physician His experiment to find a way to protect people from smallpox. History of microbiology