History assignmentFashion in Victorian era andRegency period
Victorian era - FashionThe main feature of the Victorian epochwas the mix of the best of other styles.Victorian Era was a livelystyle of ornamentation.Clothes on the Victorian Era were veryelaborated and restrictive on the bodiesof those who wore them. The VictorianEra was a time period between 1830 tothe end of the XXth century.
The rise of the economy allowed tomake more elaborated clothes.Cloth making was made easier andcheaper during the industrial boomof this time.The women’s dress was veryelaborated. Their dresses affectedthe way they walked, sat ormoved her arms. Women wore avariety of colors for their stockingsand dresses. Dresses and stockingsundergarments were cut in a styleto show off the figure in a modestway. The undergarments hadwhale-bones or flexible steel tomake it more comfortable
Firstly the drawers Secondly the slipThirdly they had to put onthe corset
Fifthly the camisoleSixthly they had to put on the"bustle" or polisón, this piecewas essential to give form tothe dressFourtly the petticoat
Followed to theunderskirtFinally the skirt andthe jacketThe dress wasworn in twopieces andconnectedwith hooksand ties
The dress was worn in two pieces andconnected with hooks and ties. Thestyle of sleeves changed many timesthroughout the Victorian Era. Theneckline was worn in a high V-neck.
Fashion – MenDuring the 1850s, men startedwearing shirts with high upstandingor turnover collars and four-in-handneckties tied in a bow, or tied in aknot with the pointed ends stickingout like "wings". The upper-classcontinued to wear tophats, and bowler hats were worn bythe working class
During the 1870s, three-piece suits grew inpopularity along with patterned fabrics forshirts. Neckties were the four-in-handand, later, the Ascot ties. A narrow ribbon tiewas an alternative for tropicalclimates, especially in the Americas. Both frockcoats and sack coats became shorter. Flat strawboaters were worn when boating.During the 1880s, formal evening dressremained a dark tail coat and trousers with adark waistcoat, a white bow tie, and a shirt witha winged collar. In mid-decade, the dinner jacketor tuxedo, was used in more relaxed formaloccasions. The Norfolk jacket and tweed orwoolen breeches were used for rugged outdoorpursuits such as shooting. Knee-lengthtopcoats, often with contrasting velvet or furcollars, and calf-length overcoats were worn inwinter. Mens shoes had higher heels and anarrow toe.
Starting from the 1890s, the blazer wasintroduced, and was worn forsports, sailing, and other casual activities.Throughout much of the Victorian Era most menwore fairly short hair. This was oftenaccompanied by various forms of facial hairincluding moustaches, side-burns, and fullbeards. A clean-shaven face did not come backinto fashion until the end of the 1880s and early1890s.Distinguishing what men really wore from whatwas marketed to them in periodicals andadvertisements is problematic, as reliablerecords do not exist.
Victorian hairstyles-menEveryday Victorian fashion was veryformal, and men of every rank and classwere expected to dress and groomthemselves as gentlemen.While styles for hair atop a gentlemanshead were similar, conservative andoften hidden beneath a hat, Victorianmen got creative by styling theirsideburns, moustaches, and beards.
Short HairVictorian Mens hairstyles wereconservative.Hair was kept short and styled with waxor oil and parted either at theside, slightly off-center, or brushedstraight back.Longer, unkempt hairstyles weregenerally looked down upon.
SideburnsSideburns were allowed to grow longand further down the face.Popular sideburn style: Bushy "mutton-chops”Another was "Piccadilly weepers"(Dundrearys): were side-whiskersgrown long and combed outwards.Sideburns were worn with or without amoustache.
MoustachesMoustache styles ranged widely.The "walrus" moustache: was grownlong and bushy, covering most of thelower part of the mans face.The "Kaiser” moustache: was waxedand styled to turn up at the ends.Most moustaches were styled tocompliment the gentlemans beard orsideburns.
Beardsbeards also variedgreatly in style. The"goatee“ beard: athin and pointedbeard extendingdown from a moustache and justcovering the chin, was popular.The "fringe beard“: another popularstyle in the 1850s and 1860s, extendeddown from the hairline and under thechin, and was often worn without amoustache.Some men grew longer, fuller beardswhich could be styled with wax. Otherstrimmed them short.
Victorian Women HairstylesHairstyles were very complicated.Hair was thick, long, and luxuriant inmany different styles.Hair was parted down the middle,curled or braided, then tied or pinnedback.Only in informal occasions we can seethe Victorian lady leaving her hair fallloose around her shoulders.Later in the XIXth century, Victorianhairstyles became more elaborated.Bangs made their debut around 1880.Women began to use hot irons to wavetheir hair or add ringlets to it.
BraidEarly in the era, the simple braidedhairstyle was seen on most women withlong straight hair.Hair was pulled into a ponytail anddivided into three or five sections. Eachsection is braided, individually, thenpinned under the ponytail. This do wasoften accented with a decorative comb.
Sugar CurlsAlso known as Barley Curls: are longcurls that drop down the back of theneck and shoulders.Early in the 18th century, it was a socialtaboo for women to wear their hairdown. So this style was relegated mostlyto children.However, later in the century, youngwomen wore the hair at the back oftheir head long and loose down theback. The hair at the top of their headwas swept up or around the sides of thehead and kept up.
PompadoursBy the 1880s, women donnedpompadours. In this hairstyle, the hairwas swept up high above the forehead.At this time, hair pieces wereintroduced to create hair that appearedfull and thick.The poof of hair, known as apompadour, was then decorated withjewels and feathers.
TitusThe Titus hairstyle called for hair to becut short around the face.The hair in back was also cut to theshoulder in a layered style.Hair surrounding the face was thencurled and styled with flowers ordecorative combs.
Crimping using Hot IronsHot irons were introduced as hair stylingdevices during the Victorian era, whichresulted in the popularity of crimpedupdos."Marcel Wave“- involved using a hotiron on the hair to create a loose wavyupdo.
MAKEUPIn the Victorian era, a healthy andnatural complexion was valued incosmetics and beauty products.The Victorian women never wore makeup. They believed in letting their skinglow in all its beauty with only a tad bitof blush on their cheeks to finish thelook.
That make-up was heavily worn inEurope until later in the 20th century.The early Victorian period was prettymuch the last period in history.
By the nineteenth century, zinc oxide becamewidely used as a facial powder.the Victorian era, cosmetics were consideredthe devils making, associated with prostitutesand women of questionable morals.They used lead and antimony sulfide as eyeshadow. Mercuric sulfide, to make their lips red,
Victorian era hatsHats were primarily used as a protection fromthe sun, to avoid an injury... However, in thelater years, hats became a symbol of stylestatement and authority. The kind of hats wornby women and men were different. Hats formedan essential part of a woman’s appearance andas a result, they always wear a hat when theywent out. For men, the top hat or the tall silkhat was generally worn for formal days andevening wear.
Mens hatsTop hatThe black silk top hat was made fromcheesecloth, linen, flannel and shellac. Usingvarious types of flat-irons, the shellac . The hatwas finished with a 2½ to 3 cm wide clothhatband, which was later replaced by one ofribbed silk. Later in the Victorian era, from1837 to 1901, the height was reduced tobetween 16 and 17 cm. Around 1890, the tophat also received a larger crown, so appearingmore tailored or nipped in. From around1920, top hats were around 12 to 13 cm inheight. That still applies today.
The proper Victorian gentleman was notseen outdoors without a hat. The top hatwas required for formal day and eveningwear, but by the 1870s, a gentleman couldchoose from a variety of styles of headgearfor informal wear. There was thebowler, the homburg, the derby – and forsummer there were a variety of designs instraw hats. Fashionable styles werefeatured in an assortment of shades andshape in both soft and stiff hats, withselections in color width of brim, height ofcrown and, of course.
Women’s hatsHats were also used by youngwomen and girls. Most of the hatsused were trimmed withribbons, Feathers, flowers and attimes, veils.The hats were layeredon a wirebase covered with strawbraids or twisted fabric and wasmade from velvet, satin, cotton andtulle fabrics. Birds were used asdecorating piece on the hats. Thehats were ornamented by bird partslike their wings, breasts or at timesthe whole bird was used.
Morning CapVictorian women of ten wore aninformal cap indoors. This headdresswas referred to as amorning, breakfast, or day cap.Thesecaps were either simply made orlavished with frills and ribbons.
Victorian BonnetsBonnets were popular hats for women of bothupper and lower classes throughout theVictorian era. Bonnets are essentially hats withthe front portion of the brim removed andtypically tied underneath the chin. Though allbonnets fit this definition, their style andfunction varied greatly. Bonnets could be plainand practical or grand and extravagant, featuringmulti-colored feathers and even decorativebirds. As elaborate hair styles becameincreasingly prevalent towards the laterVictorian age, bonnets began covering less andless of the face and eventually ended up beingperched atop the wearers hair.
Victorian Hats - 1878Silk ribbons and featherstrim this Hat from 1878.Victorian Hat from1878 isornamented with astuffedbird.Hat from 1878 haswide ribbon tie andlarge feather.
Victorian era fansIn the 18th century, the hand fan was bothutilitarian, as well as decorative. There wereall kinds of fans, from the extremely plainpaddle fans made from paper or wood, tothe most ornate made of the finest silk andadorned with fine embroidery or painting.
Features of 18th Century FansWhile fans of the 19th century and later typicallyform a half circle when opened, most 18thcentury fans only form a 1/3rd or 3/8th circle.The sticks are about 28-30 cm long, rarelyshorter (25-26 cm) or longer (up to 32 cm). Thelower end of the closed fan, seen from above, isusually rounded.Shape and Size
The sticks were made of wood, tortoiseshell orivory. In the early to mid 18th century, the lowerpart of the sticks formed a solid surface thatcould be pierced, carved. In the late 18thcentury, there was "daylight" between thesticks. The sides of the sticks were usuallycarved, especially near the lower end.Sometimes the carvings are made in such a waythat patterns or figures become visble onlywhen the fan is closed.Sticks
There are folding fans and brisé fans. Brisé fansconsist only of sticks that get continuously widerfrom the rivet to the top, forming one solidsurface. They are held together by a fabric band.The sticks of folding fans become narrow at onepoint and a leaf is stuck to one or both sides ofthe narrow part.Leaf
Brise fans were relatively common until about1730, then practically nonexistent until1800/1810. The early brise fans have smoothsticks without any carving or piercing, paintedacross the whole surface. There usually is abreak between the lower and upper part thatseems to emulate the border between stick andleaf as seen on folding fans.The leaves of folding fans were made ofpaper, parchment or "swan skin", which actuallyas the very fine leather of lambs or kids.
The Victorian Era is almost mythicallyknown for proper etiquette in behaviorand dress. Women’s “lower limbs” werekept completely covered by long skirtsand crinolines, and ankle boots cameinto fashion as a way to avoid glimpsesof these off-limits appendages. The topsof boots might be decorated with bowsor tassels to be tantalizingly glimpsedunder a demurely flouncing skirt.Women’s shoes and Boots
narrow-toed boots in the smallest sizepossible, to give the impression ofextremely tiny, dainty, feminine feet.Small heels were added to boots in thelate 1840s and 1850s, and to slippersbetween 1860
Mens Shoes & BootsIn Victorian times, it was said you couldjudge the caliber of a man by the bootshe wore. Mens footwear at the timewas very formal and conservative, andthe short ankle boot took prominencein fashion; half-boots (calf-length) orknee-length boots were worn mainly forriding, and generally not for strolling thestreets of town
The 1850s, elastic-sided boots were joined inpopularity by those with lacing on their innersides.Wellington boots (worn for riding or muckingabout in the country) were named after theDuke of Wellington. He designed them to beworn in cavalry warfare (the top of the bootoriginally came over the knee to mitigate knee-wounds in soldiers), but they became quitepopular with the sports-and-fashion-mindedmale set.Lastly, lace-up ankle-length boots, known asPaddock boots, were worn by fashion-conscious gentlemen who also wished to beknown for their equestrian skills. Whetheron horseback or in the streets (but never ata formal event!), these were the highbrowboots of choice.
REGENCYPERIODFASHIONFashion in the period 1795–1820 in European and European-influencedcountries saw the final triumph of undress orinformal styles.In the aftermath of the French Revolution, noone wanted to appear to be a member of theFrench aristocracy, and people began usingclothing more as a form of individual expressionof the true-self than as a pure indication of socialstatus.
WOMENFor womens dress, the day to day outfit of theskirt and jacket style were practical and tactfulWomens fashions followed classical ideals, andtightly lacedcorsets were temporarilyabandoned in favor of a high-waisted, naturalfigure
MENIn Britain, Beau Brummell introducedtrousers, perfect tailoring, andunadorned, immaculate linen as the ideals ofmens fashion.In Germany, republican city-states relinquishedtheir traditional, modest, and practicalgarments and started to embrace the Frenchand English fashion trends of short-sleevedchemise dresses and Spencer jackets. Americanfashion trends emulated French dress, but in atoned down manner with shawls and tunics tocope with the sheerness of the chemise
by the 1780s, the new, “natural” style allowedone’s inner self to transcend their clothes.accessories and the detail on the clothing weremore important than the shape of the dress.clothing became much lighter and more able tobe changed and washed frequently. Even upperclass women began wearing cropped dresses asopposed to dresses with long trains or hoopsthat restricted them from leaving their homes.In a sense, women were influenced by malefashion, such as tailored waistcoats and jacketsto emphasize women’s mobility.This new movement towardpracticality of dress showedthat dress no longer was away to categorize betweenclasses or genders; dress wasmeant to suit ones personaldaily routine.
Women during the Regency period woreheaddresses outdoors as a matter of course.When a woman married, or if she was a spinsterin her late twenties, she would also take towearing a cap indoorsThey denoted class and economic status, as wellas fashion sense and one’s marital state. Hatswere also worn as a sign of respect, inside achurch, for instance, and this custom remainedwidely popular until well into the 20th-century.They could be ruffled, embroidered, orplain, depending on who worethem and their status.A housekeeper, forexample, would wear amore elaborate cap thana scullery maid, whosemob cap was simple bycomparison.
In addition to professional milliners andmodistes, there was quite a large cottageindustry for making caps, hats, and turbansfrom home, which provided a meager salary forwomen who needed the income. The materialsused in making headdresses were as varied astheir styles: straw (chip orstrip), beaver, velvet, silk, crape, satin, muslin orcloth (Byrde, p 6). Trims included ribbons, theabove mentioned artificial fruits andflowers, veils, net, lace, or feathers, and evenbeads, pins, and brooches.
Hats worn by men-Regency periodThe carefully tailored, plain-cloth garments thatmade up the fashionable Regency manswardrobe rose up out of the country wear of theEnglish gentleman, and the hat of the period wasno exception.Here is a casual hat worn for hunting, illustratedaround 1800. Practical low-crowned, wide-brimmed hats came into fashion in the 1780sand gradually became more tailored and curly-brimmed into the earliest years of the newcentury.
Another country hat, this one with a flatter brimas well as a flatter, sharper crown. Theselarge, low-setting hats suited the long hair thatwas still holding over from the 18th century. Ashair shortened and clung closer to the head, sotoo did hats.By 1810, everyday hats had become somewhattaller and fairly straight-sided, and the brims haddiminished. This vertical line coordinated withthe long, columnar look then dominating fashionand most obvious in womens dress, with skirtsand bodices at their narrowest.
As the teensprogressed, thesides of the hatpassed vertical andbegan slantingoutwards. Thecrown also gainedheight as the brimlost width. Thisbrims excessivecurliness alsoemphasizes a busyvertical line.As the Regencydrew to aclose, hats hadreached an apex ofheight and curliness