Lecture #1:Introduction to Architecture From Antiquity through The Gothic Period
“Once A Week Art”An Introduction to Art History for Christian Students Presented by: L. Kay Mash Aragona Calvary Lutheran School Dallas, Texas
“The study of architecture opens up the enjoyment of buildings with an appreciation of their purpose, meaning and charm.” Sir Bannister Fletcher Author of, The History of Architecture
Ancient Architecture Timeline 900- 1100A2600BC 575BC 400BC 1-99AD 330AD 476AD 532AD D Byzantine Ziggurat architecture of Ur Emperor The Constantine Ishtar Romanesque moves capital to Gate architecture Constantinople Parthenon HagiaPyramids Sophiaat Giza Fall of Colosseum Rome
What is architecture? Architecture is the style or character of a building.Art Deco style architectureDallas, Texas Fair Park
Great Pyramid of Giza Great 2.3 million J limestone blocks Pyramid at 2600BC carried from Giza quarries down the NileTallest manmade structure in the world for over 3800 years Took 14-20 years to build
JZiggurats ofMesopotamia Step-pyramids built in Mesopotamia (today’s Iraq and Iran) by Sumerians, Assyrians, and Babylonians
Great Ziggurat of Ur J Builtaround2100BC
Ancient Babylonian Architecture: J The Ishtar Gate • The Ishtar Gate was constructed in 575BC by King Nebuchadnezzar II • Constructed of blue glazed tiles • The gate has been reconstructed at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, Germany from original artifacts
The Ishtar Gate (575BC): Jone of the entrances to the ancient city of Babylon Dedicated to the Babylonian Dedicated to the goddess, Ishtar
The Ancient Greeks•Known for theirtemples and open-airtheatres•Columns determinedtemple style•Roof tiles replacedthatched roof around700-650BC (better fireprotection)•Architect was treatedas a craftsman
Ancient Greek J Architecture Pediment Capital CapitalDoric Column Corinthian Column Ionic Column
Doric Column capital
pedimentTemple tothe Greek J goddess, Athena frieze architrave Doric columns The Parthenon, The life-sized Athens, Greece sculptures which once decorated the Greek Architecture: pediment can be found in the British 5th century BC Museum in London.
Remnant of the pediment J Doric Columns Remnant of friezeRemnant ofarchitrave
Greek temple with Doric columns
Which type are these columns? J
JWhich type are these columns?Ionic columns
• Roman townOstia Antica • Seaport – founded 620 BC as naval base J • Later commercial center and Rome’s food pantry
Ancient Architecture Timeline 900- 1100A2600BC 575BC 400BC 1-99AD 330AD 476AD 532AD D Byzantine Ziggurat architecture of Ur Emperor The Constantine Ishtar Romanesque moves capital to Gate architecture Constantinople Parthenon HagiaPyramids Sophiaat Giza Fall of Rome Colosseum
Ostia Antica: Theatre Pronounced os-tia an-teek-aBuilt 196 AD
• Originally built as a The Pantheon temple in 432BC, then rebuilt in the 2nd century in Rome AD J• Used as a church since the 7th century; the artist, Raphael, is buried here• Inspired Brunelleschi’s 42-meter dome in Florence (1436), the first sizeable dome to be constructed in Western Europe since Late Antiquity
Pantheon J ceiling Still the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world.
Coffered ceiling (sunken panels) The oculus isreduces the the source ofweight of the all interior roof. light, as well cooling and ventilation. It also helps reduce the Coffered weight of the ceiling is roof.constructed Pronouncedof concrete ock-you-lus
Roman Architecture – J The Colosseum in Rome, Italy• Based upon Greek architecture• Roman brick covered with marble• Built under Roman emperors, Vespasian A& Titus• 1-99AD
• Artificial building material Roman consisting of an aggregate (gravel, crushed bricks, concrete etc.), a binding agent such as pozzolona (volcano dust) or gypsum, & water• Romans shaped concrete into arches & vaults, foundations, patios, fireproof ceilings, and harbor Pantheon structures ceiling:• Romans covered concrete concrete with brick or lava stone to make it more attractive
Roman Building Materials: J Roman Brick Romans used bricks in many buildings & took their knowledgeof brick-making to other lands they conquered,including Britain.
The Roman Aqueducts •sophisticated system used to Arcades (arches) carry water from which support outlying areas to the aqueduct cities •Most aqueducts Roman Aqueduct, were underground Segovia, Spain •Some were above ground and were supported byInside the aqueduct arcades (arches)
Ancient Architecture Timeline 900- 1100A2600BC 575BC 400BC 1-99AD 330AD 476AD 532AD D Byzantine architecture The Ishtar Emperor Romanesque Gate Constantine architecture moves capital to Constantinople Hagia Pyramids Parthenon Sophia at Giza Fall of Rome Colosseum
Over time, the Roman Empire wasdivided into 2 parts: West and East J Rome, Italy• Western part spoke • Eastern part Latin spoke Greek• Not as wealthy as the • Byzantine East architecture• Capital located in Rome & other Italian cities
Constantine, a pagan, had a vision of a Chi-Rho in the sky shortly before he entered a battle with Emperor Maxentius to gain control of the Roman Empire.“In this sign,you will After heconquer” is won thewhatConstantine battle,said Jesus told Emperorhim in a Constantinedream. became a Christian. Constantine the Great Chi-Rho: Christian Peter Paul Rubens symbol with 1st 2Greek letters of word, Christ
The Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to J Byzantium, (renamed Constantinople) in the year 330AD. Emperor Constantine, a Bye-bye convert to Christianity, Rome! built many Hello churches, Byzantium! including the 1st St. Peter’s in Rome. Emperor Constantine called together Christian bishops in 325AD in Nicaea to settle religious arguments about the nature of Jesus. The NiceneBust of Emperor Constantine Creed resulted.
In Constantinople, the Hagia Sophia, built in532-537AD, was the finest example of Byzantine architecture and remained the world’s largest Christian church for a thousand years. J Bosphorus ASIA River – Hagia Sophia, as separates it would have the appeared in the Continent of Europe from time of Emperor Asia. Constantine. This example of Byzantine architecture was built in only 5 EUROPE years.
• Mosaics Byzantine instead of Art & Architecture carvings• Multiple domes• The name, Hagia Sophia, means “Wisdom of Mosaics in Chora Church, God” Istanbul, Turkey
Byzantine J • Mosaics Mosaics are pictures made up of small pieces of colored stone or glass • Ravenna, Italy - known for its Byzantine mosaics
JAfter attacks by Germanic forces, Rome falls in 474AD.
The Fall of Constantinople - 1453 50,000 Islamic troops of the Ottoman Empire battled 8,500 Byzantine Christians. When the Ottoman leader, Sultan Mehmed II, entered the city, he prayed at Hagia Sophia, then ordered it be converted to an Islamic mosque.
JAfter Constantinople Hagia Sophia waswas conquered by the converted to an Muslims… Islamic mosque• the bells, altar and iconostasis were removed• the Christian mosaics were plastered over• the minarets were added• The name of Minarets Constantinople was added by the changed to Istanbul Muslims
Largest Christian J church in the world for nearly 1,000 years In 1453, Constantinople was captured by the Ottoman Turks and Sultan Mehmed II ordered the church to be converted to a mosque Muslims removed the bells, the iconostasis,Hagia Sophia and the altar, and added plywood panels with Arabic verses.
JInterior, Hagia Sophia,Istanbul, Turkey
Ancient Architecture Timeline 900- 1100A2600BC 575BC 400BC 1-99AD 330AD 476AD 532AD D Byzantine architecture The Middle Ages… Emperor The Constantine Ishtar Romanesque moves capital to Gate architecture Constantinople Parthenon Hagia Pyramids Sophia at Giza Fall of Colosseum Rome
• Romanesque means “descended from Features of J Roman” Romanesque• Romanesque Architecture architecture in England is called “Norman” architecture• Architecture of medieval Europe (10th-12th centuries)• Rounded arches• Evolved into Gothic architecture in the 12th century
Romanesque JArchitecture • Thick walls • Rounded arches • Lombard band • Barrel vaults • Pointed arch or ribbed vault
Chevron J moulding A zig-zag moulding usedin Romanesque (Norman) architecture
Romanesque J architecture Romanesque church floorplan – simpleLombard band compared to Gothic churches
Lombard band:Romanesque decorative archedArchitecture border on the exterior of Romanesque buildings J
Architecture Timeline 330AD 476AD 532AD 900-1100AD 1100-1600 Middle Ages Byzantine architecture GothicEmperor architectureConstantinemoves capital of RomanesqueHoly Roman architecture •Notre DameEmpire to de ParisConstantinople Hagia •Cathedral at Sophia Cologne Fall of Rome •Salisbury Cathedral
• Rounded arches (Romanesque) Gothic J replaced with pointed Architecture arches (Gothic)• Towns competed to create tallest churches• Some churches collapsed, killing many• Stained glass windows weakened walls• Flying buttresses were added to support very high walls Flying buttresses
JThe Gothic Window Pointed arch
J Notre Dame de Paris Apse Rose windowConstruction began in 1163 One of the first buildings to use flying buttresses
Cathedral libraryhouses original copy of Magna 404 feet tall Salisbury Carta spire J Cathedral Gothic cathedral with tallest spire in England Unique church because unlike most Gothic Do I have to churches of its day, it sign this thing? was built to completion in one generation, King (1220-1258) – without John Magna additions Carta 1215
Cathedral at Cologne, Germany• Another example of Gothic architecture• Foundation for the church was laid in the 1240’s• Church wasn’t complete until over 600 years later