A Wireless ISP Primer Tranzeo Wireless BC3/FNTC Regional Workshop
Who is Tranzeo?• Tranzeo Wireless Technologies Inc. (TSX:TZT) has emerged as an industry leader in designing, manufacturing and distributing high-speed wireless broadband communication systems globally.
Tranzeo’s Competitive Advantage• Ease of doing business with us• Quality & Reliability of our products• Our very qualified Tech Support Group• Sales Support – help design the most efficient & cost effective solutions• Cost effective solutions/low risk solutions
Key Wireless Elements• Proper preparation through site surveys, marketing and business plan• The right equipment chosen for your unique location• Great support staff to service all your wireless needs• Professional Installers• A strong working relationship between client and vendor
There is no WISP in a box• Every location has unique needs• There is no “Swiss Army Knife” of radios• A good vendor will help you plan out the system based on your plans and your locations
Bandwidth Feed• Make sure your feed meets your needs for the short term, and can be scaled up for a reasonable cost in the future• The supplier of your bandwidth holds your business in their hands, choose wisely
Bandwidth Control• Wireless requires bandwidth control• Bandwidth should be controlled on two levels, intranet and internet• Kazaa, games, virus of the hour, are not the only issue.• Speeding up some classes of service at the expense of others makes for happier customers, i.e. high speed for Mail,VoiP, Video; low speed for Kazaa
User Control• Get paid for your bandwidth• WEP - Wired Equivalent Privacy• MAC AUTHENTICATION• WPA - Wi-Fi Protected Access• Radius Server - provides remote user authentication• PPPOE - Pt.toPt. Protocol over Ethernet• QOS - Quality of Service
Site Survey• Not a option in more crowded environments• Calculations must be tested in the real world• Put it up and see what happens is a recipe for disaster
Site Survey• A site survey will: – Suggest the quantity and position of access points – What antenna type to use – What channels are available and work best
Access Point Location Selection• Generally, cost determines the location, not RF, in the real world• Where can you get tower space?• Where can you get bandwidth?• How much is it going to cost?
802.11b• (DSSS) Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum• Cost effective solution for Point to Multipoint• Uses 2.4 GHz bandwidth.• Bandwidth is becoming crowded in many areas
802.11a• OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)• Cost effective solution for Point to Point feeds- up to 40 miles plus.• Point to Multi-Point solutions for high throughput requirements• Low cost client units now available• Uses 5.2 to 5.8 GHz
Channels – 2.4GHz• 802.11b operates in an unlicensed area of the 2.4GHz ISM (Industry, Scientific Medical) frequency band.• Each channel is 22MHz wide• To minimize interference each radio needs to be spaced 25MHz apart
Channels – 2.4GHz• Since the spectrum is only 80 MHz wide, that means that in any area, you can have at most three non-interfering access points.• Studies have shown that a 20 MHz spread has minimal effect
802.11a – 5.8 GHz• 5 non-overlapping channels in upper band• 4 non-overlapping channels in middle band• Lower band is illegal in North America• Channels are 20 MHz apart
Line of sight is more than being able to see the tower
Fresnel Zones• The Fresnel zone is a elliptical area which can not contain obstacles
Polarization• Horizontal vs. Vertical• Horizontal Benefits – +20 db from most sources of ISM (Industry, Scientific and Medical Band) noise – Better multipath results• Vertical Benefits – Less Expensive – In the past it was easier to find Vertical Equipment
Weather– As a general rule, wireless frequencies are not impacted by rains, snow, or thick fog– At 2.4 GHz, attenuation is 0.01 dB/Km for 150mm/hr of rain
Signal Propagation/Free Space Loss• Radio Waves lose power over distance, according to a fixed formula, called the Free Space loss. The greater the distance, the more will be lost.
TX Power• TX power is the amount of power a radio transmits. Generally, the longer the distance you want to go, the more power you need.• Power is not the most important element of a link, receive is!
RX Power• Rx Power is the lowest level at which a Radio can detect signal from noise.• The Lower the level, the better the radio.• As opposed to: RX Sensitivity – which is a measurement of the weakest signal a receiver can receive and still correctly translate it into data (-75dB is better than -90dB in actual performance)
EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power)• A measurement of the total output of the system, including the antenna• Legal limits exist on the amount of power you can emit.
DB vs DBi vs DBm• A dB is unit of measure that allows for easy calculations. Every 3 db increase means a doubling of power. 20 db = 100 mW, 23 db = 200 mW• A d(Bm is means a db at a certain level of resistance. In RF, its 50 ohms. Therefore, 0 dbm = 1 mW at 50 ohms• A DBi is a measurement of how much an antenna focuses a signal (gain).
Radios• Integrated Panel - combining both a radio and an antenna - some have fixed dBm output and the are some with controllable high gain output – can be used for outside or inside environments• N-Connector Panel – radio only with an N- Connector – LMR cable is used to connect the unit to a separate antenna• Indoor radios – radio with connector to allow a separate antenna to be connector inside or outside
Omni• Put out a flat, circular pattern• Best used where AP and clients are at the same heights• Patterns change as power changes• Generally have vertical polarity
Sector• Highly Directional• Cover a wide range both horizontally and vertically• Common degrees of beamwidth are 60, 90 & 120• Allow for use of a greater number of channels and higher radio densities
Parabolic Grids• Highly focused beamwidth• Excellent for dealing with trees• Low cost• Highly recommended for backhaul use
Interference Countermeasures1. Try to keep links short, as Fresnel increases over distance2. Avoid the noise by using tight Beam Antennas3. Use a different Frequency or polarization4. Try a different Antenna5. Move the Antenna to a different location
Customer Premise Equipment• Key to your success• Proper device selection means no “truck rolls” (on site service)• Improper solutions cost you customers and waste your time
Why not use a cheap SOHO device• SOHO (small office, home office) devices are made to go hundreds of yards, proper CPE equipment is designed to go miles• Generally vertically polarized• Not FCC certified if modified.• Warranty usually voided if modified• Not tested for outdoor use• Often use Omni or vertical Antennas
Power Over Ethernet• Makes installation simpler and cheaper• No cable loss• Must follow manufacturer instructions
Cost of Equipment• Lowest cost is not always the best for bottom line• Neither is high cost a guarantee of success• Tranzeo Solutions start at as low as $157 CDN
Support Costs• Like any ISP operation, there will be support costs.• If the head end is set up right, and the installer follows the basic rules, the install should work without an issue
Other items• Plan for a 1% equipment fallout rate per year.• Weather should not increase support calls, unless it is freezing rain
Optimizing ROI• Standardize on two or three models.• Use gear that can be repurposed.• (Our products are backward compatible)• Avoid proprietary standards if possible• Plan to recover CPE costs as soon as possible• Investigate leasing the equipment
What should a vendor Provide• Support – How long is the support period? Ours is life of product. – How can I get in contact with support – toll free line• Warranty – 1 Year from purchase
Vendors• Are they familiar with operating a WISP?• Tranzeo is – Whistler, Port Coquitlam• Do they offer training?• Are they FCC certified/certifiable?• What do other ISP’s think of them• Do they upgrade their technology in new units or firmware (internal software)
BC3/FNTC - Specific Topics• Implementation• Support• Range• Cost• Appropriate Conditions• Problems with product
Implementation• How do we do this? - Business Plan – needs established? Budget? - How many clients – throughput expectations - what is the topography like? – line of sight issues? Maps/Photographs/Sketches - location of equipment – distances• Time - when do you need to start/finish? Seasonal issues? - discuss with vendor equipment options & prices
Support• Tranzeo Tech Support Group – 5 staff 7:00 AM to 5:00 PM• Training – at Tranzeo or on site – there is a cost!• Your Regional Manager – provides information for the most efficient and cost effective solutions
Range• 2.4 GHz• Point to Multipoint – depending on radios and antennas used/line of sight – up to15 miles+• Point to Point – up to 10 miles• 5.8GHz• Point to Multipoint – up to 10 miles• Point to Point – up to 40 miles+
Cost2.4GHz Radios/Integrated Antennas - CPE’s – from $157 to $240 - Access Points & PtxPt - from $263 to $4995.8GHz Radios/Integrated Antennas & Systems - Access Points & PtxPt - from $274 to $1,243Separate Antennas – both frequencies - depending on type – from $72 to $343
Appropriate Conditions• Site Survey – are there seasonal considerations? – leaves on trees!• Your own qualified Tech support staff will know• Equipment can be installed in most weather conditions• Most radios certified from -65 C to +60 C
Problems with Products• Tranzeo Tech Support• Less than 1% failure rate• Always have a spare unit available• Usually not the radio/antenna unit – install related• Firmware Upgrades
Questions:• Dieter Kloepper• Regional Manager, Western Canada & Middle East• Tranzeo Wireless Technologies Inc.• 20155 Stewart Crescent (Moving soon to Pitt Meadows)• Maple Ridge BC, Canada V2X 0T6• Ph: 604-460-6002 local 111; Fax: 604-460-6005• Toll free: 1-866-872-6936• Tech Support direct: 1-888-460-6366• email@example.com• www.tranzeo.com• Product Feedback - firstname.lastname@example.org• Product wishlist - email@example.com• Rob Campbell – Tranzeo Wireless Network Services – Whistler• firstname.lastname@example.org (1-604-935-4696)