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How tos nagios - centos wiki

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how to install NagiOS over Centos

how to install NagiOS over Centos

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  • 1. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios Installing Nagios on CentOS 4.x/5.x Note added 28 Jul 2010: This piece seems to be abandoned, is unmaintained, and refers to only one of the nagios versions in circulation. Supplemented: 11 Oct 2012 It needs a re-write out of the conversational style Contents 1. Installing Nagios on CentOS 4.x/5.x 1. System: 2. References: 3. Packages: 4. General Upgrades 1. Upgrading from 2.4 2. Upgrading from 2.5 5. Set up Apache 6. Installation/Configuration 1. Configure the Nagios Apache file 2. Set up the password file 3. Set up the CGI file 4. Setting up nagios.cfg 7. Object configuration files 1. Timeperiods 2. Contacts/Contacts groups 3. Host and host groups 4. Services 8. Starting Nagios 9. Escalations 10. Extended information 11. Dependencies 12. SELinux 13. Thats all, folks! This document will breeze through installing and configuring everything necessary to get Nagios up and running. This will not touch in detail on the actual configuration directives Nagios uses. For that, documentation is readily available from the Nagios website, or available locally after Nagios is installed. Ill be explaining installation through RPMs and yum from Dags repo (RPMforge), but source is available if you prefer to build your own. Again, documentation for this is readily available. Please see the third-party Repositories section of the CentOS wiki in you dont already know how to enable repos. This also assumes you already have a working e-mail server in your existing network as well. Thats how notifications will get sent, and thats beyond the scope of this.1 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 2. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios System: CentOS 4.x/5x (Should work for any RHEL/Fedora flavor.) Nagios: 2.9 References: Nagios: http://www.nagios.org/ Official Docs: http://nagios.org/docs/ Community Docs: Repositories Monitoring Exchange: http://www.monitoringexchange.org/ Web Interfaces: http://www.nagios.org/faqs/viewfaq.php?faq_id=183 Visualization additions: http://www.nagvis.org/ Packages: nagios-2.9-1.el4.rf nagios-devel-2.9-1.el4.rf nagios-plugins-nrpe-2.5.2-1.el4.rf nagios-plugins-1.4.8-2.el4.rf Other: Apache 2.0 General Upgrades A quick note about upgrading. Generally, upgrading is as simple as typing yum update package_name. Just to be on the cautious side, backup your configuration files in /etc before upgrading. Secondly, always read the release notes to make sure configuration files and directives havent change. Upgrading from 2.4 A quick note about upgrading. If youre upgrading from version 2.4 (and previous 2.x version), and youve installed following this guide then a simple yum upgrade will work just fine. As always, its best to backup any previous configurations before upgrading just in case something goes awry. Also, from release 2.4 to 2.5 the only packages that Dag has re-spun are nagios and nagios-devel. [me@mymachine ~] yum update nagios nagios-plugins nagios-devel nagios- plugins-nrpe Upgrading from 2.52 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 3. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios If youre upgrading from version 2.5 to 2.6, Dags RPMs had a few quirks. Make sure you backup /etc/nagios before continuing. [me@mymachine ~] service nagios stop [me@mymachine ~] cp -ar /etc/nagios /wherever/nagios_2.5_backup [me@mymachine ~] yum update nagios nagios-plugins nagios-devel nagios- plugins-nrpe If cgi.cfg, misccommands.cfg, or checkcommands.cfg are missing or saved as .rpmsave or .rpmnew, then just copy them back from your backup that you just created. Otherwise, ignore the error just mentioned because the RPMs have been repaired. Thanks Dag! Also, there is a mistake int he check_linux_raid.pl script in the contributed plugins. This is easily fixed. Again, if you dont have any problems running this plugin, then it was fixed as well. This was brought to my attention from the Nagios mailing list. A user had spooted this and reported things to the packager, so this is probably resolved by now. Anyways, to correct the check_linux_raid.pl: [me@mymachine ~] vim /usr/lib/nagios/plugins/contrib/check_linux_raid.pl Comment out line 26: use strict; #use lib utils.pm use utils qw(%ERRORS); [me@mymachine ~] nagios -v /etc/nagios/nagios.cfg [me@mymachine ~] service nagios start Set up Apache Make sure you have Apache installed, then youll need to quickly configure it if not. Chances are you probably already have some web service running on your machine, but if not, get it running quickly this way. [me@mymachine ~] yum install httpd [me@mymachine ~] vim /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf At least edit the server name directive to your IP address within /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. Then turn on Apache, and make sure its set to start. [me@mymachine ~] chkconfig httpd on [me@mymachine ~] service httpd start Now open up a browser and see if your web server is running: http://localhost (or your IP). You should see the Apache 2 test page. If so, move along. If you require further assistance with getting Apache going, especially if you have a need to secure the server, then please follow the documentation at http://www.apache.org. This will get your web server up and running quickly, but provides no means of security what-so-ever, I just want to warn you. If youre running completely internal, then it shouldnt be a big deal. Ok, after you get that running, lets install Nagios and start working on setting it up. By default, the RPMs you are going to install automatically create a nagios.conf file for Apache to use. This file is in /etc/httpd/conf.d/nagios.conf. Installation/Configuration3 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 4. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios Nagios requires several different packages be installed so that it may perform the magic it does so well. The core is the Nagios package itself. Without the plugins package, though, Nagios wont be able to actually process any checks on your system. The development package obviously contains all the libraries, headers, and document files for developing Nagios. The other optional packages are the NRPE package, and the NSCA (Nagios Service Check Acceptor) which I dont use. You may have use for it, so check out the main site for details. Also, Nagios must run under both the user and group "nagios." The RPM install takes care of this step for you, so theres no need to create the user and group. [me@mymachine ~] yum install nagios nagios-plugins nagios-plugins-nrpe nagios-devel Itll go ahead and pull down a few other packages for dependencies as well. Thats it for installation. Lets move back over to Apaches side for a bit. Configure the Nagios Apache file Unless you want other options such as SSL configurations or allowing access to the CGI from only certain hosts, then the default nagios.conf file will suit your needs. Heres what it looks like: ScriptAlias /nagios/cgi-bin "/usr/lib/nagios/cgi" <Directory "/usr/lib/nagios/cgi"> # SSLRequireSSL Options ExecCGI AllowOverride None Order allow,deny Allow from all # Order deny,allow # Deny from all # Allow from 127.0.0.1 AuthName "Nagios Access" AuthType Basic AuthUserFile /etc/nagios/htpasswd.users Require valid-user Alias /nagios "/usr/share/nagios" <Directory "/usr/share/nagios"> # SSLRequireSSL Options None AllowOverride None Order allow,deny Allow from all # Order deny,allow # Deny from all # Allow from 127.0.0.1 AuthName "Nagios Access" AuthType Basic AuthUserFile /etc/nagios/htpasswd.users Require valid-user </Directory> Unless you want other options configured, thats it for now. Lets set up authentication now. Set up the password file If you dont want to use the name "nagiosadmin" simply substitute your name. Remember later on youll need to use the same name in some CGI configuration settings. [me@mymachine ~] htpasswd -c /etc/nagios/htpasswd.users nagiosadmin4 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 5. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios New password: type_your_password Re-type new password: re-type_your_password Adding password for user nagiosadmin Its also up to you if youd like to create a "guest" account. The guest account would allow viewers to see various things you specify within Nagios, but it wont give them total access to the CGI interface. For example, viewers could see host status information, but cant schedule downtime for hosts...things like this. If you want a guest account, add the account. [me@mymachine ~] htpasswd /etc/nagios/htpasswd.users guest New password: type_your_password Re-type new password: re-type_your_password Adding password for user guest NOTE: Notice I took away the "-c" option. This is the create option. Since you already created the file, make sure any other accounts you add are not with the create option. Youll wipe the file out if you do. Set up the CGI file The next step is to set up the users you just created in the main CGI configuration file. Im going to assume that you are not using a guest account, and that you have only created one admin "nagiosadmin" account. Also, ensure you have it set up to use authentication. 1 means on, 0 means off. [me@mymachine ~] cd /etc/nagios [me@mymachine nagios] vim cgi.cfg # AUTHENTICATION USAGE use_authentication=1 # SYSTEM/PROCESS INFORMATION ACCESS authorized_for_system_information=nagiosadmin # CONFIGURATION INFORMATION ACCESS authorized_for_configuration_information=nagiosadmin # SYSTEM/PROCESS COMMAND ACCESS authorized_for_system_commands=nagiosadmin # GLOBAL HOST/SERVICE VIEW ACCESS authorized_for_all_services=nagiosadmin authorized_for_all_hosts=nagiosadmin # GLOBAL HOST/SERVICE COMMAND ACCESS authorized_for_all_service_commands=nagiosadmin authorized_for_all_host_commands=nagiosadmin Save this file when you are finished editing it. There are a lot of other optional parameters to change or play with, so have fun customizing the web interface to your liking. Lets test out what youve done so far. Restart Apache and browse to http://localhost/nagios/. You should see your pretty little web interface to Nagios now, after you supply the credentials that you just created. You can browse through the links to the left, but the majority of them wont work because nothing is configured yet. Setting up nagios.cfg Once you start checking around in /etc/nagios, youll see there are few example configuration files to take a peek at. One being "localhost.cfg." This file uses an all in one approach to configuring the object files later on. I find this confusing, especially if you eventually have a very large network to monitor.5 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 6. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios Instead, youll split out the configurations into separate files, which will keep you sane later on. Go ahead and move this file. Previously, the sample files were named "bigger.cfg" and "minimal.cfg" but with Nagios 2.9 its now just the one file. [me@mymachine ~] cd /etc/nagios [me@mymachine nagios] mv localhost.cfg localhost.cfg_org Now were going to open up the main Nagios configuration file. This file is basically self-explanatory with the comments inside of it. The short version is as follows. Nagios allows you to specify every configuration from one single file, "localhost.cfg," if so desired. When you have only a few hosts and services to monitor this idea is rational, but when you have tons of items to monitor this is a bad idea. Its going to take you a long time to get used to setting up Nagios to begin with, so do yourself a favor and split out all your files into the categories as mentioned below. Meaning, use a separate file for hosts and hostgroups, a separate file for services and servicegroups, and a separate file for everything else you decide to configure. Youll thank me later. Lets start with the basics needed. The external command options I turn on in order to allow commands to be executed from the CGI web interface. [me@mymachine nagios] vim nagios.cfg # OBJECT CONFIGURATION FILE(S) cfg_file=/etc/nagios/contactgroups.cfg cfg_file=/etc/nagios/contacts.cfg cfg_file=/etc/nagios/hostgroups.cfg cfg_file=/etc/nagios/hosts.cfg cfg_file=/etc/nagios/services.cfg cfg_file=/etc/nagios/timeperiods.cfg # EXTERNAL COMMAND OPTION check_external_commands=1 # EXTERNAL COMMAND CHECK INTERVAL command_check_interval=1 Go ahead and save the file. Now, for each file you you specified above youll need to create the file because it doesnt exist within /etc/nagios. [me@mymachine nagios] touch contactgroups.cfg contacts.cfg hostgroups.cfg hosts.cfg services.cfg timeperiods.cfg [me@mymachine nagios] chown nagios.nagios contactgroups.cfg contacts.cfg hostgroups.cfg hosts.cfg services.cfg timeperiods.cfg One last note about this section. If you are planning on using the external commands on the CGI interface (check_external_commands), you might run into a few permissions issues. Please check out the Nagios FAQ interface if you get any errors when you try to run a command on the web interface. The FAQ is located here: http://nagios.sourceforge.net/docs/2_0/commandfile.html Object configuration files As mentioned, when the configuration files are split up, Nagios reads the data from these files in order for it to process host and service checks across the network. Before I begin, detailed documentation of all of the options for the template based objects are located at the website. This will help get you started though, so lets begin with the timeperiods file. Obviously, you can substitute your options if you want different values.6 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 7. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios Timeperiods [me@mymachine nagios] vim timeperiods.cfg # 24x7 timeperiod definition define timeperiod{ timeperiod_name 24x7 alias 24 Hours A Day, 7 Days A Week sunday 00:00-24:00 monday 00:00-24:00 tuesday 00:00-24:00 wednesday 00:00-24:00 thursday 00:00-24:00 friday 00:00-24:00 saturday 00:00-24:00 } # workhours timeperiod definition define timeperiod{ timeperiod_name workhours alias "Normal" Working Hours monday 08:00-17:00 tuesday 08:00-17:00 wednesday 08:00-17:00 thursday 08:00-17:00 friday 08:00-17:00 } # nonworkhours timeperiod definition define timeperiod{ timeperiod_name nonworkhours alias Non-Work Hours sunday 00:00-24:00 monday 00:00-09:00,17:00-24:00 tuesday 00:00-09:00,17:00-24:00 wednesday 00:00-09:00,17:00-24:00 thursday 00:00-09:00,17:00-24:00 friday 00:00-09:00,17:00-24:00 saturday 00:00-24:00 } # none timeperiod definition define timeperiod{ timeperiod_name none alias No Time Is A Good Time } You can specify as many of these as you want. For instance, say you have a need to contact folks only on the weekends. You can create a template "weekends" and use only Friday, Saturday, Sunday with the appropriate times as you see fit. Contacts/Contacts groups Contacts are split into two different files. One holds the actual contact options, and the other holds contacts together in groups. The groups are whom you specify Nagios to contact later on. [me@mymachine nagios] vim contacts.cfg # service_notification_options are w,u,c,r,f,n # w=warning u=unknown c=critical r=recovery f=flapping n=none7 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 8. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios # host_notification_options d,u,r,f,n # d=down u=unreachable r=recovery f=flapping n=none define contact{ contact_name me alias me service_notification_period 24x7 host_notification_period 24x7 service_notification_options c,r host_notification_options d,r service_notification_commands notify-by-email host_notification_commands host-notify-by-email email me@myemailaddress.whatever } define contact{ contact_name you alias you service_notification_period workhours host_notification_period workhours service_notification_options c,r host_notification_options d,r service_notification_commands notify-by-email host_notification_commands host-notify-by-email email you@youremailaddress.whatever } You can choose to do as you wish, but for my purposes I only set contacts up to be notified on critical and recovery alerts. I really have no interest in most things Im monitoring alerting me when there may be a temporary glitch, or when something is in a warning state, especially at 4:00 a.m. The reason I dont is because a) I frequently check the Nagios CGI interface throughout the day, and b) all of my alerts get forwarded to a ticketing system. With that said, I dont want unnecessary tickets being generated simply because a plugin failed to execute this time around. If I was very inspired, I could set up a separate contact and group to receive only the warning and unknowns, and then pipe these through a different e-mail address. Again, completely adaptive to your needs. Also, Im using e-mail only. My e-mail system takes care of processing where the alerts are going. However, you could set up nagios to pipe messages straight to pagers. Again, check the object configuration options for timeperiods.cfg on the docs. If you want to see the commands being prosecuted for alerts, check out /etc/nagios /misccommands.cfg. On to the contact groups. [me@mymachine nagios] vim contactgroups.cfg # einsteins contact group definitions define contactgroup{ contactgroup_name einsteins alias einsteins members me,you } This is a simple example of contacts and contact groups. You can nest as many possibilities as you really want to. You can create as many contacts you need as well. Its rather straightforward. Host and host groups Host and host group information is stored in the two files hosts.cfg and hostgroups.cfg. Just as you can mix and match contacts in various contact groups, you can do the same thing with host names in host groups. I prefer to create template configurations that I can leech off of later on in my configuration file. It saves you an incredible amount of time typing down the road.8 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 9. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios [me@mymachine nagios] vim hosts.cfg # Generic host definitions define host{ name generic-host ; Generic template name notifications_enabled 1 ; Host notifications are enabled event_handler_enabled 1 ; Host event handler is enabled flap_detection_enabled 1 ; Flap detection is enabled process_perf_data 1 ; Process performance data retain_status_information 1 ; Retain status information across program restarts retain_nonstatus_information 1 ; Retain non-status information across program restarts register 0 ; DONT REGISTER THIS DEFINITION - ITS NOT A REAL HOST, JUST A TEMPLATE! } # This creates a generic template that any host can use. # Notifies never, checks 15 times before showing critical on CGI interface, define host{ name basic-host use generic-host check_command check-host-alive max_check_attempts 15 notification_interval 0 notification_period none notification_options n register 0 } # This creates a generic host that your routers can use # monitors host(s) 24x7, notifies on down and recovery, checks 15 times before going critical, # notifies the contact_group every 30 minutes define host{ name your-routers-host use generic-host check_command check-host-alive max_check_attempts 15 notification_interval 30 notification_period 24x7 notification_options d,r register 0 } define host{ use basic-host host_name mymachine1 alias mymachine1 address 192.168.100.101 contact_groups einsteins # notification_options d,r #overrides the basic-host option } define host{ use your-routers-host9 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 10. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios host_name router1 alias router1 address 192.168.100.100 contact_groups einsteins } You can begin to see how much time predefined templates can save you down the road when adding hosts. Im monitoring around 100 hosts and over 200 services, so doing things the template way can really be productive in the long haul. It can get a little confusing, but stick to the docs and youll learn pretty quickly. When it comes to all of the template object options each file can contain, look for this http://localhost(or your IP)/nagios/docs/configobject.html. This will help you tremendously, because there are so many options Nagios allows you to choose from. I split things up because I want notifications on your-routers-host, but I dont want notification on the basic-host container. If you want to override the basic-host notification container, then just specify it within the host definition itself. Starting to understand why you use templates? Some people have commented that my logic here is confusing, but it will save you a ton of typing. If you only have a few hosts to be checking on then it probably is overkill. Ok, now on to host groups. [me@mymachine nagios] vim hostgroups.cfg define hostgroup{ hostgroup_name basic-clients alias basic clients members mymachine1 } define hostgroup{ hostgroup_name your-routers alias routers members router1 } Thats about as simple as this can get. You specify your clients from hosts.cfg into host groups in this file. You can split them into multiple groups. For instance, mymachine1 can live within both the basic- clients and your-routers group if you so desired. Pretty simple... Services To start, youre going to need at least one service to monitor. This would be a simple check-host-alive, or ping. Again, you can split things into templates to make it easier down the road just as demonstrated above. [me@mymachine nagios] vim services.cfg # Generic service definition template define service{ name generic-service ; Generic service name active_checks_enabled 1 ; Active service checks are enabled passive_checks_enabled 1 ; Passive service checks are enabled/accepted parallelize_check 1 ; Active service checks should be parallelized (Dont disable) obsess_over_service 1 ; We should obsess over this service (if necessary) check_freshness 0 ; Default is to10 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 11. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios NOT check service freshness notifications_enabled 1 ; Service notifications are enabled event_handler_enabled 1 ; Service event handler is enabled flap_detection_enabled 1 ; Flap detection is enabled process_perf_data 1 ; Process performance data retain_status_information 1 ; Retain status information across program restarts retain_nonstatus_information 1 ; Retain non-status information across program restarts register 0 ; DONT REGISTER THIS DEFINITION - NOT A REAL SERVICE, JUST A TEMPLATE! } # Generic for all services define service{ use generic-service name basic-service is_volatile 0 check_period 24x7 max_check_attempts 15 normal_check_interval 10 retry_check_interval 2 notification_interval 0 notification_period none register 0 } define service{ use basic-service name ping-service notification_options n check_command check_ping!1000.0,20%!2000.0,60% register 0 } define service{ use ping-service service_description PING contact_groups einsteins hostgroup_name basic-clients,your-routers # host_name one_client } This is the example of how to nest templates. You can use hostgroup_name or host_name individually. Ive declared a general template to use called "basic-service" which leeches off of the "generic-service" definitions above that. Then ping-service is used to define it down even lower. The reason I split this out is because say you want to create another host group called "your-switches," but you want notifications to go out on this service to a different contact group. Then you just define another service definition and add this host group to that definition, and apply a different contact group. Ultimately, the last definitions override all other containers above it. Last man standing type deal. The last option Nagios sees, is the one it goes by. For example below. The ping-service is still the same, but I want it to go to a different contact group. Same logic as was explained in the hosts.cfg and hostgroups.cfg file. define service{ use ping-service service_description PING contact_groups group2 hostgroup_name your-switches11 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 12. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios # host_name one_client } The services.cfg file can get pretty cumbersome because of all the different checks you can configure. For instance, you can set it up to check smtp service through check_smtp, http services through check_http, dhcp, dns, and all sorts of items through SNMP plugins. Ill give you an example of an smtp service check. # SMTP - ensure SMTP services are available. define service{ use basic-service name smtp-service service_description SMTP notification_interval 15 contact_groups einsteins notification_options c,r notification_period 24x7 check_command check_smtp register 0 } define service{ use smtp-service hostgroup_name smtp-servers # host_name one_client } Again, obviously this leeches off the template above it, then defines the actual host groups to check. The host group smtp-servers would have to exist in hostgroups.cfg, and there would have to be hosts defined in hosts.cfg. Before I continue, let me explain a bit as to what actually occurs with these files. Nagios reads the configuration options from all of these text files. When its time to process the smtp-service you have defined, it looks to see what check_command its supposed to execute. It then looks in the checkcommands.cfg file to look up what check_smtp is supposed to actually do. This would be: # check_smtp command definition define command{ command_name check_smtp command_line $USER1$/check_smtp -H $HOSTADDRESS$ } Great it says, Ive found it! Nagios now knows to go to /usr/lib/nagios/plugins/ (default path for the RPM install) and execute the check_smtp plugin it finds there. It substitutes the $HOSTADDRESS$ with the hosts located in the host groups, goes out and checks the server to see if SMTP is running. It then returns back with a yay or nay, Nagios processes this information according to the options you have laid out in the configuration files, and displays the information on the CGI interface. This in essence is how to start setting up Nagios. Ive simplified this quite a bit, but you should now have a good understand of where to at least begin with configuring hosts and services. Look in /usr/lib /nagios/plugins to see everything you can check out of the box. The list is very large with various things. Also, check out http://www.monitoringexchange.org to view all sorts of third-party plugins written by many community members. I do a lot of checks across SNMP, so be sure to check that out. Also, you can easily write your own plugins to use. There are many extra things you can do within Nagios itself, such as define escalations and extended service/host information. Ill explain that after you get Nagios fired up so you can see what its about.12 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 13. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios Starting Nagios At this point, you should have a working configuration with a host or two for monitoring. Since we havent done so yet, lets start the Nagios daemon, configure it to start at boot, and check the configurations file for errors. [me@mymachine nagios] chkconfig nagios on [me@mymachine nagios] nagios -v nagios.cfg Nagios 2.4 Copyright (c) 1999-2006 Ethan Galstad (http://www.nagios.org) Last Modified: 05-31-2006 License: GPL Reading configuration data... Running pre-flight check on configuration data... Total Warnings: 85 Total Errors: 0 Things look okay - No serious problems were detected during the pre-flight check [me@mymachine nagios] service nagios start Starting network monitor: nagios Youll notice my instance has 85 warnings displayed. This is because I have 85 services being checked that have no contact group(s) associated with the service. Warnings are usually ok to let go. As long as the check (nagios -v) says "Things look okay" then youre usually fine. To avoid the warnings, simply do what the warning says and fix the issue its spewing. Escalations Escalations are pretty cool in that they allow you to specify where second, third, fourth, and so on, notifications can go. For instance, you have the SMTP service set up to notify a contact group every 30 minutes indefinitely until someone resolves the problem. With an escalation set up, you can tell notifications 2,3,4 to go to this e-mail address, or this pager, and then you can tell notifications 5,6,7 to go to yet another address or pager, and so on. I use this extensively because I have the first notification go to ticketing software, I then set all subsequent notifications to go to simply a pager. I dont want multiple tickets being created by the same incident, but I want Nagios to page the hell out of me until I respond to the event. Lets take a peek. This assumes youve added this in the nagios.cfg file as well as created the file in /etc/nagios. [me@mymachine nagios] vim escalations.cfg define serviceescalation{ host_name mymachine1 service_description SMTP first_notification 1 last_notification 0 notification_interval 30 contact_groups mypager }13 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 14. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios I define host escalations and service escalations all in the same file as above. You can split these two out just like anything else. Just specify it in the nagios.cfg file to tell the program where the file resides. I dont split these because I dont have too many escalations to really be concerned with. Your mileage may vary. Extended information Extended information is a bonus feature and is used mainly for just aesthetic reasons on the web interface. It can be split up into host extended information and service extended information. The things you can do with this are put pretty little icons beside host names, specify URLs to links outside of Nagios, and make things look "pretty" on the map systems. I use the service extended information to point to links outside of nagios hosting MRTG graphs. Ill show you how you can do this. Remember to specify this file exists in nagios.cfg and create the file. [me@mymachine nagios] vim serviceextinfo.cfg # yums definitions define serviceextinfo{ host_name yum service_description PING notes_url http://mynagiosbox/mrtg/myfile.html icon_image graph.gif icon_image_alt View graphs } This puts a pretty little icon beside the PING service on the web interface. When you click on this icon, it takes you directly to the MRTG graph I have running on the same machine. In my case, I have an internal yum server rsyncing every night to the mirrors. All of the ethernet traffic is graphed through MRTG, then Nagios points a link to this so its easy to navigate to. This proves to create a good history of bandwith usage, and other things. Use some creativity and you can log, graph, and link to just about anything you want. For example, processes and users logged into a system. Dependencies Another interesting file I use is the host and service dependencies options. What this does is set up a tier of checks before something alarms out. For example, I check a login service of a server thats not a Linux box. I have about 15 other services being checked on this host, but they are dependent on being able to login to the machine before processing these checks. When a login is unsuccessful, I dont want 15 services to start freaking out and paging me, so I set up a dependency tree. If login fails, only the login alarms out...I get one notification for this, not a zillion for all the other checks. You can use this feature for hosts as well. Again, specify it in the nagios.cfg file and create the files. define servicedependency{ host_name your_host service_description LOGIN dependent_host_name your_host dependent_service_description another_service execution_failure_criteria w,u,c notification_failure_criteria w,u,c } The execution failure criteria tells Nagios what its supposed to do if the "LOGIN" service is down. Meaning "another_service" wont even bother to check the service if login is on a warning, unknown, or14 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 15. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios critical state. The notification failure criteria determines when notifications should not be sent out. If the login check is in a warning, unknown, or critical status, then no messages will be sent out on another_service. Just make sure when you are done adding, editing, or creating new configuration files, that you run the nagios -v nagios.cfg option. This processes your configuration files and does a check on them prior to actually refreshing the service. SELinux A word about SELinux. I dont use it currently, because in 4.x, it messed with some things, and I havent taken the time to learn it. I know in 5, its supposed to be much more mature, so try it out. I turned it off when I verified this worked on CentOS 5, so if you run into any strange things, keep SELinux in mind. A security feature of CentOS 5.2 SELinux prevents the access from the apache httpd server to the needed /var/nagios files. A CentOS 5.2 workaround is to execute the command: chcon -R httpd_sys_content_t /var/nagios Note: It is also reported that. for CentOS 6, the form: chcon -R --type=httpd_sys_content_t /var/nagios works, in this later CentOS version. Thats all, folks! Basically, this is Nagios summed up. Im simplifying almost everything. I hope Ive explained things in a simple fashion anyways. Documentation for the utility is wonderful, but theres so much documentation that its hard to learn where to get started sometimes. If you have a network to maintain, I advocate getting Nagios (unless you like other utilities) running to big brother your hosts and devices. Its saved my IT departments skin on more than one occasion. Like I mentioned before, itll take you a long time to get good at it, and its not easy to figure out at first, but once you get a grip on Nagios, youll wonder how you got along without it before. Im checking everything from simple pings to check host alive status, to disk usage stats, memory stats, DHCP, DNS, HTTP, temperature in machines rooms, yum updates, cpu loads, SNMP information from hosts, to anything you can imagine. Im leaving a lot of things out, but you get the idea. Virtually anything you can think of keeping an eye on, you can do so across Nagios. You can write your own plugins, or visit the Monitoring Exchange site I mentioned earlier to find just about anything. One more thing I would like to mention is the ability to configure and maintain Nagios solely through the web interface. Nagios doesnt come with pre-packaged add-ons for doing so, but you can find information for three different packages here: http://www.nagios.org/faqs/viewfaq.php?faq_id=183. I personally have not used any of them, but I guess for the command line challenged it could prove useful. If you have anything to add or if you notice something wrong, please let me know so I can correct it. The original is written in HTML, and I have to adapt my formatting to use on this wiki, so there might be some typos. Enjoy.15 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM
  • 16. HowTos/Nagios - CentOS Wiki http://wiki.centos.org/HowTos/Nagios As MaxHetrick has apparently departed the CentOS Wiki, this page is now presumably fair game for those with edit privileges. This page has been recommended as a "clearer" howto. HowTos/Nagios (last edited 2012-10-11 15:34:46 by RussHerrold)16 of 16 18-Oct-12 8:15 AM