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Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1
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Human anatomy and physiology the cardiovascular system 1

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  • 1. The Cardiovascular System
  • 2. Formation of Endocardial Tube
    • Хүний зүрхний анхны үүсгэвэр нь хөврөлийн хөгжлийн 3 дахь долоо хоногийн эхэнд 1.5 мм урттай хөврөлд спланхомезодермын эсүүдийн хос бөөгнөрөл байдлаар үүсдэг. Энэ хос бөөгнөрөл нь үрийн бамбайн толгойн хэсгийн ар талд, биеийн гол шугамын 2 талаар мезодермын дотор хальсны дор байрлана. Мезодермын дотор хальсны энэхүү хэсгийг миоэпикардын үүсгэвэр, гадна хэсэг ялтас гэнэ.
  • 3.
    • Спланхомезодермээс тодорхой эсийн үе ялгарц эхлэх бөгөөд тэдгээрийг ангиобласт гэнэ. Ангиобластаас хожим нь эндокардын эндотель үүсч прекардын мезодерма, эндодермийн хооронд байрладаг. Цаашид миоэпикардын ялтсанд дүрсжих процесс явагдасны дүнд гуурсан зүрх бий болдог. Энэ процесс нь хөврөлийн толгой хэсгээс биеийн бөгсөн хэсэгрүү чиглэсэн байдаг ба эхлээд ирээдүйн зүрхний ховдол ын цаашдаа тосгуурын ховдолууд үүсдэг.
  • 4.
    • Ховдол тосгуур бий болж эхэлмэгц зүрх баруун зүүн болж тал болж хуваагдах шинж тэмдэг ажиглагдах ба энэ нь хөврөлийн хөгжлийн 5-6 долоо хоногийн туршид үргэлжлэн явагдана. Миокардын үүсгэвэрийн эсүүд нь / кардиомиобласт / хуваагдаж эзэлхүүнээрээ томрон, хөврөлийн хөгжлийн – 2 сараас эсүүдийн сийвэнд тодорхой чиглэлгүй орших хөндлөн судалт миофибрилүүүд бий болно. Z зурвасууд нь эсийн мембараны хотойлттой /T систем / нэгэн зэрэг үүсдэг. Миобластуудын хооронд шүргэлцэх хэсгээр десмосом төст бүтцүүд үүсч , аажмаар завсрын диск болж хөгжинө.
  • 5. Angiogenetic cell clusters скопление extend in an arc around the head end of the ventral opening of the yolk sac. Initially / начальние /, this means that the angiogenetic cell clusters (and the blood vessel that forms from them) have the pattern of a "horseshoe" if viewed from a dorsal or ventral perspective.
  • 6. The brain grows at an incredible rate. It grows so fast that it makes the head bend around under the embryo's body. This is why the heart winds up on the VENTRAL SIDE of the body.
  • 7.
    • ХХ – ийн 2 сарын эцсээс зүрхний дамжуулах тогтолцоо бүрэлдэж буй шинжүүд ажиглагдаж эхэлнэ. Дамжуулах тогтолцооны миобластууд нь асар олон тооны бөөмтэй болох, фибриллын элементүүд нь удаан ялгаран хөгжих зэрэг шинжээр илрэх ба хөврөлийн 4 сар гэхэд зүрхний дамжуулах тогтолцооны бүх хэсгүүд бүрэлдэж дуусдаг. Зүүн ховдолын булчингийн эд нь баруун талынхаас илүү түргэн хөгжпөг.
  • 8. Зүрхний ханын бүтэц
    • Endocardium
    • Myocardium
    • Epicardia
  • 9. Layers of pericardium and heart wall
  • 10.  
  • 11. Walls of the ventricles: Left wall is thicker!
  • 12.  
  • 13. Зүрх /cor, cardio, heart, сердца /
    • Basis cordis
    • Basis apex
    • Facies sternocostalis
    • Facies diaphragmatica
    • Facies pulmonaris
    • Sulcus coronarius
    • Sulcus interventercularis anterior
    • Sulcus interventercularis posterior
  • 14. Heart’s position in thorax
  • 15.  
  • 16. Heart’s position in thorax
    • In mediastinum – behind sternum and pointing left, lying on the diaphragm
    • It weighs 250-350 gm (about 1 pound)
      • Feel your heart beat at apex
    (this is of a person lying down)
  • 17. Anterior View of a Pig Heart
  • 18.  
  • 19.
  • 20. Зүрх нь 4 камертай
    • Правой предсердие – atrium dexter
    • Провый желудочек – ventriculus dexter
    • Левое предсердие – atrium sinister
    • Левые желудочек – ventriculus sinister
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. Баруун зүүн ховдолууд нь хоорондоо таславчаар тусгаарлагдана.
    • Межпредсердной перегородкое Septum interatriale
    • Межжелудочковое перегородкое
    • septum interventriculare
  • 24. Ostium atrioventriculare dexter
    • Valva atrioventricularis dexter / tricuspidalis/
    • Хойд- cuspis posterior
    • Өмнөд- cuspis anterior
    • Таславчийн – cuspis septalis
  • 25.  
  • 26. Ostium trunci pulmonalis
    • Valvula trunci pulmonalis
    • Хагас сар хэлбэрийн хавхлагуудтай - Lunula valvularis semilunaris
    • Хагас саран хэлбэрийн хавхлагуудад чөлөөт зангилаа noduli valvularum semilunarium /aranthi/
  • 27.  
  • 28. Ostium atrioventerculare sinister
    • Valva atrioventeculari sinistrum /mitralis, s.bicuspitlis/
    • Өмнөд
    • Хойд
  • 29.  
  • 30. Ostium aortae
    • Valva aortae
    • Valva semulunaris dexter
    • Valva semilunaris sinister
    • Valva posterior
    • тэдгээрийн захаар noduli valva semilunris
  • 31.  
  • 32.  
  • 33. Function of AV valves
  • 34. Function of semilunar valves (Aortic and pulmonic valves)
  • 35. Цусны эргэлтийн тогтолцоо
    • Артер
    • Вен
    • зүрх
  • 36. Functions:
    • A closed system of the heart and blood vessels
      • The heart pumps blood
      • Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body
    • The function of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygen and nutrients to and remove carbon dioxide and other waste products from the bodies tissues.
  • 37. Blood Vessels: Types
    • Taking blood to the tissues and back
      • Arteries (large, thickest walled, carry blood away from heart, blood is moved by the pumping of the heart)
      • Arterioles (smaller, thinner walled, carry blood away from heart, blood is moved by pumping of the heart)
      • Capillaries (smallest, thinnest vessels, one cell layer thick, site of exchange of materials between the blood and body tissues)
      • Venules ( thinner walled vessels, carry blood back towards heart)
      • Veins (thin walled vessels, large lumen, have valves present which keep blood moving in one direction, blood is moved by “milking” action due to the contraction of skeletal muscles.
  • 38. Structure of Vessels
    • Three layers (tunics)
      • Tunic intima /interna/
        • Endothelium нь
        • 1. endothelium- дотор хөхөлжит эсэн давхрага
        • 2. membarana basalis – суурийн мембаран
        • 3. stratum subendotheliale – эндотелийн дорхи давхрага
        • 4. membara elastica interna – дотор уян мембаран
        • Connictive tissue
        • Interna elastic membarana
  • 39.
      • Tunic media
      • Involuntary musculi fibra
      • Membara elastica interna
      • Tunic externa
        • Mostly fibrous connective tissue
        • Controlled by sympathetic nervous system
  • 40.  
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43. Артерийн судсыг дунд бүрхүүлийнх нь бүтцээр
    • Уян – a.elastotypico /aorta, pulmonary arter/
    • Холимог – a.mixtotypica / a.caroticum, a.subclavicula
    • Булчинлаг – a. myotypica / дунд болог бага голчтой артер /
  • 44. Vein
    • Tunica interna
    • Tunica media
    • Tunica adventitia
  • 45.
    • венийн судсыг дунд бүрхүүлйин бүтцээр нь
    • Булчинлаг – v.myotypica
    • Ду нд бүрхүүлээрээ булчингийн хөгжил сул венд дээд хөндийн түүний гол цутгалангууд хамаарагдана.
    • Дунд бүрхүүлдээ булчингийн дунд хөгжилтэй венд бугалганы вен.
    • Дунд бүрхүүлдээ хүчтэй хөгжилтэй венд гучны вен болон биеийн доод хэсгийн вен хамаарагдана. Иим венүүд дотор бүрхүүл дээрээ хавхлагатай зохих хэмжээгээр гүрвэлзэх чадвартай болсон байдаг.
    • Булчингүй - v.fibrotypica / тархины хатуу зөөлөн бүрхүүл, нүдний торлог, яс дэлүү, ихсийн венүүд хамаарна /
  • 46.  
  • 47. Tunica intima Tunica media Tunica externa (adventicia)
  • 48. Tunica intima Tunica media Tunica adventicia
  • 49. Extremely thin tunica media in a vein.
  • 50.  
  • 51.  
  • 52. Blood Movement Through Veins
  • 53.  
  • 54.  
  • 55. Blood Circulation: Pulmonary and Systemic Pathways CO 2 is given off by the blood into the lungs and O 2 is picked up by the blood from the lungs. O 2 is given off by the blood and and CO 2 is picked up by the blood from the body’s tissue.
  • 56. External Coverings of the Heart
    • Pericardium – a double serous membrane
      • Visceral pericardium
        • Next to heart
      • Parietal pericardium
        • Outside layer
    • Serous fluid fills the space between the layers of pericardium
  • 57. External Coverings of the Heart
  • 58. External Structure of the Heart
  • 59. Great Vessels of Heart
    • Aorta (largest blood vessel in the body)
      • Leaves left ventricle carries oxygenated blood to all parts of the body
    • Pulmonary arteries
      • Leave right ventricle carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs
    • Vena cava (Superior and Inferior)
      • Enters right atrium, Superior vena cava brings deoxygenated blood from the upper part of the body and the inferior vena cava brings deoxygenated blood from the lower part of the body
    • Pulmonary veins (four)
      • Enter left atrium brings oxygenated blood from the lungs
  • 60. Coronary Blood Supply
    • Blood in the heart chambers does not nourish the myocardium
    • The heart has its own nourishing circulatory system
      • Coronary arteries
      • Cardiac veins
      • Blood empties into the right atrium via the coronary sinus
  • 61. Internal Structures of the Heart: Heart Wall
    • Three layers
      • Epicardium
        • Outside layer
        • This layer is the parietal pericardium
        • Connective tissue layer
      • Myocardium
        • Middle layer
        • Mostly cardiac muscle
      • Endocardium
        • Inner layer
        • Endothelium
  • 62. Internal Structures of Heart
    • Right and left side act as separate pumps
    • Four chambers
      • Atria
        • Receiving chambers
          • Right atrium
          • Left atrium
      • Ventricles
        • Discharging chambers
          • Right ventricle
          • Left ventricle
    • The valves allow blood to flow in only one direction
    • Four valves
      • Atrioventricular valves – between atria and ventricles
        • Bicuspid valve (left)
        • Tricuspid valve (right)
      • Semilunar valves between ventricle and artery
        • Pulmonary semilunar valve
        • Aortic semilunar valve
  • 63. Internal Structures of the Heart
  • 64. The Heart’s Pace Maker: Regulation of Heartbeat
      • Special tissue sets the pace
        • Sinoatrial node
          • Pacemaker
        • Atrioventricular node
        • Atrioventricular bundle
        • Bundle branches
        • Purkinje fibers
    • Contraction is initiated by the sinoatrial node
    • Sequential stimulation occurs at other autorhythmic cells
  • 65. ECG: Electrocardiagram
    • This graph shows the electrical changes which occur when the muscles of the heart wall depolarize and repolarize.
  • 66. ECG: Electrocardiogram
    • The first little upward notch of the EKG tracing is called the "P wave." The P wave indicates that the atria (the two upper chambers of the heart) are contracting to pump out blood.
    • The next part of the tracing is a short downward section connected to a tall upward section. This next part is called the "QRS complex." This part indicates that the ventricles (the two lower chambers of the heart) are contracting to pump out blood to the body.
  • 67. ECG: Electrocardiogram
    • The next short upward segment is called the "ST segment." The ST segment indicates the amount of time from the end of the contraction of the ventricles to the beginning of the rest period before the ventricles begin to contract for the next beat.
    • The next upward curve is called the "T wave." The T wave indicates the resting period of the ventricles.
  • 68. Cardiac Cycle
    • Atria contract simultaneously
    • Atria relax, then ventricles contract
    • Systole = contraction
    • Diastole = relaxation
    • Cardiac cycle – events of one complete heart beat
      • Mid-to-late diastole – blood flows into ventricles
      • Ventricular systole – blood pressure builds before ventricle contracts, pushing out blood
      • Early diastole – atria finish re-filling, ventricular pressure is low
  • 69. Cardiac Cycle
  • 70. Cardiac Cycle: Valves
  • 71. Pulse
    • Pulse – pressure wave of blood as it passes through an artery
    • Monitored at “pressure points” where pulse is easily palpated
  • 72. Blood Pressure
    • Measurements by health professionals are made on the pressure in large arteries
      • Systolic – pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction
      • Diastolic – pressure when ventricles relax
    • Pressure in blood vessels decreases as the distance away from the heart increases
    • Human normal range is variable
      • Normal
        • 140–110 mm Hg systolic
        • 80–75 mm Hg diastolic
      • Hypotension
        • Low systolic (below 110 mm HG)
        • Often associated with illness
      • Hypertension
        • High systolic (above 140 mm HG)
        • Can be dangerous if it is chronic
  • 73. Blood
    • The only fluid tissue in the human body
    • Classified as a connective tissue
      • Living cells = formed elements
      • Non-living matrix = plasma
    • Color range
      • Oxygen-rich blood is scarlet red
      • Oxygen-poor blood is dull red
    • pH must remain between 7.35–7.45
    • Blood temperature is slightly higher than body temperature
  • 74. Whole Blood Composition
  • 75. Blood: Plasma
    • Composed of approximately 90 percent water
    • Includes many dissolved substances
      • Nutrients
      • Salts (metal ions)
      • Respiratory gases
      • Hormones
      • Proteins : Albumin – regulates osmotic pressure, Clotting proteins – help to stem blood loss when a blood vessel is injured, Antibodies – help protect the body from antigens
      • Waste products
  • 76. Blood: Formed Elements
    • Erythrocytes = red blood cells
    • Leukocytes = white blood cells
    • Thrombocytes or Platelets = cell fragments
    • Formed in red bone marrow (hematopoiesis)
  • 77. Blood: Formed Elements
  • 78. Blood: Formed Elements
  • 79. Blood: Formed Elements
  • 80. Hemostasis
    • Stoppage of blood flow
    • Result of a break in a blood vessel
    • Hemostasis involves three phases
      • Platelet plug formation
      • Vascular spasms
      • Coagulation
  • 81. Hemostasis: Platelet Plug Formation
    • Collagen fibers are exposed by a break in a blood vessel
    • Platelets become “sticky” and cling to fibers
    • Anchored platelets release chemicals to attract more platelets
    • Platelets pile up to form a platelet plug
    • Positive Feed-back Mechanism
  • 82. Hemostasis: Vascular Spasms
    • Anchored platelets release serotonin
    • Serotonin causes blood vessel muscles to spasm
    • Spasms narrow the blood vessel, decreasing blood loss
  • 83. Hemostasis: Coagulation
    • Injured tissues release thromboplastin
    • PF3 (a phospholipid) interacts with thromboplastin, blood protein clotting factors, and calcium ions to trigger a clotting cascade
    • Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin (an enzyme)
    • Thrombin joins fibrinogen proteins (water soluble) into hair-like fibrin (insoluble in water)
    • Fibrin forms a meshwork (the basis for a clot)
  • 84. Forming Blood Clot erythrocytes thrombocytes fibrin
  • 85. Diseases and Disorders of the Cardiovascular System
    • Myocardial infarction : Commonly called a heart attack.. It is due to the blockage of an coronary artery which supplies the myocardium. The cardiac muscle dies and the heart doesn’t function properly because of this. It can be due to the formation of deposits of cholesterol and lipids called plaques , blood clots called thrombus , or an embolism which is a blood clot that forms somewhere else in the body, breaks free and lodges in a coronary artery stopping the flow of blood. Angina pectoralis is a sharp pain radiating into the left arm and /or neck accompanied by a feeling of pressure within the chest.. This is a classic symptom of problems with blood flow to the heart muscle itself.
  • 86. Diseases and Disorders of the Cardiovascular System
    • Atherosclerosis : Is commonly called “hardening of the arteries”. The arteries began to loose their elasticity due to aging and the formation of plaques in their walls. They narrow and reduce blood supply to regions of the body particularly the brain and heart.
  • 87. Diseases and Disorders of the Cardiovascular System
    • Aneurysm : An aneurysm is a weakened area within the wall of an artery or arteriole. Because of the high pressure, the vessel wall balloons out and can rupture when the wall becomes stretched too thin. This leads to a serious internal hemorrhage.
  • 88. Diseases and Disorders of the Cardiovascular System
    • Arrhythmia : Arrhythmia is due to the irregular beat of the heart. It may be due to damage to the SA or AV node, or the myocardium itself. It is commonly treated with medications or by the implantation of an artificial pace-maker. Bradycardia indicates that the heart is beating too slow and tachycardia indicates the heart is beating too fast.
  • 89. Diseases and Disorders of the Blood
    • Hemophilia : Is a genetic disorder that is due to the fact that there is a clotting factor missing necessary for clot formation to stop bleeding. These individuals can bleed to death from simple injuries or bruising of the body. The most prevalent form is more common in males than females because it is carried on the X chromosome of the female (sex-linked).
  • 90. Diseases and Disorders of the Blood
    • Leukemia : Is a cancer of the bone marrow which produces blood cells. There are many different forms of this disease depending upon which type of blood stem cells are involved. However, the cells typically do not mature and inhibit the production of other types of blood cells necessary for survival.
    Noamal Bone Marrow AML Bone Marrow
  • 91. Diseases and Disorders of the Blood
    • Anemia : Anemia is due to the lack of Erythrocytes or low levels of hemoglobin in erythrocytes, or abnormal erythrocytes (sickle cell). This inhibits the proper transport of oxygen in the body. There are several forms of anemia

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